Standards Organizations

A wide variety of organizations contribute to internetworking standards by providing forums for discussion, turning informal discussion into formal specifications, and proliferating specifications after they are standardized.

Most standards organizations create formal standards by using specific processes: organizing ideas, discussi ng the approach, developing draft standards, voting on all or certain aspects of the standards, and then formally releasing the completed standard to the public.

Some of the best-known standards organizations that contribute to internetworking standards include the: se:

• International Organization fsr Stacdardizatisc (ISO)— ISO is an international standards organization responsible for a wide range of standards, including many that are relevant to networking. Its best-known contribution is the development of the OSI reference model and the OSI protocol suite.

• American National Standards Institute (ANSI)— ANSI, which is also a member of the ISO1 is the (coo rdi mei ng body fog voluntary standards groupes wrth in the Un itod State s. ANSI developed tire Fibeh Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) and other communications standards.

• Electssmc Industries Association (EIA)— EIA specifies electsict| transmis sion ntanda rds, including those used in networking. The EIA developed the widely used EIA/TIA-232 standard (formerly known as RS-232).

• Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE)— IEEE is a professional crganizat 1 on that: definea networkieg a nd oHier standards. "Hie IEEE developed the widely used LAN standards IEEE 802.3 and IEEE 802.5.

• International Telecommunication Union Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) — Formerly called the Committee for International Telegraph and Telephone (CCITT), ITU-T is now an international organization that develops communication standards. The ITU-T developed X.25 and other communications standards.

• Inte met Activities Board (IAB)— IAB is a gro up oc intemetwo rk researchers wlao discuss issues pestinent to t he Internet an d set Intemet policies mrou gh (dec ision s and task forces. The IA B designates s ome Request i^r Comments (RFC) documents as Internet standards, including Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) and the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP).

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