L

L2F (Layer 2 Forwarding), 229

VPDNs, 231 L2TP (Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol), 229

VPDNs, 231 lab exam, 577-578 FAQs, 578-580 sample, 583-597 Land.C attacks, 371 lastlog file (UNIX), 290 layers of OSI reference model application layer, 25 data link layer, 22 network layer, 23 IP, 33-37 spanning tree, 30 switching, 28-30 physical layer, 21 presentation layer, 24 session layer, 24 transport layer, 24 LCP (link control protocol), 82 LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol), 133 learning state (spanning tree), 31

leases (DHCP), viewing, 47 links, 289

link-state protocols, OSPF, 66, 68 example configuration, 71-75 media types, 70

multiple area configuration, 69-70 single area configuration, 66, 69 virtual links, 71 listening state (spanning tree), 31 LLC sublayer, 22 LMhosts file, 292 loading configuration files, 158 local groups, 294

Local Preference attribute (BGP), 77 logging console debug command, 168 logical AND operation, 37 loops spanning tree, 30

bridge port states, 31 split horizon, 58 lost passwords, recovering, 174-179 ls command (UNIX), 284 LSAs (link-state advertisements), 68

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