Analyzing the System Boot Dialog

To view the boot sequence through a terminal session, you must have a console connection to the access server before it powers up. Caution Always boot the dial shelf before the router shelf. The DSC card checks the dial shelf inventory, which requires extra time to boot up (60 to 120 seconds). The router shelf depends on the DSC card for the dial shelf inventory report. The following boot sequence occurs. Event numbers and comments are inserted in the example to describe the boot sequence....

Async Data Comm Model

Figure 4-1 shows how traditional DTE-to-DCE relationships map to a Cisco network access server (NAS). Data terminal equipment (DTE) uses data communication equipment (DCE) to send data over the PSTN. In the context of RS-232 and Cisco IOS The DTE is the client PC and the Cisco IOS TTY lines. The DCE is the client modem and the modem inside the NAS. The dashed line between the DCEs is the modem carrier running on top of the voiceband circuit through the PSTN. RS-232 (whether physical or logical)...

Call Processing Components

As shown in Figure 3-2, the following components are used to process a call Client modems and ISDN routers dial into the access server through the PSTN. Asynchronous PPP calls (analog) connect to modems inside the access server. Each modem inside the access server provides a corresponding TTY line and asynchronous interface for terminating character and packet mode services. Asynchronous interfaces clone their configurations from a group-async interface. Synchronous PPP calls (digital) connect...

Cisco IOS Line Side Inspection

To display the current modem-hardware states applied to a specific Cisco IOS line, enter the show line tty number command. The states of each logical RS-232 pin change according to line conditions and modem events. The following shows a line-side inspection of the idle state for TTY line 1 Tty Typ Tx Rx A Modem Roty AccO AccI Uses Noise Overruns Int I 1 TTY - inout - - - 2 0 0 0 - Line 1, Location , Type Length 24 lines, Width 80 columns Status No Exit Banner Capabilities Hardware Flowcontrol...

Configuring Local AAA Security

Configure authentication, authorization, and accounting (AAA) to perform login authentication by using the local username database. The login keyword authenticates EXEC shell users. Additionally, configure PPP authentication to use the local database if the session was not already authenticated by login. AAA (called triple A) is the Cisco IOS security model used on all Cisco devices. AAA provides the primary framework through which you set up access control on the NAS. In this basic case study,...

Fast Switching and Route Caching Statistics

Inspect fast-switching and route-caching performance statistics for the call. Incoming asynchronous calls can be fast switched. However, some features disable fast switching. Inspect the queueing characteristics of the asynchronous interface. Notice that the queueing strategy is first-in-first-out (fifo). 5800-NAS show interface async 1 2 02 Async1 2 02 is up, line protocol is up modem 1 2 02, vdev_state(0x0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0) CSM_OC_STATE, bchan_num (T1 1 0 0 4 6) vdev_status(0x00000001)...

Figure 24 Matching T1 Controller Settings

Framing ESF Linecode B8ZS PRI-group timeslots 1-24 Step 1 Define the ISDN switch type and T1 controller settings Step 2 Specify the T1 controller settings controller T1 2 framing esf linecode b8zs pri-group timeslots 1-24 controller T1 3 framing esf linecode b8zs pri-group timeslots 1-24 Table 2-5 describes some of the Tl-controller concepts that are applied in the previous example Table 2-5 T1 Controller Terms and Descriptions Table 2-5 T1 Controller Terms and Descriptions Defines the control...

In this Section

This section describes how to verify and test modem performance on a Cisco AS5300 and AS5800 by using an EXEC terminal shell service. The following sections are provided Background on Asynchronous Data Communications Understanding Modem Modulation Standards Task 1. Initiating a Modem Loopback Test Call Task 2. Initiating and Inspecting a V.90 Test Call An EXEC terminal shell service tests modem performance (lower layers) independently of PPP (and higher layers). A terminal-shell service test...

