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An important distinction to remember when working with IP addresses is that dotted decimal is just an easy way for humans to read and write IP addresses. Always remember that the router is not reading an address in terms of four octets; rather, the router sees a 32-bit binary string. Many pitfalls can be avoided by keeping this fact firmly in mind.

Probably the most distinctive characteristic of IP addresses is that unlike other network-level addresses, the network and host portions can vary in size within the 32-bit boundaries. That is, the network portion might take up most of the 32 bits or the host portion might or they might divide the bits equally. Protocols, such as NetWare and AppleTalk, were designed for use in relatively small internetworks,131 and as a result their network-level addresses have fixed-length network and host portions. This arrangement certainly makes life easier; a receiving device knows to read a certain number of bits into the address to find the network part, and the rest is host address.

[3] However, their popularity has caused them to be used on a much larger scale thatn the original designers had envisioned; as a result, interesting difficulties and challenges arise in large Novell and Apple internetworks.

TCP/IP, however, was designed from the first to be flexible enough to be used in any internetwork, from the tiny to the colossal. This flexibility makes IP addresses more difficult to manage. The basics of administering IP addresses are presented in this section, and then some more advanced techniques are introduced in Chapter 7, "Routing Information Protocol Version 2."

The First Octet Rule

Without putting too fine a point on it, it can be said that there are three sizes of internetworks as measured by the number of hosts: big, medium, and small.

• Big internetworks, by definition, have a huge number of hosts. Relatively few big internetworks exist.

• Small internetworks are just the opposite. Each one is small because it has a small number of hosts; a huge number of small internetworks exist.

• Medium internetworks are just that: a medium number of them (in relation to big and small ones) and a medium number of hosts in each one.

This high level of addressing focus requires three types—classes—of network address for the three sizes of internetworks. Addresses for big internetworks need to be capable of addressing many hosts, but because so few big internetworks exist, only a few big-network addresses are required.

The situation is reversed for small internetworks. Because there are many small internetworks, a large number of small-network addresses are needed. But because a small internetwork has a small number of hosts, each of the many network addresses only requires a few host addresses.

For medium-sized internetworks, a medium number of network addresses and a medium number of host addresses will be available for each network address.

Figure 2.10 shows how the network and host portions of IP addresses are divvied up for these three classes.

Figure 2.10. Class A, B, and C IP address formats.

Figure 2.10. Class A, B, and C IP address formats.

The big, medium, and small networks described thus far map to address classes as follows:

• Class A IP addresses are for big internetworks. The first octet is the network portion, and the last three octets are the host portion. Only 256 numbers are available in the eight-bit network part, but 224 or 16,777,216 numbers are available in the host part of each of those network addresses.

• Class B addresses are for medium-size internetworks. The first two octets are the network portion , and the last two octets are the host portion. There are 216 or 65,536 available numbers in the network part and an equal number in the host part.

• Class C addresses are just the opposite of class A. The first three octets are the network portion, and the last octet is the host portion.

Because all IP addresses are 32-bit binary strings, a way of distinguishing the class to which a particular address belongs is necessary. The first octet rule, illustrated in Figure 2.11, provides the means to make such a distinction and can be described as follows:

Figure 2.11. The first octet rule.

Figure 2.11. The first octet rule.

For class A addresses, the first bit of the first octet— that is, the left-most bit of the entire 32-bit string— is always set to zero. Therefore, we can find the minimum and maximum numbers in the class A range by setting all the remaining bits in the first octet to zero (for the minimum) and one (for the maximum). This action results in the decimal numbers 0 and 127 with a few exceptions: 0 is reserved as part of the default address (Chapter 12, "Default Routes and On-Demand Routing" ), and 127 is reserved for internal loopback addresses.141 That leaves 1 through 126; any IP address whose first octet is between 1 and 126 inclusive is a class A address.

141 UNIX machines use an internal loopback address (typically 127.0.0.1) to send traffic to themselves. Data may be sent to this address and returned to the transmitting process without ever leaving the device.

• Class B addresses always have their left-most bit set to one and the second bit set to zero. Again finding the minimum and maximum number of the first octet by setting all remaining bits to zero and then to one, we see in Figure 2.9 that any address whose first octet is in the decimal range 128 through 191 is a class B address.

