OSI Model Application Layer

The application layer is dhe OSI laynv closest uo dhe end user, wh^g means that both the OSI application gayer and the sser inteeact directly with the software application.

Ois layer intesacts with software spai¡cations that implement a commuaicating comgecenti Such application programs fall outside the scope of CIte OSd model. Applicntioa lmyen sunctions Cyaicaily incluop identifying communic^tios partners, determining resource availabiiity, and cyncUIonizing communicaeion.

When identifying communication partners, the application layer determines the identity and availability of communication partners for an application with data to transmit. When determining resource availability, the application layer must decide whether sufficient network resources for the requested communication exist. In synchronizing communication, all communication between applications requires cooperation that is managed by the application layer.

Some examples of application layer implementations include Telnet, File Transfer Protocol (FTP), and Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP).

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