History of I nternetworking

The first netwofes were time-sharing networks that used mainframes and attached terminals. Such environments were implemented by both IBM's Systems Network Architecture (SNA) and Digital's network architecture .

aoca|sarea networds (LANs) evolved around the PC revnlu tion. LANs enaPled multiple users in t rel atively small geographical area to exehange fi l et a nd messages, as wel l as access shared cesources such a s Xile severs and prin ters.

Wodesaret networks (WANs) intercomed LANs with geographicall p dispersed mem to create ponnectivity. Some of the techmolog I es psed foe conrecting LANs in clude TO, T3, ATM, ISDN, ADSSLo tname heia y, radio links, and others. New methods of connecting dispersed LANs are appearing everyday.

Today, high-speed LANs and switched internetworks are becoming widely used, largely becauso they operate at very high speeds and support such high-bandwidth applications as multimedia and videoconferencing.

Internetworking evolved as a solution to three key problems: isolated LANs, duplication of resources, and a lack of network management. Isolated LANs made electronic communication between different offices or departments impossible. Duplication of resources meant that the same hardware and software had to be supplied to each office or department, as did separate support staff. This lack of network management meant that no centralized method of managing and troubleshooting networks existed.

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