Cisco Remote Connection Products

This chapter covers the selection of products for the central office, the branch office, and the SOHO or RO. The key is to know where product families fit, not to memorize individual product part numbers or codes. For instance, you can get by knowing the capabilities of the 3600 product family as compared to the 1600 product family, without getting into the granular details of either. The bulk of the information in this chapter leads the engineer to ask the right questions when embarking on a...

AAA Authorization

Once a user has been authenticated, he or she can be further restricted in what he or she is allowed to do. This is done using the aaa authorization command. These restrictions can be applied to activities or services offered on the router. As with the authentication, it is easier to see an example before diving into each option available. The syntax is quite simple and declares which activity or service (network, exec, command level, config-commands, and reverse-access) is being attempted and...

AAA Configuration

AAA configuration is implemented in three steps Step 1 Enable AAA Configuration on the router. During the declaration of AAA, the router must be told if it will be speaking with a Terminal Access Control Access Control System (TACACS) or RADIUS server. Step 2 Define who will be authenticated, what they are authorized to do, and what will be tracked in the database. Step 3 Enable or define the method on the interface. The following sections detail how to turn on AAA (Step 1), how to define the...

Additional Configuration Options

In some cases, you must tweak the default settings of an X.25 installation based on service provider mandates or customer requests. There are a number of items that can be configured to change the way in which X.25 operates Range of VCs Incoming, outgoing, and two-way circuits are possible options. Packet size Inbound and outbound packet size can be specified on the interface. Window size Inbound and outbound window size can be specified on the interface. Window modulus This is the limit of the...

Answers to Chapter 2 QA Section

1 What are the selection criteria for selecting a router platform Availability, bandwidth, cost, ease of management, applications and traffic patterns, backup needs and QOS, and access control requirements are the selection criteria. 2 Which of the following does not affect the installation of a router The answer is d, router port density. The router, and thus its port density, is selected after the requirements are established. 3 Of the 3600, 4800, 5300, and 7100 series routers, which provides...

Answers to Chapter 3 Do I Know This Already Quiz

1 Which router is best used as a central site router 2611, 3640, or 1004 The 3640 router provides more power than the 2611 or 1004. Therefore, it is the best choice of the three for a central site router. 2 Which router best serves as a small office or home office (SOHO) router for telecommuters 7200, 700, or 7500 The 700 router is best suited for the role of a SOHO router. The 7200 and 7500 routers are suited for roles as core routers. 3 Which WAN technology is best suited for providing...

Answers to Chapter 4 QA Section

1 What pins are used for modem control Pins 6, 8, and 20 are used for modem control. 2 What is the standard for DCE DTE signaling The standard is EIA TIA 232. 3 If the user wants to terminate a call, what pin does the DTE device drop to signal the modem 4 What must be done to terminate a reverse Telnet session with an attached modem You must press Ctrl+Shift+6, press x, and then execute a disconnect. 5 In character mode using reverse Telnet, what is the command to connect to the first async...

Answers to Chapter 6 QA Section

1 List the two most common implementations of ISDN. The two most common implementations are BRI and PRI. 2 List the number of bearer channels for BRI, T1 PRI and El PRI. The numbers are BRI 2, T1 PRI 23, and E1 PRI 30. 3 What type of information is carried over the D channel Signaling (and sometimes data, depending on the implementation) is carried over the D channel. 4 List the specifications that define Layer 2 and Layer 3 of ISDN. The specifications are Layer 2 Q.921 and Layer 3 Q.931. 5...

Answers to Chapter 7 QA Section

1 What are the three permanent profiles for the 700 series router The profiles are LAN, standard, and internal. 2 Which one of the following statements is true a. Any protocol routed in the LAN must be routed in the user profile. b. Any protocol routed in the LAN cannot be routed in the user profile. c. Any protocol routed in the LAN must be bridged in the user profile. d. Any protocol routed in the LAN cannot be bridged in the internal profile. The answer is a. Any protocol routed in the LAN...

Answers to the Chapter 10 QA Section

1 Where on a router is queuing implemented Queuing should be implemented on low-speed WAN interfaces only. 2 When should queuing be considered a viable implementation Queuing should be considered a solution when the router experiences more than occasional congestion. If the existing traffic flow is having problems getting through the router on a regular basis, queuing should be considered. 3 Should a queuing strategy be implemented on all WAN interfaces No. Queuing should be implemented on...

Answers to the Chapter 8 QA Section

The Layer 2 is LAPB. 2 Name the Layer 3 of X.25. The Layer 3 is X.25. 3 In X.25, what are the two possible roles that a router can play The roles are DCE and DTE. 4 What is the function of a PAD in an X.25 network The PAD is a device that collects data from asynchronous terminals and outputs that data encapsulated inside of X.25 packets. 5 The addressing scheme in X.25 is known as what kind of address It is known as X.121 addressing. 6 List the parts of the...