Inspecting CPU Utilization

Enter the show processes cpu command to investigate high CPU utilization. High utilization causes network performance problems. For example, knowing when the router is running at over 50 utilization is critical. The router might start dropping packets if an unexpected traffic burst comes through or if OSPF gets recalculated. Fast switching reduces CPU utilization. CPU utilization for five seconds 1 0 one minute 0 five minutes 0 CPU utilization for five seconds 1 0 one minute 0 five minutes 0

Inspecting Modem Firmware

2.6.2.0 2.6.2.0 2.6.2.0 2.6.2.0 2.6.2.0 2.6.2.0 2.6.2.0 2.6.2.0 2.6.2.0 2.6.2.0 2.6.2.0 2.6.2.0 2.6.2.o 2.6.2.o 2.6.2.o 2.6.2.o 2.6.2.o 2.6.2.o Find the version of firmware that is bundled with the Cisco IOS. The show modem map command displays the region of NVRAM that identifies where the modems get their firmware from at bootup. The field IOS-Default indicates that the modem gets its firmware from the bundled IOS image. At the end of the display, you see the versions of firmware that the...

Inspecting the Dial Shelf

Verify that the trunk cards and modem cards are up. If the dial shelf controller (DSC) card is down, the feature boards (T3, T1, E1, modem, voice) in the dial shelf cannot communicate to the router shelf. Dial shelf set for auto boot Router Dial shelf set for auto boot Router Possible states include unknown, down, resetting, booting, and up. The Up state means that the card can communicate with the router shelf. Each modem board contains its own DRAM memory. Double-density modem modules (DMM)...

Investigating Memory Usage

Use the show memory summary command to Understand how memory is used for different processor and I O memory processes Identify memory fragmentation and memory leaks. - Memory leak Memory that is not released back to the processor. Memory leaks are indicated by steady decreases of free memory. However, the preferred way to track memory leaks is to monitor the FreeMem variable in the OID MIB. - Memory fragmentation Indicated by the largest block of memory not being equal to the lowest block....

S

Network element management server (SNMP) Note The Cisco IOS uses a three-element notation to specify some interface and port locations shelf slot port. Section 3 Commissioning the Cisco AS5800 Hardware_ Understanding the Basic Hardware Architecture I The Cisco 7206 router shelf contains - Port adapters. In this case study, the Cisco 7206 uses Fast Ethernet (FE) 0 1 0 to connect to the IP backbone. - Service adapters (for example, compression and encryption). - A dial shelf interconnect (DSI)...

Setting Up a Login Banner

However, do not tell users what device they are connecting to until after they log in. Providing device sensitive information might tempt unauthorized users to hack into the system. Enter TEXT message. End with the character Unauthorized use is prohibited by law. This is a secured device. Unauthorized use is prohibited by law. Section 3 Commissioning the Cisco AS5800 Hardware_

Show Caller Statistics

View individual users and consumed resources on the NAS. Inspect active call statistics for large pools of connections. (Debug commands produce too much output and tax the CPU too heavily.) Display the absolute and idle times for each user. The current values for both of these settings are displayed on the TTY line and the asynchronous interface. Users that have been idle for unacceptably long periods of time can be easily identified. By using this information, you can define timeout policies...

Snip

Verify that PRI is working between the remote switch and the Cisco AS5300. After you enter the debug isdn q921 command, you should see a SAPI message transmitted and received every 10 seconds. A SAPI message indicates that Layer 2 is functioning properly, and there are no apparent cable problems. ISDN Q921 packets debugging is on 53 0 0-NAS Sep 23 04 19 07.887 ISDN Se0 23 TX -> Sep 23 04 19 07.891 ISDN Se0 23 RX < 53 0 0-NAS undebug isdn q921 ISDN Q921 packets debugging is off RRp sapi 0...

Successful PPP Negotiation Debug

The following steps describe how to initiate a PPP test call and interpret a successful debug sequence. Step 1 Enter the appropriate debug commands PPP authentication debugging is on 58 0 0-NAS debug aaa authentication AAA Authentication debugging is on 58 0 0-NAS show debug General OS AAA Authentication debugging is on PPP Step 2 Make sure that your EXEC session receives logging and debug output Step 3 From the client, send a test call into the NAS by using Dial-Up Networking. Figure 5-2 shows...

Task 1 Enabling the Network Time Protocol

The Network Time Protocol (NTP) provides a common time base for networked routers, servers, and other devices. A synchronized time enables you to correlate syslog and Cisco IOS debug output to specific events. For example, you can find call records for specific users within one millisecond. Comparing logs from various networks is essential for Without precise time synchronization between all the various logging, management, and AAA functions, time comparisons are not possible. An NTP enabled...

