Characteristics of the OSI Layers

The seven layt rs of tit en O SI rtftrtnct mode; l can bt divided into tw o ca ttgorits: upper layers and lower layers.

Thtupper layers of the OSI model deal with application issues and generally art implemented only in software. The highest laaer, the application layer, is closest to thit end user. Both users end app lication layt; p proctsser inte ract with noftware applicatio ns that contain a communications component. Tire term upper layer is someHes used to refer to any layto above another layer in the OSI model.

Thd/ower layers oo the OSc model handle daoa transport ensues. The oPysical layttasd the d ata nnk layer gre ¡mplemtnted in hardwaot and software. The lowest layer, the physical layer, is closest to the physical network medium (the network cabling, for example) and is responsible for actuaNy placing information on the medium.

a l gurt 1 -3 illrstrafea the division between the upper and lower OSI layti-s.






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