Answers to the Chapter 9 Do I Know This Already Quiz

1 Is Frame Relay connection-oriented or connectionless Frame Relay is connection-oriented. Answers to the Chapter 9 Do I Know This Already Quiz 425 2 Frame Relay virtual circuits come in two flavors. What are those flavors Frame Relay virtual circuits can be PVC or SVC. 3 Frame Relay virtual circuits are logically defined by a DLCI. What is the range of valid DLCIs Valid DLCIs fall in the range of 16-1007. 4 The Frame Relay star topology is also known as what It is also known as hub and spoke....

Answers to the Chapter 9 QA Section

1 Is Frame Relay connection-oriented or connectionless Frame Relay is connection-oriented. 2 Frame Relay virtual circuits come in two flavors. What are those flavors Frame Relay virtual circuits can be PVC or SVC. 3 Frame Relay virtual circuits are logically defined by a DLCI. What is the range of valid DLCIs Valid DLCIs fall in the range of 16-1007. 4 The Frame Relay star topology is also known as what It is also known as hub and spoke 5 In a 40-route Frame Relay network running in a full mesh...

Basic Rate Interface

BRI is the most typical ISDN connection and is a native ISDN interface on a router. The basic rate connection consists of two bearer (B) channels and a single (D) channel. When both B channels are active, the aggregate bandwidth becomes 128,000 bps. You can purchase ISDN service with two, one, or zero B channels. Typical deployments use two B channels. Implementations of one B channel provide cost reduction, and zero B channel implementations enable another technology (such as X.25) to be run...

Using AAA to Scale Access Control in an Expanding Network 367

Do I Know This Already Quiz 368 AAA Overview 372 Authentication 372 Authorization 373 Accounting 373 AAA Configuration 374 Enabling AAA 374 AAA Authentication 375 AAA Authentication Login 376 AAA Authentication Enable 377 AAA Authentication ARAP 378 AAA Authentication PPP 379 AAA Authentication NASI 380 Scenario 12-1 393 Scenario Answers 394 Scenario 12-1 Answers 394 Appendix A Answers to the Do I Know This Already Quizzes and Q& A Sections 397

Configuring a Cisco 700 Series Router 193

How to Best Use This Chapter 193 Do I Know This Already Quiz 194 Foundation Topics 197 Cisco 700 Series Router Key Features and Functions 197 Networking 197 Routing and WAN 198 ISDN and Telephony 198 Cisco 700 Series Router Profiles 198 LAN Profile 199 Standard Profile 199 Internal Profile 199 System Profile 199 Profile Use Guidelines 199 Configuring the Cisco 700 Series Router for IP Routing 200 Profile Configuration Commands for the Cisco 700 Series Routers 203 Profile Management Commands for...

Frame Relay Connection Controlling Traffic Flow 251

Do I Know This Already Quiz 252 Understanding Frame Relay 257 Device Roles 257 Frame Relay LMI 258 Issues When Connecting Multiple Sites Through a Single Router Interface 260 Resolving Split Horizon Problems 261 Step 1 Determine the Interface to Be Configured 263 Step 2 Configure Frame Relay Encapsulation 264 Step 3 Configure Protocol-Specific Parameters 264 Step 4 Configure Frame Relay Characteristics 264 Verifying Frame Relay Configuration 266 show frame-relay pvc Command 267 show frame-relay...

Configuring a Cisco 700 Series Router

The 700 series router was purchased by Cisco from Combinet in 1997. The purchase gave Cisco an ISDN product uniquely suited to the telecommuter and SOHO market. The 700 series provides single Basic Rate Interface (BRI) connectivity and an Ethernet interface for a LAN connection. The 700 series router is compatible with the full Cisco router product line however, it does not use the same command line structure for configuration. The command line of the 700 series router uses set as the main verb...

Configuring PPP and Controlling Network Access

The CCNP Remote Access Exam requires you to have an in depth understanding of various WAN technologies. In this chapter the discussion focuses on Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP). The typical implementation of PPP has traditionally been in dial-up and or ISDN deployments. The growing need of corporations to include dial-up access to network resources for remote users has created a high demand for point-to-point technologies. Telecommuting personnel require access to network devices and information...

Configuring the Cisco 700 Series Router for IP Routing

There are three sections to configuring a Cisco 700 series router the system level, the LAN, and the user profile. The system profile contains that information that is generally found in the global configuration on an IOS router. The information includes the name of the router and the switch type. Additionally, the system level contains the encapsulation type, the authentication type, and the password used by the 700 series router when it connects to another device. This information is placed...

Contents at a Glance

Chapter 1 All About the Cisco Certified Network and Design Professional Certifications 3 Chapter 2 Cisco Remote Connection Products 19 Chapter 3 Assembling and Cabling WAN Components 43 Chapter 4 Configuring Asynchronous Connections with Modems 67 Chapter 5 Configuring PPP and Controlling Network Access 97 Chapter 6 Using ISDN and DDR to Enhance Remote Connectivity 125 Chapter 7 Configuring the Cisco 700 Series Router 193 Chapter 8 Establishing an X.25 Connection 221 Chapter 9 Establishing...

Custom Queuing

Custom queuing enables the sharing of available bandwidth evenly (or not) across all types of traffic. This technique allocates a percentage of bandwidth to each of the various traffic types. The difference between this approach and priority queuing is that the queues are processed in round-robin sequence (in essence, they are multiplexed). Therefore, it is possible that high-priority traffic would not be serviced quickly enough because although each type of traffic would get some bandwidth, no...