• In class C addresses, the first two bits are set to one, and the third bit is set to zero. The result is a first octet range of 192 through 223.[51

[51 Notice that 223 does not exhaust all available numbers in the first octet. See Configuration Excerise 1 at the end of this chapter.

So far IP addressing doesn't seem so difficult. A router or host could easily determine the network part of an IP address by using the first octet rule. If the first bit is 0, then read the first eight bits to find the network address. If the first two bits are 10, then read the first 16 bits; and if the first three bits are 110, then read 24 bits in to get the network address. Unfortunately, things are not that easy.

Address Masks

The address for an entire data link—a non-host-specific network address— is represented by the network portion of an IP address, with all host bits set to zero. For instance, the InterNIC, the body that administers IP addresses, might assign to an applicant an address of 172.21.0.0.[61 This address is a class B

address because 172 is between 128 and 191, so the last two octets make up the host bits. Notice that they are all set to zero. The first 16 bits (172.21.) are assigned, but address owners are free to do whatever they please with the host bits.

[6] Actually, this address would never be assigned. It is from a group of addresses reserved for private use; most of the addresses used in this book are from this reserved pool, described in RFC 1918. Reserved addresses are: 10.0.0.0-10.255.255.255, 172.16.0.0-172.31.255.255, and 192.168.0.0-192.168.255.255.

Each device or interface will be assigned a unique, host-specific address such as 172.21.35.17. The device, whether a host or a router, obviously needs to know its own address, but it also needs to be able to determine the network to which it belongs— in this case, 172.21.0.0.

This task is accomplished by means of an address mask. The address mask is a 32-bit string, one bit for each bit of the IP address. As a 32-bit string, the mask can be represented in dotted-decimal format just like an IP address. This representation tends to be a stumbling block for some beginners: Although the address mask can be written in dotted decimal, it is not an address. Table 2.3 shows the standard address masks for the three classes of IP address.

Table 2.3. Address masks for class A, B, and C network addresses.

Class

Mask

Dotted Decimal

A

11111111000000000000000000000000

255.0.0.0

B

11111111111111110000000000000000

255.255.0.0

C

11111111111111111111111100000000

255.255.255.0

For each bit of the IP address, the device performs a Boolean (logical) AND function with the corresponding bit of the address mask. The AND function can be stated as follows:

Compare two bits and derive a result. The result will be one if and only if both bits are one. If either or both bits are zero, the result will be zero.

Figure 2.12 shows how, for a given IP address, the address mask is used to determine the network address. The mask has a one in every bit position corresponding to a network bit of the address and a zero in every bit position corresponding to a host bit. Because 172.21.35.17 is a class B address , the mask must have the first two octets set to all ones and the last two octets, the host part, set to all zeros. As Table 2.3 shows, this mask can be represented in dotted decimal as 255.255.0.0.

Figure 2.12. Each bit of this class B address is ANDed with the corresponding bit of the address mask to derive the network address.

Figure 2.12. Each bit of this class B address is ANDed with the corresponding bit of the address mask to derive the network address.

A logical AND is performed on the IP address and its mask for every bit position; the result is shown in Figure 2.12. In the result, every network bit is repeated, and all the host bits become zeros. So by assigning an address of 172.21.35.17 and a mask of 255.255.0.0 to an interface, the device will know that the interface belongs to network 172.21.0.0. Applying the AND operator to an IP address and its address mask always reveals the network address.

An address and mask are assigned to an interface of a Cisco router (in this example, the E0 interface) by means of the following commands:

Smokey(config)# interface ethernet 0

Smokey(config-if)# ip address 172.21.35.17 255.255.0.0

But why use address masks at all? So far, using the first octet rule seems much simpler. Subnets and Subnet Masks NOTE

The need for network-level addressing

Never lose sight of why network-level addresses are necessary in the first place. For routing to be accomplished, each and every data link (network) must have a unique address; in addition, each and every host on that data link must have an address that both identifies it as a member of the network and distinguishes it from any other host on that network.

As defined so far, a single class A, B, or C address can be used only on a single data link. To build an internetwork, separate addresses must be used for each data link so that those networks are uniquely identifiable. If a separate class A, B, or C address were assigned to each data link, less than 17 million data links could be addressed before all IP addresses were depleted. This approach is obviously impractical, [7] as is the fact that to make full use of the host address space in the previous example, more than 65,000 devices would have to reside on data link 172.21.0.0!

