File Transfer Protocol (FTP) and Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) are application layer protocols (part of the TCP/IP protocol suite of applications). FTP is a connection-oriented protocol running over TCP. FTP uses two connections to maintain connectivity between two IP hosts; port 20 is used for server applications and port 21 for data transfer.
TFTP runs over UDP port 69 and is a connectionless-based protocol. TFTP commonly uploads IOS and configurations to a TFTP server. TFTP is regarded as the simple version of FTP. TFTP does not require any username/password combination to transfer data, as opposed to FTP, where a username and password are required before data can be transferred.
NOTE Domain Name Server (DNS) is another common application that uses both TCP and UDP port 53.
Now that you fully appreciate the TCP/IP model, the next section covers routing protocols used to ensure TCP/IP data can be moved, or routed, from one location to another.
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