Dial Backup

In Example 6-25, notice the backup delay 5 60 command, which specifies that if there is a failure, the system should wait five seconds to bring up the backup link. Once the failure has passed, the system should wait 60 seconds to bring the backup link back down. Example 6-25 Dial Backup Example Configuration RouterA(config) isdn switch-type basic-5ess RouterA(config-if) ip address 10.14.1.1 255.255.255.0 RouterA(config-if) encapsulation hdlc RouterA(config-if) backup interface BRI0...

Do I Know This Already Quiz

The purpose of the Do I Know This Already quiz is to help you decide what parts of this chapter to use. If you already intend to read the entire chapter, you do not necessarily need to answer these questions now. The twelve-question quiz helps you determine how to spend your limited study time. The quiz is sectioned into smaller, two-question quizlets, each of which corresponds to the six major topic headings in the chapter. Use the scoresheet in Table 4-1 to record your scores. Table 4-1...

DTE Call Termination

When the DTE is ready to terminate the connection because the user has completed the call and signaled the PC to go back on-hook, the DTR is dropped. For this to happen, the modem must be configured to interpret the loss of the DTR as the end of a conversation. When the DTE drops the DTR, the modem is alerted that the carrier is no longer needed. This configuration is done when the modem is first installed. This can be manually done for each call, or it can be scripted in a chat script that is...

E1 Line Code

E1 deployments can implement AMI however, the issues with AMI and data transmission still hold true data transmissions are limited to 56 kbps. To remedy this, high-density bit, level 3 (HDB3) was created. It operates similarly to B8ZS, but in a slightly more efficient manner. If a long string of 0s is detected, a number of them are changed to 1s for the duration of their trip across the provider network. They are then changed back to their original values at the remote CSU DSU. Obviously, T1 E1...

Establishing an X25 Connection

The CCNP Remote Access Exam requires you to be familiar with the implementation options associated with X.25. You must understand the basic deployment of X.25 as well as the optional configuration parameters. X.25 is similar in some respects to ISDN. The basic functionality of the two is based on the same technology, and the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) still provides the necessary switching facilities. X.25 is similar not only to ISDN for switched virtual circuits (SVCs) but also...

Foundation Summary

Overall, this chapter dealt with physical connectivity for the router. Most cables are interface-specific in that they can be attached at only one place on the router. That is not always the case, however. For example, Category 5 UTP cable can be used with Ethernet, T1 E1 WIC, and ISDN interfaces. You should take the time to ensure that the correct cable is attached in the appropriate place. A straight-through Ethernet cable does not work in a T1 E1 WIC connection. The pinouts are dissimilar....

Foundation Topics Modem Signaling

This chapter covers the signaling of the modem and the configurations for a Remote Access Server (RAS) connection. The successful CCNP or CCDP candidate should be able to describe the signaling and pins used by the cabling and not just the syntax that is required for the connection. The signaling is just as important because it provides the basis for the physical-layer troubleshooting that can be needed to establish a connection. Asynchronous data communications technology occurs when an end...

Frame Relay Connection Controlling Traffic Flow

The CCNP Remote Access exam requires you to have an in depth understanding of various WAN technologies. This chapter discusses the basics of Frame Relay as well as how to tweak it to maximize traffic control and throughput. Although Frame Relay is not a new technology by any means, it is still widely implemented around the world. Even with the advent of newer (and faster) broadband technologies, Frame Relay continues to remain popular in the workplace. Frame Relay is a high-performance WAN...

Frame Relay LMI

Local Management Interface (LMI) is the means by which Frame Relay edge devices maintain keepalive messages. The Frame Relay switch is responsible for maintaining the status of the CPE device(s) to which it is attached. LMI is the communication by which the switch monitors status. LMI implements a keepalive mechanism that verifies connectivity between DCE and DTE and the fact that data can flow. A LMI multicast capability, in conjunction with an LMI multicast addressing mechanism, enables...

Frame Relay Traffic Parameters

To properly understand the concepts of traffic shaping, it is important to have a firm grasp of the various traffic parameters in the Frame Relay Network. In particular, you should know that some (such as CIR and Be (Excessive Burst)) are commonly used, but misunderstood. Table 9-2 details the traffic parameters. Table 9-2 Frame Relay Traffic Parameters The average rate you want to transmit. This is generally not the same as the CIR provided by the telco. This is the amount you want to send in...

Frame Relay Traffic Shaping Configuration

Frame Relay traffic shaping is accomplished through the creation of a map class. This map class can be associated with one or more PVCs. The map class defines the traffic parameters for any circuits to which it is applied. The command structure for defining the map class is as follows RouterA(config) map-class frame-relay name The name parameter is an arbitrary value. This is the parameter that is used to tie the map class to one or more PVCs. Once the map-class command has been entered, the...

