Acronyms and Abbreviations

This element lists abbreviations, acronyms, and initialisms used in this book and in the internetworking industry. Many of these acronyms and other terms are also described in the Cisco Internetworking Terms and Acronyms resource, available at http www.cisco.com univercd cc td doc cisintwk ita . Authentication, authorization, and accounting Algebraic code-excited linear prediction Application and Content Networking System Adaptive Differential Pulse Code Modulation American National Standards...

Call Control and Transport Protocols

Voice communication over IP is a mix of call control signals and voice conversations coded and possibly compressed into IP packets. Both reliable (connection-oriented) and so-called unreliable (connectionless) transmissions are required for voice communication. Reliable transmission guarantees sequenced, error-free, flow-controlled transmission of packets. However, because reliable transport is connection-oriented, it can delay transmission and reduce throughput. TCP provides reliable transport...

WAN Transport Technologies

Dwdm Concentrator

Table 5-1 compares various WAN technologies, based on the main factors that influence technology selection. This table provides typical baseline characteristics to help you compare the performance and features offered by different technologies. Often, the offerings of the service provider limit your technology decisions. NOTE Some WAN technology characteristics differ between service providers Table 5-1 is meant to illustrate typical characteristics. Table 5-1 WAN Transport Technology...

Characterizing the Existing Network and Sites

High Level Network Diagram

The second step of the design methodology is characterizing the existing network and sites. Information collected and documented in this step is important, because the design might depend on the existing network's hardware, software, and link capacity. In many cases, a network already exists and the new design relies on restructuring and upgrading the existing network and sites. Even when a network does not exist, the sites that will be networked still should be examined. The following sections...

Identifying Customer Requirements

As the organization's network grows, so does the organization's dependency on the network and the applications that use it. Network-accessible organizational data and mission-critical applications that are essential to the organization's operations depend on network availability. To design a network that meets customers' needs, the organizational goals, organizational constraints, technical goals, and technical constraints must be identified. This section describes the process of determining...

Enterprise Branch Design

Insinkerator Hot Water Dispenser Parts

Requirements differ with the size of the branch offices. Consider to the following questions when How many branch locations need to be supported How many existing devices (including end users, hosts, and network infrastructure) are to be supported at each location The number of devices supported is limited by the physical number of ports available. How much growth is expected at each location, and therefore what level of scalability is required What are the high availability requirements at...

The Cisco Service Oriented Network Architecture

The extremely rich variety of application-level business solutions available today and the need to integrate these applications drives the need for a new network architecture. This section introduces the Cisco vision and framework that enable customers to build a more intelligent network infrastructure. the Cisco SONA architectural framework shifts the view of the network from a pure traffic transport-oriented view toward a service- and application-oriented view. Business Drivers for a New...

Case Study ACMC Hospital Modularity

Modularity Diagram Hospital

This case study is a continuation of the ACMC Hospital case study introduced in Chapter 2. Use the scenarios, information, and parameters provided at each task of the ongoing case study. If you encounter ambiguities, make reasonable assumptions and proceed. For all tasks, use the initial customer scenario and build on the solutions provided thus far. You can use any and all documentation, books, white papers, and so on. In each step, you act as a network design consultant. Make creative...

Functional Areas of the Cisco Enterprise Architecture

At the first layer of modularity in the Cisco Enterprise Architecture, the entire network is divided into functional components functional areas that contain network modules while still maintaining the hierarchical concept of the core-distribution-access layers within the network modules as needed. NOTE The access, distribution, and core layers can appear in any functional area or module of the Cisco Enterprise Architecture. The Cisco Enterprise Architecture comprises the following six major...

