Layer 2 of the ISDN signaling protocol is Link Access Procedure on the D channel, also known as LAPD. LAPD is similar to High-Level Data Link Control (HDLC) and Link Access Procedure, Balanced (LAPB). As the expansion of the LAPD abbreviation indicates, it is used across the D channel to ensure that control and signaling information flows and is received properly. The LAPD frame format (see Figure 17-3) is very similar to that of HDLC and, like HDLC, LAPD uses supervisory, information, and unnumbered frames. The LAPD protocol is formally specified in ITU-T Q.920 and ITU-T Q.921.

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