Hardware Selection

When the research is done and the location is selected, the last step is to select a router that meets the specifications created. Cisco is continually updating the product line for all types of WAN scenarios. The best way to stay current with the offerings available for RAS solutions is at the Cisco web site at www.cisco.com. The products in the following section represent some of the current offerings for Remote Access environments. The successful CCNP or CCDP candidate should be aware of the...

How to Best Use This Chapter

By taking the following steps, you can make better use of your study time Keep your notes and answers for all your work with this book in one place for easy reference. Take the Do I Know This Already quiz and write down your answers. Studies show retention is significantly increased through writing facts and concepts down, even if you never look at the information again. Use the diagram in Figure 11-1 to guide you to the next step.

ISDN Call Release

Any party in the network can release the call for whatever reason. Whether the release of the call is intentional or accidental (that is, due to some type of failure in the network), the call is torn down completely. When either the calling or called party is ready to disconnect a call, that party issues a disconnect (DISC) message. The disconnect is not negotiable. If necessary, the call can be re-established, but once a disconnect is issued, the call comes down. When a DISC is issued, it is...

Issues When Connecting Multiple Sites Through a Single Router Interface

When a single physical interface is utilized on a central router to connect multiple remote sites, routing problems arise. These problems are caused by split horizon. Split horizon is a rule in routing protocol operation that is designed to eliminate routing loops by not allowing routing updates to be sent out of the interfaces through which they were received. Consider the situation in which one serial interface serves multiple remote sites. In this scenario, split horizon effectively shuts...

Modem Autoconfiguration and the Modem Capabilities Database

Modem autoconfiguration is a Cisco IOS software feature that enables the router to issue the modem configuration commands, which frees the administrator from creating and maintaining scripts for each modem. The general syntax for modem autoconfiguration is as follows modem autoconfigure discovery type modemcap-entry-name The two command options for the modem autoconfigure command are as follows type This option configures modems without using modem commands, or so it is implied. The type...

Modem Control

DSR and DTR are signal pins used to control how the modem operates. The DSR pin is raised when the modem is powered on. This raising lets the DTE device know that the modem is ready for use. The DTR pin is raised when the DTE device is powered and ready to receive information from the DCE. In most cases, when the DTE device is powered on, the DTR pin is raised however, there are cases in which the DTR pin is raised only if a software package begins to run. This might sound like a minor point,...

One Final Word of Advice

The Foundation Summary section and your notes are your crib note knowledge of Remote Access. These pieces of paper are valuable when you are studying for the CCIE or Cisco recertification exam. You should take the time to organize them so that they become part of your paper long term memory. Reviewing information that you actually wrote in your own handwriting is the easiest data to put back into your brain RAM. Gaining a certification but losing the knowledge is of no value. For most people,...

PPP Authentication

The topic of authentication has been touched on throughout this chapter. At this point, it is finally time to get down to specifics. PPP authentication offers two options PAP and CHAP. These two protocols offer differing degrees of protection. Both protocols require the definition of usernames and accompanying passwords. This can be done on the router itself or on a TACACS or RADIUS authentication server. The examples we deal with in this book are those in which the router itself is configured...

PPP Troubleshooting

Troubleshooting PPP is similar to troubleshooting many other WAN technologies. However, there is a key difference The implementation of authentication adds another item to the list of things that can go wrong. This section details some of the commands useful in dealing with PPP issues. The first step in troubleshooting PPP connections is to remove authentication of any kind from the configuration. If the service functions properly at that point, it's time to rethink your authentication...

PRI Configuration

The configuration of the PRI service is quite simple. Although the command variations and options are very similar to that of its BRI counterpart, a PRI configuration has additional requirements. To meet the needs of the PRI provisioning, the T1 or E1 (whichever is appropriate) must be configured to match telco requirements of framing and line code, as discussed in the preceding sections of this chapter. The T1 E1 controller is actually an internal CSU DSU. It must be told which timeslots are...

Primary Rate Interface

PRI implementations are based on T1 E1 technologies. Although PRI is still ISDN, it is treated differently in regard to framing and signaling. Like BRI, PRI has only one connection to the ISDN network, and the switch type must be specified for the configuration to function. An ISDN PRI T1 implementation has 23 B channels and a D channel. As with BRI, each of the B channels has 64-kbps bandwidth available. The D channel, however, is also a 64-kbps channel (unlike BRI). In traditional T1...

Priority Queuing

When absolute control over the throughput is necessary, priority queuing can be utilized. Priority queuing gives the network administrator granular control that reduces network delay for high-priority traffic. Variations of priority queuing have been in use for a number of years in differing vendor implementations. Cisco's implementation of priority queuing utilizes four queues high, medium, normal, and low. For traffic placed in individual queues, the output strategy is FIFO. The traffic...

Product Families Capabilities and Limitations

The Cisco 700 series family of routers supports IP and IPX routing over ISDN. Routers from this family have no scalability for adding ports and were designed for ROs and SOHOs. A 700 series router is an inexpensive ISDN access device. Figure 2-2 illustrates a Cisco 700 series router. The Cisco 800 series family of routers is the lowest priced entry-level router that runs the IOS software. Because the base operating system for the 800 series router is the same as for the higher end router...