[7] Seventeen million data links may seem like a lot until you consider that even a single moderate-size business may have dozens or hundreds of data links.

The only way to make class A, B, or C addresses practical is by dividing each major address, such as 172.21.0.0, into subnetwork addresses. Recall two facts:

1. The host portion of an address can be used as desired.

2. The network portion of an IP address is determined by the address mask assigned to that interface.

Figure 2.13 shows an internetwork to which the major class B address 172.21.0.0 has been assigned. Five data links are interconnecting the routers, each one of which requires a network address. As it stands, 172.21.0.0 would have to be assigned to a single data link, and then four more addresses would have to be requested for the other four data links.

Figure 2.13. Subnet masks allow a single network address to be used on multiple data links by "borrowing"

some of the host bits for use as subnet bits.

Figure 2.13. Subnet masks allow a single network address to be used on multiple data links by "borrowing"

some of the host bits for use as subnet bits.

Notice what was done in Figure 2.13. The address mask is not a standard 16-bit mask for class B addresses; the mask has been extended another eight bits so that the first 24 bits of the IP address are interpreted as network bits. In other words, the routers and hosts have been given a mask that causes them to read the first eight host bits as part of the network address. The result is that the major network address applies to the entire internetwork, and each data link has become a subnetwork, or subnet. A subnet is a subset of a major class A, B, or C address space.

NOTE

Subnet

NOTE Subnet mask

The IP address now has three parts: the network part, the subnet part, and the host part. The address mask is now a subnet mask, or a mask that is longer than the standard address mask. The first two octets of the address will always be 172.21, but the third octet—whose bits are now subnet bits instead of host bits— may range from 0 to 255. The internetwork in Figure 2.12 has subnets 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 (172.21.1.0 through 172.21. J.0). Up to 256 subnets may be assigned under the single class B address, using the mask shown.

Two words of caution are in order. First, not all routing protocols can support subnet addresses in which the subnet bits are all zeros or all ones. The reason is that these protocols, called classful protocols, cannot differentiate between an all-zero subnet and the major network number. For instance, subnet 0 in Figure 2.13 would be 172.21.0.0; the major IP address is also 172.21.0.0. The two cannot be distinguished without further information.

NOTE

Classful protocols

Likewise, classful routing protocols cannot differentiate a broadcast on the all-ones subnet from an allsubnets broadcast address.[8] For example, the all-ones subnet in Figure 2.13 would be 172.21.255.0. For that subnet, the all-hosts broadcast address would be 172.21.255.255, but that is also the broadcast for all hosts on all subnets of major network 172.21.0.0. Again, the two addresses cannot be distinguished without further information. RIP version 1 and IGRP are both classful routing protocols; Chapter 7 introduces classless routing protocols, which can indeed use the all-zeros and all-ones subnets.

[8] The all-hosts IP broadcast address is all ones: 255.255.255.255. An all-hosts broadcast for a particular subnet would set all host bits to one; for instance, an all hosts broadcast for subnet 172.21.1.0 would be 172.21.1.255. Finally, a broadcast for all hosts on all subnets sets the subnet bits and the host bits to all ones: 172.21.255.255.

The second caution has to do with the verbal description of subnets and their masks. Subnetting the third octet of a class B address, as is done is Figure 2.13, is very common; also common is hearing people describe such a subnet design as "using a class C mask with a class B address," or "subnetting a class B address into a class C." Both descriptions are wrong! Such descriptions frequently lead to misunderstandings about the subnet design or to a poor understanding of subnetting itself. The proper way to describe the subnetting scheme of Figure 2.12 is either as "a class B address with 8 bits of subnetting," or as "a class B address with a 24-bit mask."

The subnet mask may be represented in any of three formats—dotted decimal, bitcount, and hexadecimal—as shown in Figure 2.14. Dotted decimal is still the most common format, although the bitcount format is becoming increasingly popular. Compared to dotted decimal, the bitcount format is easier to write (the address is followed by a forward slash and the number of bits that are masked for the network part). In addition, the bitcount format is more descriptive of what the mask is really doing and therefore avoids the type of semantic misunderstandings described in the previous paragraph. Many UNIX systems use the hexadecimal format.

Figure 2.14. The subnet mask in Figure 2.13 may be represented in three different formats.

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