Determine Protocols and Network Applications

When designing a network, you must determine which protocols will be used. Some protocols are proprietary and work on only specific equipment, and others are open standards and work on a variety of equipment. Here are the details of the various network protocols:

■ Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) represents a set of public standards that specify how packets of information are exchanged between computers over one or more networks. The TCP/IP suite of protocols has become the dominant standard for internetworking.

■ Internetwork Packet Exchange/Sequenced Packet Exchange (IPX/SPX) is the protocol suite employed originally by Novell Corporation's network operating system, NetWare. It delivers functions similar to those included in TCP/IP. Novell in its current releases supports the TCP/IP suite. A large installed base of NetWare networks continue to use IPX/SPX.

■ NetBIOS Extended User Interface (NetBEUI) is a protocol used primarily on small Windows NT networks. NetBEUI cannot be routed or used by routers to talk to each other on a large network. NetBEUI is suitable for small peer-to-peer networks involving a few computers directly connected to each other. It can be used in conjunction with another routable protocol such as TCP/IP. This gives the network administrator the advantages of the high performance of NetBEUI within the local network and the capability to communicate beyond the LAN over TCP/IP.

■ AppleTalk is a protocol suite to network Macintosh computers. It consists of a comprehensive set of protocols that span the seven layers of the OSI reference model. The AppleTalk protocol was designed to run over LocalTalk, which is the Apple LAN physical topology. It is also designed to run over major LAN types, notably Ethernet and Token Ring.

■ Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) governs how files such as text, graphics, sound, and video are exchanged on the World Wide Web (WWW). The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) developed the standards for HTTP.

■ File Transfer Protocol (FTP) provides services for transferring files. FTP allows multiple simultaneous connections to remote file systems.

■ Secure Shell (SSH) is used to securely connect to a remote computer.

■ Telnet is an application used to connect to a remote computer, but it lacks security features.

■ Post Office Protocol POP) is used to download e-mail from a remote mail server.

■ Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP) is also used to download e-mail from a remote mail server.

■ Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) is used to send e-mail to a remote e-mail server.

Consider the following when selecting protocols:

■ The TCP/IP suite of protocols is required for every device to connect to the Internet. This makes it a preferred protocol for networking.

■ NetBEUI is a small, fast protocol that is useful in low-security networks. NetBEUI performs well in a small network that is not connected to the Internet. It is easy to install and requires no configuration. However, NetBEUI can cause unnecessary traffic on a large network, so it is not a good choice if the network will grow.

■ IPX/SPX is a protocol that belongs to older versions of Novell Netware. Because of the growth of the Internet, newer versions of Novell Netware use TCP/IP instead of IPX/SPX.

Apple Macintosh networks have abandoned the AppleTalk protocol for the TCP/IP suite of protocols to ensure connectivity with other TCP/IP networks, most notably the Internet.

When the TCP/IP protocol stack is enabled, other protocols become available on specific ports, as shown in Table 15-1.

Table 15-1

Protocol Ports





Port 80

Transports web pages over a TCP/IP network


Port 443

Securely transports web pages over a TCP/IP network


Port 25

Sends e-mail over a TCP/IP network


Ports 23/22

Provides connections to computers over a TCP/IP network


Port 20 or 21

Transports files over a TCP/IP network


Port 53

Translates URLs to IP addresses


Port 67

Automates the assignment of IP addresses on a network

Worksheet 15.2.2: Protocols

In this worksheet, you identify the proper protocol to use in different network configurations. Refer to the worksheet in IT Essentials: PC Hardware and Software Labs and Study Guide, Third Edition. You may perform this worksheet now or wait until the end of the chapter.

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  • Jan-Erik
    What kind of protocol that provides connections to computers over a TCP/IP?
    3 years ago
  • yorda
    What protocol that provides connections to computers over a TCP/IP network?
    2 years ago
  • Jane
    Which protocol translates web to network?
    2 years ago
  • christina
    What protocol is used for large computer connections to the internet?
    2 years ago
  • cristina
    Which protocol allows multiple simultaneous connections to remote files systems?
    11 months ago
  • atte
    Which protocol translate URL to an IP Address?
    4 months ago
  • SAMI
    Which protocol translates the URL to an IP address?
    3 months ago

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