Profile Configuration Commands for the Cisco 700 Series Routers

Profile commands are used to establish the basics of the 700 series router configuration. The commands can be categorized for use in the three basic profiles used. Table 7-2 summarizes the commands used for the three basic profiles. This command declares the switch type for the 700 series router. Valid choices would be DMS100, 5ESS, NI1, and so on. Because the 700 series router only supports a single BRI interface, there is no need for further definition of the switch type. This command...

Profile Use Guidelines

Much ado is made about routing in the profiles. Simply stated, an unknown call is not handled with the route engine, and the standard profile does not support routing. On the other hand, a known call, or one with an associated profile, is passed to the internal profile if IP or IPX routing has been declared for the profile and then sent to the route engine for processing to the LAN. The following guidelines should be known by the successful CCNP candidate Functions LAN and internal profiles...

Resolving Split Horizon Problems

Theoretically, almost any number of subinterfaces can be placed on a single major interface. The limit lies in the number of Interface Descriptor Blocks (IDBs) available to the router. This number varies depending on the router series and Cisco IOS Software release. A logical subinterface should be treated almost the same as a physical interface. It can be configured for multiple protocols, shut down, or anything else common on other interfaces with one notable exception you cannot set...

Rotary Groups

ISDN rotary groups are similar to dialer pools. One primary difference, however, is the lack of map class capabilities in rotary groups. Configuring rotary groups involves the creation of logical dialer interfaces (as is done in dialer pool configurations), the interface designation of which is an important detail. Example 6-24 shows all the physical BRI interfaces associated with dialer rotary-group 2. The number 2 is used as a rotary group number, so it must also be used as our dialer...

Router Line Numbering

The line numbers on a router are obtained in a methodical manner. The console port is line 0. Each asynchronous (TTY) port is then numbered 1 through the number of TTY ports on the router. The auxiliary port is given the line number LAST TTY + 1, and the virtual terminal (vty) ports are numbered starting at LAST TTY + 2. Example 4-1 has the show line output for a Cisco 2511 router, which has eight asynchronous ports available. Notice that the AUX port is labeled in line 17 and the vty ports are...

Router Series

The routers in this series are established models. This router family makes use of Network Processing Modules (NPM) to implement different technologies. These individual cards can be mixed and matched to some degree for various technologies. LAN and WAN NPMs can be installed simultaneously at varying line speeds and encapsulations. Although this series is somewhat versatile, any changing of components requires the removal of the entire motherboard tray. Care...

Scenario 1 You Have Taken the Bcran Course

Because you have taken other Cisco exams and have taken the BCRAN course, you know what you are up against. The Remote Access exam is like all the others. The questions are Sylvanish and the answers are sometimes confusing if you read too much into them. The best approach with this book is to take each chapter Do I Know This Already quiz and focus on the parts that draw a blank. It is best not to jump to the final exam until you have given yourself a chance to review the entire book. You should...

Scenario 113 Answers

1 To provide immediate connectivity, you can use the overlap feature in NAT. This would enable the ABC and XYZ companies to coexist during a transition. 2 The following NAT configuration could be used, given a selection of 192.168.1.0 24 as the internal addresses used ip nat pool XYZ-in 192.168.1.2 192.168.1.254 prefix-length 24 ip nat pool ABC-out 192.168.2.2 192.168.2.254 prefix-length 24 ip nat outside source list 1 pool XYZ-in ip nat inside source list 1 pool ABC-out Ideclare the static...

Scenario 121 Answers

1 The router configuration given an AAA address of 123.123.123.123 using a password of AAAsecret would be as follows Routen(config) radius-server host 123.123.123.123 Router(config) radius-server key AAAsecret Routen(config) aaa authentication login admins radius local Routen(config) aaa authentication login default radius Routen(config) aaa authentication ppp default radius Router(config) aaa accounting command 15 wait-start radius Router(config-line) aaa authentication admins...

Scenario 22 Answers

1 ISDN would be a good choice because of the higher speed. You might consider making sure that the service is divergent into your branch office so that if the frame fails due to a back-hoe attack, the ISDN line has a chance of being uninterrupted. 2 Access control is a major issue. If the primary link fails, the backup link should block all noncritical traffic such as HTTP so that the mission critical information is not lost. It is assumed that the reason for the T1 is that the bandwidth is...

Scenario 31 Answers

1 For the growing central site, with 100+ users, it can be necessary to implement a 7200 router or higher. A 3640 could certainly handle the job. However, care must be taken in regards to future growth. If the site has few or no plans for growth in the near future, the 3640 is a good choice. The branch office site with only 10 users could function with a 1700, 2600, or similar router. The SOHO site with a single user will likely use ISDN for connectivity and a 1004 or 700 router. 2 For the...

Scenario 53 Answers

1 The symptom listed here is consistent with authentication failure. Show dialer or debug ppp authentication assists in troubleshooting the condition. 2 A callback failure of this sort can sometimes be attributed to busy B channels. If a callback request comes in and authentication is successful, the server disconnects the call. If this is the last available B channel, and a new call comes in, the new call takes the available B channel and callback cannot occur. This chapter covers the...