Task 2 Enabling Syslog

Note Cisco System's UNIX syslog format is compatible with 4.3 BSD UNIX. Cisco AS5x00 Case Study for Basic IP Modem Services Cisco AS5x00 Case Study for Basic IP Modem Services Step 1 Enable debug timestamps and include the date, time, and milliseconds relative to the local time zone service timestamps debug datetime msec localtime show-timezone service timestamps log datetime msec localtime show-timezone Step 2 Verify that console logging is disabled. If it is enabled, the NAS will...

Task

The SNMP traps generated by Cisco routers provide useful information Potentially harmful environmental conditions The Cisco IOS generates SNMP traps based on the features that the Cisco IOS supports. Figure 7-3 shows the interactions and timing of the SNMP protocol between the EM (SNMP manager) and the NAS (SNMP agent). Traps are unsolicited messages sent from the NAS to the EM. There are four functions of SNMP trap, get request, get next, and set request. Figure 7-3 SNMP Event Interaction and...

Task 3 Configuring LCP Options

The group-async interface is a template that controls the configuration of all the asynchronous interfaces in the NAS. Are lines that can run in PPP mode Use the same number as its corresponding line Save you time and configuration file size by configuring the asynchronous interfaces as a group-async The client PPP framing must match the Cisco IOS interface. Figure 5-1 shows this concept. The following group-async configuration applies to asynchronous interfaces 1 2 00 through 1 10 143...

Task 5 Configuring Modems and Lines

Modems and lines are configured after The ISDN channels are operational POTS telephone calls are successfully routed to the modems Each modem is mapped to a dedicated asynchronous line inside the NAS. After the modem inout command is applied to the lines, the NAS is ready to accept modem calls. AAA security is applied to the lines by the aaa new-model command and aaa authentication login default local command. AAA performs login authentication by using the local username database. The login...

Task 6 Enabling IP Basic Setup

Fine tune the IP routing functions and domain-name services for EXEC shell users. Step 1 Optimize IP routing functions in global configuration mode ip subnet-zero no ip source-route ip classless Table 2-10 describes the previous commands. Specifies that 172.22.0.0 is a legal subnet. Tightens security by ensuring that IP-header packets cannot define their own paths through the network access server (NAS). Ensures that all unknown subnets use the default route. Step 2 In global configuration...

Task 7 Confirming the Final Running Config

After completing the tasks in this section, the Cisco AS5800's final running configuration looks like the following example service timestamps debug datetime msec service timestamps log datetime msec service password-encryption aaa authentication login default local aaa authentication ppp default if-needed local enable secret 5 1 LKgL tgi19XvWn7fld7JGt55p01 username dude password 7 045802150C2E username admin password 7 044E1F050024 shelf-id 0 router-shelf shelf-id 1 dial-shelf modem-pool...

Task 7 Testing Asynchronous EXEC Shell Connections

This task verifies that the following components are working The physical asynchronous data path Basic IP functionality to support EXEC shell sessions The Cisco IOS provides a command-line interface (CLI) called the EXEC. The EXEC Can be accessed by dialing in with a modem Provides access to terminal EXEC shell services (no PPP) to do the following - Troubleshoot possible problems including modem connections - Access other network resources by using telnet During this task, some administrators...

Task 7 Testing Asynchronous Shell Connections

This task verifies that the following components are working The physical asynchronous data path Basic IP functionality to support shell sessions The Cisco IOS provides a command-line interface (CLI) called the EXEC. The EXEC Can be accessed by dialing in with a modem Provides access to terminal-shell services (no PPP) to do the following - Troubleshoot possible problems including modem connections - Access other network resources by using telnet During this task, some administrators try to...

Troubleshooting Flow Diagrams

Figure 5-3 provides a flowchart for troubleshooting the following three PPP layers The Link Control Protocol (LCP) and authentication layer The Network Control Protocol (NCP) layer Figure 5-3 Troubleshooting Flow Chart for PPP and Authentication Figure 5-3 Troubleshooting Flow Chart for PPP and Authentication LCP negotiation is a series of LCP packets exchanged between PPP peers to negotiate a set of options and option values when sending data. The LCP negotiation is actually two separate...

