Radius

RADIUS was initially created by Livingston Enterprises and is defined by the draft standard RFC 2865, Remote Authentication Dial In User Service (RADIUS), and RFC 2866, RADIUS Accounting. Internet service providers (ISPs) often use RADIUS with remote access servers. With RADIUS, a router or network access server (NAS) operates as a client of RADIUS. The client is responsible for passing user information to the designated RADIUS servers and then acting on the response, which is returned. RADIUS...

ATM Cell Format

ATM transports voice, data, or video information in fixed length units called cells. Each cell is 53 bytes long and contains cell header and payload fields. The 5-byte cell header contains addressing, cell type, cell loss priority, and error checking information. The 48-byte cell payload contains a portion of the data, voice, or video information being transported. The format of the ATM cell header varies depending upon whether the interface being traversed is a UNI or an NNI. The UNI connects...

Novell IPX

Although newer implementations of Novell operating systems use TCP IP, the Novell IPX protocols are still required knowledge for the written test. This section discusses the IPX protocols. Figure 12-8 shows the NetWare protocol suite and the relationship with the OSI reference model from the network layer and up. IPX runs over the commonly implemented Layer-2 protocols, such as Ethernet, Token Ring, PPP, and so on. IPX is the network layer protocol that legacy Novell systems use (especially in...

Answers to Q A Section

1 Which framing standard does X.25 use X.25 uses LAPB, a variant of HDLC, for Layer-2 framing. 2 What is the significance of the DE bit a. Used in X.25 as a discard error to recover frames b. Used in ATM to recover from cells with errors c. Used in Frame Relay to specify discard eligible frames d. Used in PPP to discard frames Answer c Discard Eligible bit is set on frames exceeding the Committed Information Rate (CIR), which is the contracted traffic rate by Frame Relay network switches or is...

Ccie Rs Written Exam Objectives

Table 1-1 lists the CCIE R& S exam objectives and the corresponding chapters in this book that cover those objectives. Table 1-1 CCIE R& S Written Exam Objectives Table 1-1 CCIE R& S Written Exam Objectives Infrastructure NVRAM, Flash, memory and CPU, file system, configuration register Operations File transfers, password recovery, Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP), accessing devices, security (passwords) OSI model Layer comparisons, functions General routing concepts Split...

Q A

The Q & A questions are more difficult than what you can expect on the actual exam. The questions do not attempt to cover more breadth or depth than the exam however, they are designed to make sure that you retain the material. Rather than allowing you to derive the answer from clues hidden inside the question itself, these questions challenge your understanding and recall of the subject. Questions from the Do I Know This Already quiz are repeated here to ensure that you have mastered the...

Bgp As Path Filters

Instead of filtering network routes, AS path filters filter BGP AS numbers (paths) by using regular expressions. You can use path filters on a nontransit network to prevent passing external routes from one service provider to another. Example 9-8 denies any BGP route that begins with AS 111 or AS 222 to be advertised back to BGP neighbor 111.11.19.17. The A (caret) indicates a match of the beginning of the AS path. Filter 20 denies local routes to be advertised to the iBGP neighbor 27.18.9.21...

MAC Address Format

Ethernet or Token Ring router interfaces and all device network interface cards (NICs) are identified with a unique burned-in address (BIA). This is the MAC address, which is also called the physical address. It is an implementation of Layer 2 of the OSI reference model or more specifically, the MAC layer of the IEEE model to identify the station. The MAC address is 48 bits in length (6 octets) and is represented in hexadecimal. The router output in Example 4-1 shows the MAC address...

Ethernet

Today's Ethernet networks are based on the Ethernet development by Digital, Intel, and Xerox (DIX). Version 1 of the standard was created in 1980. It used unbalanced signaling, meaning that a 0 is represented by 0 voltage, and a 1 is represented by a positive voltage. In 1982, version 2 of Ethernet was introduced. It added the heartbeat signal to transceivers and moved to balanced signaling. Balanced signaling uses positive and negative voltages, which allow more speed. The heartbeat signal is...

Pv6 Address Representation

RFC 2373 specifies the IPv6 addressing architecture. IPv6 addresses are 128-bits long. IPv6 addresses are represented in hexadecimal, divided into eight 16-bit pieces. This form is represented as follows Each X represents the hexadecimal digits. An example of a full IPv6 address is All 0 groups can be shortened by using one 0. Multiple groups of 16-bit 0s can be represented with a symbol, which can appear only once in the number. Also, leading 0s in a 16-bit piece do not need to be represented....

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 CCIE Certification, Test Preparation, and Using This Book 3 CCIE Certifications 4 CCIE R& S 5 CCIE C& S 5 CCIE R& S Written Exam Objectives 6 CCIE C& S Written Exam General Knowledge Objectives 10 Test Preparation, Test-Taking Tips, and Using This Book 12 Chapter 2 Networking Concepts Review 15 Do I Know This Already Quiz 15 Physical Layer (OSI Layer 1) 20 Data-Link Layer (OSI Layer 2) 20 Network Layer (OSI Layer 3) 21 Transport Layer (OSI Layer 4) 21 Session Layer (OSI...

RS Written Test

The R& S written test is a 100 multiple-choice question closed-book exam. You have two hours to complete the test. You can take the test at Prometric or VUE testing centers. Prometric's web site is at www.2test.com and VUE's web site is at www.vue.com cisco. The test costs 300 US. Pass marks are set using statistical analysis usually varying between 65 and 75 percent for a passing score. The more testers that pass the test, the higher the passing score if the number of passing testers...