Scenario

In Figure 6-18, the Raleigh and Atlanta routers are dialing into the San Francisco router using DDR configurations. Example 6-33 details the configuration of the Raleigh router and Example 6-34 shows the Atlanta router configuration. Examine the figure and the configurations and utilize them in answering the questions that follow. Dialer 2 (BRI 0, 1, 2) 10.1.210.1 24 Dialer 2 (BRI 0, 1, 2) 10.1.210.1 24 isdn switch-type basic-5ess interface ethernet 0 ip address 10.25.2.2 255.255.255.0...

Scenario 93 Answers

1 The configuration for Router A is as follows RouterA(config) map-class frame-relay emma cir 128000 RouterA(config-map-class) frame-relay bc 16000 RouterA(config-map-class) frame-relay be 0 RouterA(config-map-class) frame-relay mincir 64000 RouterA(config) map-class frame-relay amanda RouterA(config-map-class) frame-relay cir 64000 RouterA(config-map-class) frame-relay bc 8000 RouterA(config-map-class) frame-relay be 0 RouterA(config-map-class) frame-relay mincir 32000 RouterA(config)...

Service Profile Identifiers SPIDs

Another key part of the ISDN BRI Layer 2 is the SPID. SPIDs are used only in BRI implementations. PRI implementations do not require the use of SPIDs. The SPID specifies the services to which you are entitled from the switch and defines the feature set that you ordered when the ISDN service was provisioned. The SPID is a series of characters manually entered into the router's configuration to identify the router to the switch. This is different from the TEI discussed earlier. The TEI address is...

Show dialer Command

Executing the show dialer command displays active calls and status information. Example 6-19 shows sample output of calls in session. Example 6-19 show dialer Command Output Dial String Successes Failures Last called 0 incoming call(s) have been screened. Idle timer (120 secs), Fast idle timer (20 secs) Wait for carrier (30 secs), Re-enable (15 secs) Dial reason ip (s 10.12.1.1, d 10.12.1.2) Idle timer (120 secs), Fast idle timer (20 secs) Wait for carrier (30 secs), Re-enable (15 secs) Idle...

Simple NAT Translation

NAT translation (in its original form) replaced the source IP address with a publicly legitimate address. The replacement address came from a pool of addresses that were defined on the NAT device. These replacement addresses were, of course, publicly valid in the Internet address space. NAT is an application layer process that inserts the legitimate address into the packet header and maintains a table of translated addresses, as shown in Figure 11-3. Translation table 10.1.1.1 133.4.4.1 Source...

Snapshot Routing

Snapshot routing was developed to save bandwidth utilization across dialup interfaces. With snapshot routing, the routing table is placed in an update restricted (that is, frozen) state. This implementation of DDR utilizes a quiet period and an active period. The routing table is not updated during the quiet period, which is the amount of time that the routing table remains frozen. When the quiet period expires, a dialer interface initiates a call to a remote router. The active period is the...

SOHO Router Verification

These routers are generally quite small. Many of them are not much larger than the old Hayes and US Robotics modems of the 1980s. There is only so much that can be said about LEDs before the point is over emphasized. As in the two previous sections, this discussion focuses on a single router chassis, in this case, the 770 router. Figure 3-6 depicts the LEDs in this discussion. As you can see in the figure, there are a number of LEDs on this box. Table 3-2 analyzes the relevant LEDs, from left...

Step 3 Specifying Static Routes

In the classic DDR model, dynamic routing protocol updates are not moving across the link, so it is important that static routes be used in place of dynamic updates. To provide bidirectional reachability between the two sites in the absence of routing protocol traffic, static routes should be configured at both the local and remote routers. As demonstrated in Example 6-6, any IP traffic that needs to cross the link has been defined as interesting and will trigger a call setup. Do not confuse...

Step 4 Configure Frame Relay Characteristics

You must define specific parameters for Frame Relay operation. The parameters include LMI and DLCI configuration. If you're using a release of IOS Software earlier than 11.2, you must specify the LMI type that is being implemented. The Frame Relay service provider, or telco, should provide the LMI information. For IOS Software Release 11.2 and later, you need not configure the LMI type. To disable LMI completely, use the no keepalive command to cease to transmit and receive LMI. However,...

T1E1 Framing and Line Coding

Although it is ISDN, PRI uses T1 framing and line coding. These technologies are based on the same model, represented in a number of 64-kbps channels. The original use of digital facilities was the transport of voice traffic. Because analog technologies were not adequate for long distance transmission due to attenuation, another form of transmission digitizing was necessary. Digitizing the voice traffic for transmission enabled it to travel very long distances with no attenuation. Once the data...

Using ISDN and DDR Technologies

The CCNP Remote Access Exam requires you to have an in depth understanding of various WAN technologies. In this chapter the discussion focuses on ISDN. ISDN is not a new technology by any means. However, it is still widely implemented around the world. Even with the advent of newer (and faster) broadband technologies, ISDN continues to grow in the workplace, albeit at a slower rate than what has been seen in the recent past. There are two specific implementation types discussed in this chapter...