Understanding DSIP

The router shelf communicates with the dial shelf using A Fast Ethernet interconnect cable The Dial Shelf Interconnect Protocol (DSIP) For the DSIP command reference and other system management functions, refer to the document Dial and System Management Commands for the Cisco AS5800 at the following URL 58cfeats c5800uas.htm To understand how DSIP functions, enter the commands in the following list Verify that the connection between the router shelf and dial shelf is up. The DSI-Fast Ethernet...

Understanding Network Management Basics

Figure 7-1 shows a logical view of how management protocols interact between the Cisco IOS (client) and the network element management server. The dashed lines indicated different protocols and functions. NTP synchronizes time between network devices. The SNMP element manager (EM) receives SNMP traps from the Cisco IOS. A unidirectional, unsolicited SNMP datagram. The SNMP manager uses SNMP to query variables and set configurations. The Cisco IOS sends logging messages to a syslog daemon....

Upgrading to a New Cisco IOS Release

Obtain new Cisco IOS features and more stable code by upgrading to a new Cisco IOS release. Step 1 Display the contents of Flash memory. The following shows that the Cisco IOS image c5300-is-mz.113-7.3.AA is present. 5300-NAS cd flash 5300-NAS dir Directory of flash 1 -rw- 4541080 < no date> c5300-is-mz.113-7.3.AA 16777216 bytes total (12236072 bytes free) 53 0 0-NAS Step 2 Copy the new image from the remote TFTP server into Flash memory. Make sure to specify your own TFTP server's IP...

Using Modem Call Record Terse

Starting with Cisco IOS Releases 11.3AA and 12.0T, modem call records can be sent to syslog and examined to perform statistical analysis. Modulation trends such as V.90 verses V.34 Call time durations (consistent short connection times on a modem, regular Lost Carrier counts) PPP negotiation or authentication failures The following example enables modem call-records and sends the logs to wherever your syslog output goes, for example To the console if you do not have the no logging console...

V90 Basic Rules

Many circuit components work together to deliver V.90 modulation. See Figure 4-4. Figure 4-4 V.90 Network Components Select recommended modem code. The following are reliable V.90 releases at the time of this publication - MICA portware version 2.6.2.0 - Microcom firmware version 5.2.1.0 The latest modem code is posted on CCO at the following URL. You must be a registered CCO user to view the link Run a Cisco IOS release that is compatible with V.90. Table 4-3 shows the V.90 supported Cisco IOS...

Task 5 Confirming the Final Running Config

After completing the tasks in this section, the Cisco AS5300's final running configuration looks like this Last configuration change at 05 59 00 UTC Mon Nov 1 1999 by admin NVRAM config last updated at 05 59 02 UTC Mon Nov 1 1999 by admin service timestamps debug datetime msec localtime show-timezone service timestamps log datetime msec localtime show-timezone service password-encryption logging buffered 10000 debugging no logging console aaa new-model aaa authentication login default local aaa...

Cisco AS5300 Configuration

Cisco AS5x00 Case Study for Basic IP Modem Services j username admin password 7 045802150C2E username dude password 7 070C285F4D06 spe 1 0 1 7 firmware location bootflash mica-modem-pw.2.7.1.0.bin spe 2 0 2 7 firmware location bootflash mica-modem-pw.2.7.1.0.bin ip subnet-zero no ip source-route ip host dirt 172.22.100.9 ip domain-name mauionions.com ip name-server 172.22.11.10 ip name-server 172.22.12.11 async-bootp dns-server 172.30.10.1 172.30.10.2 isdn switch-type primary-5ess mta receive...

Upgrading Modem Firmware

Cisco regularly enhances modem DSP code to improve modem performance. To obtain the latest DSP code, upgrade the NAS modem firmware. Figure 6-1 summarizes the firmware upgrade procedure. Figure 6-1 Modem Firmware Download Operation Example Figure 6-1 Modem Firmware Download Operation Example Mica-modem-pw.x.x.x.x. (portware file) Mica-modem-pw.x.x.x.x. (portware file) Download the portware from CCO to a TFTP server or directly into the NAS. Step 1 Read the latest modem release notes about modem...