Configuration Register

The configuration register is a 16-bit virtual register that specifies boot sequence and break parameters and sets the console baud rate. The register is usually represented in hexadecimal. Figure 3-1 shows one of the common values for the configuration register, 0x2102. Another common value is 0x0101. The significance of each bit in the configuration register is described in this section. You can change the configuration register by using the global configuration command config-register. The...

BGP Prefix Filter

BGP prefix lists filter routes inbound or outbound to a neighbor. The list filters the routes that are sent to, or received from, a BGP neighbor. When the route in an update matches an entry in the prefix list, the router does not need to continue trying to match entries in the list. The result is that if there are multiple entries in the list that will match a given route, the entries in the top of the list, which are the entries with the lowest sequence numbers, will be used. An implicit deny...

Scenario

This scenario reviews your knowledge of DLSw. Knowledge of DLSw configuration and RIF construct in DLSw environment is essential for the CCIE written test. Use Figure 4-35 to answer the following questions. 1 What is the RIF from Host A to Host C 2 What is the RIF from Host A to Host B 3 What is the correct configuration of Router A interface loopback 0 ip address 1.1.1.1 255.255.255.255 dlsw local-peer peer-id 1.1.1.1 dlsw remote-peer 0 tcp 2.2.2.2 dlsw remote-peer 0 tcp 3.3.3.3 interface...

LAN Security

This section covers bridging access lists, IEEE 802.1x port-based access protocol, and private VLANs. Cisco provides two types of bridging access lists. The first is based on MAC addresses, the second on Ethernet types. The access list numbers for MAC address filters are from 700 to 799. The access list numbers for ethertype filters are from 200 to 299. MAC addresses can be filtered at the interface level, inbound or outbound. You use the input-access-list or output-access-list keywords in the...

Interim Local Management Interface ILMI

ILMI is an ATM Forum standard that specifies the use of mechanisms and formats previously defined by the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP). Although it is based on SNMP, ILMI communication uses a transport other than IP that traverses only the physical ATM link. ILMI messages are carried over a well-known PVC. The ATM Forum PVC for ILMI uses the VCI 16. Configuration, status, and control information about physical and ATM-layer parameters of the ATM interface Interface attributes...

About the Technical Reviewers

Jennifer DeHaven Carroll, CCIE 1402, has planned, designed, and implemented many large networks over the past thirteen years. She has also developed and taught network technology theory and implementation classes. Jennifer has a bachelor of science degree in computer science from the University of California, Santa Barbara. Galina Diker Pildush, CCIE 3176, JNCIE 18, is with Juniper Networks, Inc. She provides training and course development for Juniper Networks, the leading provider of Internet...

HSRP Configuration

Figure 6-13 shows an example for the use of HSRP. Host A is configured with a default gateway of 192.168.1.1. Router A and Router B are configured for HSRP. Router A is configured with a higher priority than Router B, and the default priority is 100. The default timers are hellotime 3 seconds and holdtime 10 seconds. Authentication is used for the HSRP group, and the password is secret. The routers are also configured to preempt, so if Router A fails or the serial interface in Router A fails,...

EIGRP Components

The characteristics of EIGRP are as follows Neighbor discovery and recovery Reliable Transport Protocol (RTP) EIGRP uses different modules that independently support IP, Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX), and AppleTalk routable protocols. These modules are the logical interface between DUAL and routing protocols, such as IPX RIP, AppleTalk Routing Table Maintenance Protocol (RTMP), and IGRP. The EIGRP module sends and receives packets but passes received information to DUAL, which makes...

BGP show Commands

This section briefly reviews some show commands that you can use with BGP. For the CCIE written exam, know how to read the fields in the output of these commands. The first command is show ip bgp neighbors, as shown in Example 9-17. Use this command to check if a TCP connection has been established with the neighbor. The BGP neighbor is the IP address of the peer. The remote AS number is provided. The remote RID is the BGP RID of the peer. The BGP state is Established. Notifications are the...

CCNP Practical Studies Routing

Henry Benjamin, CCIE 4695 1-58720-054-6 Available Now CCNP Practical Studies Routing provides hands-on preparation for the CCNP Routing exam. This book includes lab exercises and helps CCNP candidates and newly minted CCNPs apply their newly gained theoretical knowledge into working experience. Use this book within a live network or home lab, remote access labs, and some software simulated network environments.

Ccie Cs Written Exam General Knowledge Objectives

Table 1-2 lists the CCIE C& S general knowledge objectives from the published blueprint and the corresponding chapters in this book that cover those objectives. Table 1-2 CCIE C& S Written Exam General Knowledge Objectives Table 1-2 CCIE C& S Written Exam General Knowledge Objectives Infrastructure NVRAM, Flash, memory and CPU, file system, configuration register Operations File transfers, password recovery, Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP), accessing devices, security...

Ccie Cs Written Exam General Knowledge Blueprint

Half of each C& S written test contains questions from the general knowledge blueprint. The general knowledge blueprint is a subset of the CCIE R& S blueprint. The CCIE C& S general knowledge blueprint includes the following Cisco device operation, general networking theory, bridging and LAN switching, WAN media, IP theory, IP routing protocols, and performance management. This book helps prepare you for the general knowledge portion of the CCIE C& S exam. The CCIE C& S general...