Using the Cisco 700 Series Router as a DHCP Server and Relay Agent

The 700 series router is capable of being the DHCP server or functioning as a relay agent to a DHCP server running on another device. To perform the function of a relay agent, the router is configured as follows The use of the 700 series router as a relay agent is very similar to setting an IP helper-address on an IOS router pointing to a DHCP server. Using the set dhcp relay command passes only the DHCP request however, the IP helper-address can pass other broadcast packets if not configured...

Verification of NAT Translation

There are two commands to verify and troubleshoot the NAT configuration show ip nat translation and show ip nat statistics. The translation table is the same format for simple, overload, overlapped, and load distribution. The information provided is different depending upon the configuration. Example 11-6 shows the output for a simple translation. Example 11-6 Verifying NAT Translation Because this is a simple translation, only the information that is relevant is put into the table. The concept...

Verifying Frame Relay Configuration

The most useful method of verifying configurations is through the use of the show and debug commands. The examples in the following subsections show sample command output. Example 9-4 shows output from the show frame-relay pvc command. This command is useful for viewing the status of statically or dynamically defined PVCs. Example 9-4 show frame-relay pvc Command Output PVC Statistics for interface Serial0 0 (Frame Relay 39, last time pvc status changed 21 00 59 39, last time pvc status changed...

Warning and Disclaimer

This book is designed to provide information about the Cisco CCNP Remote Access Exam 640-505. Every effort has been made to make this book as complete and as accurate as possible, but no warranty or fitness is implied. The information is provided on an as is basis. The authors, Cisco Press, and Cisco Systems, Inc. shall have neither liability nor responsibility to any person or entity with respect to any loss or damages arising from the information contained in this book or from the use of the...

Weighted Fair Queuing

As mentioned, FIFO is often not ideal. Fortunately, WFQ enables Telnet and other interactive traffic to have priority over FTP and other large transfers, thus improving overall throughput. The FTP packets get through with relatively little delay, and Telnet users see improved response times. In WFQ, traffic is sorted by high- and low-volume conversations. The traffic in a session is kept within one conversation (session), and the records are handled FIFO within a particular conversation. The...

What Is on the Remote Access Exam

The Remote Access exam evaluates the knowledge of network administrators and specialists who must configure and maintain a RAS and the associated peripheral components that accompany it. Candidates attempting to pass the Remote Access exam must perform the following tasks List and describe the remote access alternatives available and discuss the inherent advantages and disadvantages of each access method Configure the RAS for ISDN BRI and PRI access and asynchronous modem connectivity Use the...

X25 Layered Model

Figure 8-3 compares the model to the OSI model. The X.25 specification maps to Layers 1 through 3 of the OSI reference model. Layer 3, X.25, describes packet formats and packet exchange procedures between peer Layer 3 entities. LAPB defines Layer 2 of the X.25 layered model and performs packet framing for the DTE DCE link. Layer 1 of the X.25 layered model defines the electrical and mechanical procedures for activating and deactivating the physical connection...

Overview of Cisco Certifications

Cisco fulfills only a small portion of its orders through direct sales most times, a Cisco reseller is involved. Cisco's main motivation behind the current certification program was to measure the skills of people working for Cisco Resellers and Certified Partners. Cisco has not attempted to become the only source for consulting and implementation services for network deployment using Cisco products. In 1996 and 1997 Cisco embarked on a channel program in which business partners would work with...

Exams Required for Certification

You are required to pass a group of exams for CCNP or CCDP certification. The exams generally match the same topics that are covered in one of the official Cisco courses. Table 1-1 outlines the exams and the courses with which they are most closely matched. Course Most Closely Matching the Exam's Requirements Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) Building Scalable Cisco Networks (BSCN) Building Cisco Multilayer Switched Networks (BCMSN) Table 1-1 Exam-to-Course Mappings (Continued) Table...

Modem Configuration Using Reverse Telnet

In order to configure a modem, a router must be set up to talk to it. Cisco refers to this as a reverse Telnet connection. A host that is connected to a router can Telnet to a Cisco reserved port address on the router and establish an 8-N-1 connection to a specific asynchronous port. An 8-N-1 connection declares the physical signaling characteristics for a line. Table 4-3 shows reserved port addresses. The router must have a valid IP address on an interface and an asynchronous port. To...

NAT Overlapping Configuration

NAT can deal with overlapping networks, even though it is not desirable to create an overlapped network. The overlapping of networks typically occurs during a merger of two companies that are using the same private address space. The overlap configuration is put in place as a stopgap while renumbering takes place. The following configuration uses the addresses designated as Outside Global and Outside Local with reference, albeit arbitrary, to one or the other networks. One network is declared...

All About the Cisco Certified Network Professional and Design Professional Certification

How This Book Can Help You Pass the CCNP Remote Access Exam 4 Overview of Cisco Certifications 5 The Remote Access Exam and the CCNP and CCDP Certifications 6 What Is on the Remote Access Exam 9 Recommended Training Path for CCNP and CCDP 11 How to Use This Book to Pass the Exam 13 One Final Word of Advice 14 You Have Passed Other CCNP Exams and Are Preparing for the Remote Access Exam 14 Scenario 1 You Have Taken the BCRAN Course 14 Scenario 2 You Have NOT Taken the BCRAN Course 14 You Have...