Configuration Design Parameters

Before the equipment is deployed at the customer sites, both companies define the following configuration design parameters IP subnetting and address strategy Note This case study uses private RFC 1918 IP addresses. For more information, refer to the following URL Note This case study uses private RFC 1918 IP addresses. For more information, refer to the following URL Table 1-5 through Table 1-7 describe the IP subnetting plan, device parameters, and dial plan. The headquarters portion of the...

Using the Cisco Ios Exec Cli

The Cisco IOS command line interface (CLI) contains many modem management show commands. Use these commands to gather and view modem statistics. This section provides a bulleted list detailing some of the most useful commands. Here is a list of the show modem command options < 0-2> at-mode call-stats configuration connect-speeds cookie csm group log operational-status summary test version Display a summary of the modem call statistics Incoming calls Outgoing calls Busied Failed No Succ...

Task 2 Initiating and Inspecting a V90 Test Call

Before you let users dial in to the NAS, initiate and inspect a V.90 test call. V.90 call performance is heavily dependent upon the telco's network topology. There are many variables. Most modem manufactures have unique AT command sets. The AT commands used in the following procedure might not be supported by your modem. For more information, see the following URLs Step 1 Locate a client PC, client modem, and an analog line. The following figure shows the network environment for this test. Step...

Matching the Cisco IOS Images

The dial shelf and router shelf run separate Cisco IOS images Both images must be from the same Cisco IOS Release. They must match. The router shelf's image is in the Cisco 7206's Flash memory. It begins with c5800. The dial shelf's image is in the DSC card. It begins with dsc. On the router shelf, check the Cisco IOS image, uptime, and restart reason Cisco Internetwork Operating System Software IOS (tm) 5800 Software (C5800-P4-M), Version 12.0(4)XL1, EARLY DEPLOYMENT RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc1)...

Task 4 Configuring the Serial Interfaces

Configure the serial D channels to route incoming voice calls from the PSTN to the integrated modems. The behavior of the B channels is controlled by the D channels' configuration instructions. The D channel is the signaling channel. After timeslots are assigned by the pri-group command, D-channel serial interfaces are automatically created in the configuration file (for example S0 23, S1 23, and so on). Individual B-channel serial interfaces are created as rotary members of their signaling D...

Task 1 Initiating a Modem Loopback Test Call

Test the access server's ability to initiate and terminate a modem call. Similar to sending a ping to the next-hop router, this test verifies basic connectivity for modem operations. Successfully performing this test gives you a strong indication that remote clients should be able to dial into the NAS. Figure 4-6 shows this test. After completing this test, dial into the EXEC from a client PC and a client modem (no PPP). Figure 4-6 Initiating and Terminating a Modem Call on the Same NAS Note...

Modem Autoconfigure K56Flex Example

The following modem-autoconfigure string disables V.8bis K56Flex. The string & F& D2s53 0 is applied to two MICA modems. Disabling V.8bis reduces trainup time by about two seconds, and it prevents trainup problems with older client modems. Step 1 Watch the modem autoconfigure function run, so you can see if there are any typos in the modem string Modem Configuration Database debugging is on 53 0 0-NAS show debug Modem Autoconfig Modem Configuration Database debugging is on 53 0 0-NAS...

Task 3 Enabling the T3T1 Controllers

Configure the settings for the T3 T1 controllers. They must match the telco's settings on the telephone switch. Mismatched settings cause problems sometimes these problems are not detected for a long time. Figure 3-4 shows that a T3 trunk card requires T1 and T3 controller configuration settings. Figure 3-4 Matching Controller Settings controller T3 1 0 0 framing m23 t1 4 controller Step 2 Configure the controller T3. There are 28 T1 controllers in one T3. In this example, only the fourth...

Exploring the Cisco IOS File System

Get familiar with the file system and memory storage areas. The Cisco IOS File System (IFS) provides a consolidated interface to The Flash memory file system The network file system (TFTP, rcp, and FTP) Any other endpoint for reading or writing data (such as NVRAM, modem firmware, the running configuration, ROM, raw system memory, Xmodem, and Flash load helper log). IFS first appeared in Cisco IOS Releases 11.3 AA and 12.0. For more information about IFS, refer to the chapter Using the Cisco...