Figure 114 Collision and Broadcast Domains

Hubs with any intelligence at all (such as multiple speeds or network management capabilities) are 1 devices; they move up the OSI stack according to the built-in intelligence. Most people know hut as the same thing; however, repeater is an IEEE term. When selecting a hub or any connectivity d< matter, consider network architecture (such as Ethernet or Token Ring, or FDDI; port density and s management; cable types; and modularity).

Physical star topologies are easier to troubleshoot but take more cable. Failure of one device doesr interfere with another. If a user calls and says the network is down, you can start your troubleshoc the user and the hub or switch port connection. Switches are typically used rather than hubs today price per po rt is decl ining oil the time. The big advantage is that each port is a separate collision d< whereas all hub ports are in the same collision domain. After all, you don't need too many packet f unshielded twisted -pair cable i s still by fab the most commo n.

Frozen ye l Iow garden hosd and vamp^e taps (come to mind when I think of the old 10BASE5 Etherr using RG-8 or RG-11 standard Ethernet coax cable rated at 50-ohms impedance. 10BASE2 could b depending on whethet hubs are in the picture. Thin to of a two- pole clothes l ine setup) on which you I clothes out to dry. The poles at each end are the terminators connecting one of the RG-58 family o Although inexpensive to implement, the disadvantages include heavy traffic patterns on the bus an trougiesh oori ag, to sa y the l east, unless you have a time domain ieflectometer (TD R) to h elp you f within the coax cable. Without toe proper test equipment, can-yi ng the tehm inahor from one station about es exciting as rel ocat ing your clothesline po!es. Ted ao t hie backbo ce is normally twi sted-pair so these issues; are not as relevant; be a ware, however that ma ny ceotification tehts thin k you sho specifi catiocs.

SDDS and Toke n Fling) are typically a physical star, log ical ring topology. The active mteittr monito circulating around t he ringi oroblem lsoiation and network feconUighra tion are issues. It used to be

Ring wiring was all shielded twisted-pair Type 1, 2, 3, 6, and so on with hermaphroditic connectors primarily UTP with RJ-45 connectors.

In meshes, fault tolerance may be maximized, but from the troubleshooting perspective, it is often refer to the mesh topology as the mess topology, and it is more often used for backup links on the example, ISDN backup for Frame Relay links).

Installation, reconfiguration, and cost normally lead us to some hybrid of the preceding topologies environment.

The PDU for l_ayer 1 is bits. Remember that the Physical Layer is responsible for transmitting bits ( coordinating rules for transmitting (Tx) and receiving (Rx) them. Mechanical, electrical, optical, an among the many specifications at Layer 1. Layer 1 is a good place for trouble to shoot you if you a!

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