Foundation Topics X25 Basics

In the 1970s, a suite of protocols was needed to provide WAN connectivity across public data networks (PDNs), which had already been deployed with great success. Standardization in the deployment of PDNs was lacking. Industry participants at the time thought that standardization would increase the number of clients who would subscribe to PDN services, if a way could be found to decrease cost while increasing functionality. The result of this development effort was the X.25 specification, which...

Answers to the Chapter 11 QA Section

1 What are the benefits of NAT The benefits include conservation, overlap dysfunction, flexibility, and the elimination of renumbering. 2 The Outside Global address is converted to which NAT address class It is converted to an Outside Local address. 3 What are the disadvantages of NAT The disadvantages include increased latency, lesser accountability, and nonfunctionality with some applications 4 Using simple NAT translation, what TCP header information is altered The source IP address and the...

Characteristics of NAT

NAT enables nonregistered IP addresses, or the RFC 1918 private address space, to be used inside a private network and to gain access to a public network, such as the World Wide Web. The edge router connected to the public network uses NAT to translate the private network addresses to a registered public address. The translation can be statically or dynamically done. In the case of a simple translation, each nonregistered IP address is translated to a unique public address. This enables access...

The Remote Access Exam and the CCNP and CCDP Certifications

The Remote Access exam proves mastery of the features used in larger corporate dial-in facilities and Internet service provider (ISP) operations. Skills required for CCNP and CCDP certifications include the ability to install, configure, operate, and troubleshoot remote access devices in a complex WAN environment. Specifically, the remote access skills required ensure that the CCNP or CCDP candidate can ensure minimal WAN costs to the customer or client using the Cisco IOS features. The Cisco...

ISDN Switch Type

The PRI installation procedure is similar to its BRI counterpart. A service call is placed, and then the demarc is determined and extended, if necessary. The carrier provides the basic information necessary for connectivity, but it will be necessary to configure the router with the appropriate switch type. Table 6-4 shows the Cisco-supported switch types. Table 6-4 Cisco-Supported Primary Rate Switch Types AT& T 4ESS switch type for the U.S. AT& T 5ESS switch type for the U.S. Northern...

Terminal Endpoint Identifier TEIs

A terminal endpoint can be any ISDN-capable device attached to an ISDN network. The TEI is a number between 0 and 127, where 0-63 are used for static TEI assignment, 64-126 are used for dynamic assignment, and 127 is used for group assignments. (0 is used only for PRI and is discussed later.) The TEI provides the physical identifier, and the service access point identifier (SAPI) carries the logical identifier. The process of assigning TEIs differs slightly between North America and Europe. In...

Scenario 81 X25 Initial Configuration

In this scenario, you must configure the Dallas and San Jose routers for X.25 connectivity. Use Figure 8-8 to assist you in the scenarios. All necessary parameters are listed there. Use the configurations in Examples 8-6 and 8-7 to answer the questions that follow. Example 8-6 Dallas Configuration for Scenario 8-1 Example 8-6 Dallas Configuration for Scenario 8-1 Example 8-7 San Jose Configuration for Scenario 8-1 interface ethernet 0 ip address 192.168.3.1 255.255.255.0 interface serial 0...

TCP Load Distribution

NAT can be used for TCP load distribution. This works in a form that is somewhat reversed from other translations. In the other three uses of NAT, the sender uses a nonlegitimate source address in a packet destined for the outside world. In contrast, load distribution takes advantage of the NAT function by allowing a site to advertise an address but when you send a packet to the advertised address, it is rerouted to another set of addresses. Load distribution occurs, for example, when a large...

Scenario 82 Answers

1 The configurations in Examples 8-10 and 8-11 expand the configurations in Examples 86 and 8-7 to include the packet size parameters listed in Figure 8-8. Example 8-10 Dallas Configuration Including Packet Size Parameters interface ethernet 0 ip address 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0 interface serial 0 encapuslation x25 ip address 192.168.2.1 255.255.255.0 x25 address 3102145551212 x25 map ip 192.168.2.2 3104085553434 broadcast Example 8-11 San Jose Configuration Including Packet Size Parameters...

Scenario 2 You Do Not Have a CCNA Certification

Why don't you have the certification The prerequisite for the CCNP certification is to be certified as a CCNA, so you really should pursue your CCNA certification before tackling the CCNP certification. Beginning with the Remote Access exam gives you a skewed view of what is needed for the Cisco Professional certification track. That being said, if you must pursue the certifications out of order, follow the spirit of the book. Read each chapter and then do the quiz at the front of the chapter...

Assembling and Cabling the WAN Components

The CCNP Remote Access Exam requires you to have an in-depth understanding of various WAN technologies. This chapter focuses on the cabling requirements of various technologies. Although individual WAN topologies can require specific cabling variances and Frame Relay implementations require little or no variance from implementations of High-Level Data Link Control (HDLC), the physical cabling is virtually identical. However, other technologies can have different requirements depending on the...