Enterprise Data Center Infrastructure

Cisco Multilayer Infrastructure

Figure 4-22 shows a typical large Enterprise Data Center infrastructure design. The design follows the Cisco multilayer infrastructure architecture, including core, aggregation, and access layers. NOTE In the Enterprise Data Center, the distribution layer is known as the aggregation layer. Figure 4-22 Sample Data Center Infrastructure Figure 4-22 Sample Data Center Infrastructure Layer 2 Clustering Blade Chassis Blade Chassis Mainframe Layer 3 and NIC Teaming with Pass-Through with Integrated...

Threat Reconnaissance Attacks

Reconnaissance attacks aim to discover information about a network, including the following Network services that are running A common technique to find active targets such as networking devices and user endpoints is port scanning, in which data is sent to various TCP and User Datagram Protocol (UDP) ports on a device and the response from the device is evaluated. To avoid reconnaissance attacks, a network should be tested to see how much it would reveal if attacked. The following are some...

Introduction to IP Telephony

IP telephony refers to cost-effective communication services, including voice, fax, and voice-messaging applications, transported via the packet-switched IP network rather than the circuit-switched PSTN. VoIP uses voice-enabled routers to convert voice into IP packets and route those packets between corresponding locations. Users do not often notice the implementation of VoIP in the network they use their traditional phones, connected to a PBX. However, the PBX is not connected to the PSTN or...

Enterprise Edge Modules

Internet Vpn Ecommerce

This section describes the components of the Enterprise Edge and explains the importance of each module. The Enterprise Edge infrastructure modules aggregate the connectivity from the various elements outside the campus using various services and WAN technologies as needed, typically provisioned from service providers and route the traffic into the Campus Core layer. The Enterprise Edge modules perform security functions when enterprise resources connect across public networks and the Internet....

Guidelines for Creating an Enterprise Network

When creating an Enterprise network, divide the network into appropriate areas, where the Enterprise Campus includes all devices and connections within the main Campus location the Enterprise Edge covers all communications with remote locations and the Internet from the perspective of the Enterprise Campus and the remote modules include the remote branches, teleworkers, and the remote data center. Define clear boundaries between each of the areas. NOTE Depending on the network, an enterprise...

Controller Redundancy Design

Recall that the AP discovery and join decision process first looks for a defined primary, secondary, or tertiary WLC (as specified by the controller's sysName). An AP's second choice is to join a WLC configured as a master controller. This is typically used only on initial AP deployment to find an initial controller, at which time the AP should be configured with its deterministic controllers. The last choice in the AP join decision algorithm is to try to dynamically choose a WLC based on the...

Building Distribution Layer Design Considerations

The Building Distribution layer aggregates the Building Access layer, segments workgroups, and isolates segments from failures and broadcast storms. This layer implements many policies based on access lists and QoS settings. The Building Distribution layer can protect the Campus Core network from any impact of Building Access layer problems by implementing all the organization's policies. When implementing the Building Distribution layer, consider the following questions How many devices will...

Enterprise Campus Modules

This section introduces the Enterprise Campus functional area and describes the purpose of each module therein. It also discusses connections with other modules. An enterprise campus site is a large site that is often the corporate headquarters or a major office. Regional offices, SOHOs, and mobile workers might have to connect to the central campus for data and information. As illustrated in Figure 3-11, the Enterprise Campus functional area includes the Campus Infrastructure module and,...

Case Study ACMC Hospital Network Upgrade

This case study analyzes the network infrastructure of Acme County Medical Center (ACMC) Hospital, a fictitious small county hospital in the United States. This same case study is used throughout the remainder of the book so that you can continue to evaluate your understanding of the concepts presented. Use the scenarios, information, and parameters provided at each task of the ongoing case study. If you encounter ambiguities, make reasonable assumptions and proceed. For all tasks, use the...

Decision Tables in Network Design

Decision tables are used for making systematic decisions when there are multiple solutions or options to a network issue or problem. Decision tables facilitate the selection of the most appropriate option from many possibilities and can be helpful for justifying why a certain solution was chosen. Options are usually selected based on the highest level of compliance with given requirements. Basic guidelines for creating a network design decision table include the following Step 1 Determine the...