Congestion-avoidance tools rely on the behavior of TCP to reduce congestion. A large percentage of Internet traffic consists of TCP traffic, and TCP senders reduce the rate at which they send packets after packet loss. By purposefully discarding a percentage of packets, congestion-avoidance tools cause some TCP connections to slow down, which reduces congestion.
This section begins with a discussion of User Datagram Protocol (UDP) and TCP behavior when packets are lost. By understanding TCP behavior in particular, you can appreciate what happens as a result of tail drop, which is covered next in this section. Finally, to close this section, RED is covered. The two IOS congestion-avoidance tools both use the underlying concepts of RED.
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