Q A Answers

1 What UNIX command displays the files in the current directory? Answer: ls

2 What UNIX command changes a directory from etc/ to bin/? Answer:

cd .. (takes you down one directory)

cd etc (root directory to etc directory)

3 What does the following UNIX command accomplish?

cp -i simon.doc henry.doc

Answer: This command makes a copy of the files simon.doc and henry.doc. You must specify the name of the file to be copied and the name of the new file to be created. The -i flag tells the computer to ask before it overwrites any files in this process. The -r flag copies any files in subdirectories if you are copying directories.

4 To define a permission for a UNIX file, what command line interface is required? Answer: chmod flag filename

5 The chmod UNIX command can define what levels of access or permissions on a UNIX host?

Answer: The chmod flag is always three numbers. The first number affects the owner permissions, the second number affects the group permissions, and the third number affects all other permissions. Each number can be a number between 0 and 7. See Table 6-3 for an explanation of these levels.

6 In a Windows NT environment, what is a domain, primary domain controller, and backup domain controller?

Answer: A domain is typically a large group of devices under a common administration. A domain is managed by a primary domain controller (PDC), which is a Windows-based server that stores and controls security and user account information for an entire domain. Each domain must have at least one PDC. A backup domain controller (BDC) maintains a copy of the database in the event the PDC is unavailable.

7 What functions does the protocol NetBIOS provide in a Window NT environment?

Answer: NetBIOS is a session layer protocol that is used to allow communication between PCs. NetBIOS provides the following functions:


Connection management

Error control

File sharing

Flow control

Full-duplex transmissions Name resolution Print sharing Session management

8 What is the function of the lmhosts file on a Windows platform device?

Answer: The lmhosts file enables local PCs to maintain a static list of all computers available in the network. The file typically contains the name and protocol addresses of all servers available in the domain. For large networks, the file might become too large and unusable, so a service called Windows Internet Naming Services (WINS) was developed to help network administrators who had to previously modify every Windows PC on the network via the lmhosts files. WINS allows NetBIOS Windows-based systems running TCP/IP to perform a name lookup for Windows resources, such as remote servers. An excellent white paper on WINS is available at www.lucent.com/livelink/09009403800049fc_White_paper.pdf.

9 Name and define the six NTFS permission types. Answer: The six NTFS permissions are as follows: R—Read only. The data or object can only be viewed. W—Write access. The data can be changed.

X—Execute. The data can be executed; for example, a directory can be viewed or program executed.

D—Delete. The data can be deleted.

P—Change permissions. The data access permissions can be altered. O—Take ownership. The ownership can be altered.

10 In Windows NT 4.0, what DOS command displays any local ARP entries? Answer: arp -a

11 Define the terms NetRanger Sensor and Director and their uses? Answer: NetRanger has two components:

NetRanger Sensor—High speed device that analyzes the content of data being transported across a network and determines whether that traffic is authorized or unauthorized. Unauthorized traffic includes ping requests from intruders. Traffic that is detected from unauthorized sources is sent directly to the NetRanger Director, and the intruder is removed from the network (optional and set by network administrator).

NetRanger Director—Provides real-time response to intruders in the network by blocking access to the network and terminating any active data sessions.

12 What LAN interfaces can be supported on a NetRanger Sensor?

Answer: NetRanger supports Ethernet (10 or 100 MB), Token Ring, and FDDI LAN interfaces.

13 What are the six phases completed by Cisco NetSonar? Answer: The six phases completed by NetSonar are as follows:

Phase I—NetSonar sends out ICMP echo requests (ping) to query hosts.

Phase II—All live hosts are collected and stored on particular port numbers.

Phase III—NetSonar identifies the hardware devices that might be vulnerable, such as routers, switches, firewalls, printers, desktops, and hosts that responded to ping requests. Operating systems and network services are documented and labeled as potential vulnerabilities.

Phase IV—Vulnerabilities are confirmed. This phase is intrusive.

Phase V—The data is charted for presentation. The data can also be charted graphically as line or 3D bar graphs.

Phase VI—The data is reported in a number of different formats, including a summary report, a short and detailed report, or a full technical report.

14 What is the meaning of the term Security Wheel?

Answer: Cisco defines a Security Wheel concept that outlines the critical steps to ensuring that data and networks are secured correctly. The Security Wheel revolves around a strong, well-defined corporate policy. The Security Wheel consists of the following:

Secure—After defining a strong corporate policy, you should secure your network by deploying the products necessary in the appropriate places to achieve your corporate security policy.

Monitor and respond—Continuously monitor using NetRanger tools at strategic points in the network to discover new vulnerabilities.

Test—On a regular and formal basis, test all network components.

Manage and improve—Analyze all the reports and metrics supplied by NetSonar, and cycle through the Security Wheel by going through all these steps continuously.

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