The Hostto Host Layer

The host-to-host layer of the TCP/IP protocol is aptly named. Whereas the internet layer is responsible for the logical paths between networks, the host-to-host layer is responsible for the full logical path between two hosts on disparate networks[121 . From another viewpoint, the host-to-host layer is an interface to the lower layers of the protocol suite, freeing applications from any concern about how their data is actually being delivered.

[121 Similarly, it can be said that the equivalent functions of the OSI session layer, residing above the transport layer, provide a logical, end-to-end path between two applications across an internetwork.

An analogy to this service is a corporate mailroom. A package may be given to the mailroom with requirements stated for its delivery (general delivery, overnight). The person making the delivery request does not need to know, and is probably not interested in, the actual mechanics of delivering the package. The mailroom people will arrange for the proper service (postal, FedEx, cross-town bicycle courier) to fulfill the delivery requirements.

The two primary services offered by the host-to-host layer are TCP and UDP. TCP

The Transmission Control Protocol, or TCP, described in RFC 793, provides applications with a reliable, connection-oriented service. In other words, TCP provides the appearance of a point-to-point connection.

Point-to-point connections have two characteristics:

• They have only one path to the destination. A packet entering one end of the connection cannot become lost, because the only place to go is the other end.

• Packets arrive in the same order in which they are sent.

TCP provides the appearance of a point-to-point connection, although in reality there is no such connection. The internet layer TCP is utilizing is a connectionless, best-effort packet delivery service. The analog of this is the postal service. If a stack of letters is given to the mail carrier for delivery, there is no guarantee that the letters will arrive stacked in the same order, that they will all arrive on the same day, or indeed that they will arrive at all. The postal service merely commits to making its best effort to deliver the letters.

Likewise, the internet layer does not guarantee that all packets will take the same route, and therefore there is no guarantee that they will arrive in the same sequence and time intervals as they were sent, or that they will arrive at all.

On the other hand, a telephone call is connection-oriented service. Data must arrive sequentially and reliably, or it is useless. Like a telephone call, TCP must first establish a connection, then transfer data, and then perform a disconnect when the data transfer is complete.

TCP uses three fundamental mechanisms to accomplish a connection-oriented service on top of a connectionless service:

• Packets are labeled with sequence numbers so that the receiving TCP service can put out-of-sequence packets into the correct sequence before delivering them to the destination application.

• TCP uses a system of acknowledgments, checksums, and timers to provide reliability. A receiver may notify a sender when it recognizes that a packet in a sequence has failed to arrive or has errors, or a sender may assume that a packet has not arrived if the receiver does not send an acknowledgment within a certain amount of time after transmission. In both cases, the sender will resend the packet in question.

• TCP uses a mechanism called windowing to regulate the flow of packets; windowing decreases the chances of packets being dropped because of full buffers in the receiver.

TCP attaches a header to the application layer data; the header contains fields for the sequence numbers and other information necessary for these mechanisms as well as fields for addresses called port numbers, which identify the source and destination applications of the data. The application data with its attached TCP header is then encapsulated within an IP packet for delivery. Figure 2.32 shows the fields of the TCP header, and Figure 2.33 shows an analyzer capture of a TCP header.

Figure 2.32. The TCP header format.

e 1

G

8 1 8

source port

destination port

sequence number

acknowledgment number

(6 bits}

flags (6 bits)

window size

checksum

urgent pointer

options and padding

Figure 2.33. An analyzer display of a TCP header.

Figure 2.33. An analyzer display of a TCP header.

Source and Destination Port are 16-bit fields that specify the source and destination applications for the encapsulated data. Like other numbers used by TCP/IP, RFC 1700 describes all port numbers in common and not-so-common use. A port number for an application, when coupled with the IP address of the host the application resides on, is called a socket. A socket uniquely identifies every application in an internetwork.

Sequence Number is a 32-bit number that identifies where the encapsulated data fits within a data stream from the sender. For example, if the sequence number of a segment is 1343 and the segment contains 512 octets of data, the next segment should have a sequence number of 1343 + 512 + 1 = 1856.

Acknowledgment Number is a 32-bit field that identifies the sequence number the source next expects to receive from the destination. If a host receives an acknowledgment number that does not match the next sequence number it intends to send (or has sent), it knows not only that packets have been lost but also which packets have been lost.

Header Length, sometimes called Data Offset, is a four-bit field indicating the length of the header in 32bit words. This field is necessary to identify the beginning of the data because the length of the Options field is variable.

The Reserved field is six bits, which are always set to zero.

Flags are six 1-bit flags that are used for data flow and connection control. The flags are Urgent (URG), Acknowledgment (ACK), Push (PSH), Reset (RST), Synchronize (SYN), and Final (FIN).

Window Size is a 16-bit field used for flow control. It specifies the number of octets, starting with the octet indicated by the Acknowledgment Number, that the sender of the segment will accept from its peer at the other end of the connection before the peer must stop transmitting and wait for an acknowledgment.

Checksum is 16 bits, covering both the header and the encapsulated data, allowing error detection.

Urgent Pointer is used only when the URG flag is set. The 16-bit number is added to the Sequence Number to indicate the end of the urgent data.

Options, as the name implies, specifies options required by the sender's TCP process. The most commonly used option is Maximum Segment Size, which informs the receiver of the largest segment the sender is willing to accept. The remainder of the field is padded with zeros to ensure that the header length is a multiple of 32 octets.

User Datagram Protocol, or UDP, described in RFC 768, provides a connectionless, best-effort packet delivery service. At first take, it may seem questionable that any application would prefer an unreliable delivery over the connection-oriented TCP. The advantage of UDP, however, is that no time is spent setting up a connection—the data is just sent. Applications that send short bursts of data will realize a performance advantage by using UDP instead of TCP.

Figure 2.34 shows another advantage of UDP: a much smaller header than TCP. The Source and Destination Port fields are the same as they are in the TCP header; the UDP length indicates the length of the entire segment in octets. The checksum covers the entire segment, but unlike TCP, the checksum here is optional; when no checksum is used, the field is set to all zeros. Figure 2.35 shows an analyzer capture of a UDP header.

Figure 2.34. The UDP header format.

32 Bits

SOURCE PORT

DESTIMATION PORT

UDP LENGTH

CHECKSUM

Figure 2.35. An analyzer display of a UDP header.

Figure 2.35. An analyzer display of a UDP header.

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