Show interfaces fddi number

Following is an example of the output produced by this command that is detailed in Table 9-3: Router# show interfaces fddi 0

Fddi0 is up, line protocol is up

Hardware is cBus Fddi, address is 0000.0c06.8de8 (bia 0000.0c06.8de8) Internet address is 131.108.33.9, subnet mask is 255.255.255.0 MTU 4470 bytes, BW 100000 Kbit, DLY 100 usec, rely 255/255, load 1/255

Encapsulation SNAP, loopback not set, keepalive not set ARP type: SNAP, ARP Timeout 4:00:00

Phy-A state is active, neighbor is B, cmt signal bits 008/20C, status ILS

Phy-B state is connect, neighbor is unk, cmt signal bits 20C/000, status QLS

ECM is insert, CFM is c_wrap_a, RMT is ring_op token rotation 5000 usec, ring operational 1d01

Upstream neighbor 0000.0c06.8b7d, downstream neighbor 0000.0c06.8b7d Last input 0:00:08, output 0:00:08, output hang never

Last clearing of "show interface" counters never Output queue 0/40, 0 drops; input queue 0/75, 0 drops Five minute input rate 5000 bits/sec, 1 packets/sec Five minute output rate 76000 bits/sec, 51 packets/sec 852914 packets input, 205752094 bytes, 0 no buffer Received 126752 broadcasts, 0 runts, 0 giants

0 input errors, 0 CRC, 0 frame, 0 overrun, 0 ignored, 0 abort 8213126 packets output, 616453062 bytes, 0 underruns 0 output errors, 0 collisions, 4 interface resets, 0 restarts 5 transitions, 0 traces

Table 9-3. show interfaces fddi Field Description

Field

Description

FDDI is up | down | administratively down

This gives the interface processor unit number and tells whether the interface hardware is currently active and can transmit and receive, or if it has been taken down by an administrator.

"Disabled" indicates that the router has received more than 5,000 errors in a keepalive interval, which is 10 seconds by default.

line protocol is {up | down | administratively down}

This indicates whether the software processes that handle the line protocol believe that the interface is usable (that is, whether keepalives are successful).

Hardware

This provides the hardware type, followed by the hardware (MAC) address.

Internet address

This lists the Internet address followed by subnet mask.

MTU

This lists the maximum transmission unit of the interface.

BW

This lists the bandwidth of the interface in kilobits per second.

Note: The bandwidth command sets an informational-only parameter for higher-level protocols. For example, IGRP uses this value in determining the metrics.

DLY

This is the delay of the interface in microseconds.

rely

This is the reliability of the interface as a fraction of 255 (255/255 is 100 percent reliability), calculated as an exponential average over 5 minutes.

load

This is the load on the interface as a fraction of 255 (255/255 is completely saturated), calculated as an exponential average over 5 minutes.

Encapsulation

This is the encapsulation method assigned to the interface.

loopback

This indicates whether loopback is set.

keepalive

This indicates whether keepalives are set.

ARP type:

This is the type of Address Resolution Protocol that is assigned.

Phy- {A | B}

This lists the state that the Physical A or Physical B connection is in. This state can be off, active, trace, connect, next, signal, join, verify, or break.

neighbor

This is the state of the neighbor:

• A— Indicates that the CMT process has established a connection with its neighbor. The bits that are received during the CMT signaling process indicate that the neighbor is a Physical A type dual attachment station (DAS) or concentrator that attaches to the primary ring IN and the secondary ring OUT when attaching to the dual ring.

CMT is defined as connection management. CMT is the FDDI process that handles the transition of the ring through its various states (off, active, connect,

and so on), as defined by the ANSI X3T9.5 specification.

• S— Indicates that the CMT process has established a connection with its neighbor. The bits that are received during the CMT signaling process indicate that the neighbor is one Physical type in a single attachment station (SAS).

• B— Indicates that the CMT process has established a connection with its neighbor. The bits that are received during the CMT signaling process indicate that the neighbor is a Physical B dual attachment station or concentrator that attaches to the secondary ring IN and the primary ring OUT when attaching to the dual ring.

• unk— Indicates that the network server has not completed the CMT process, and as a result, does not know about its neighbor.

cmt signal bits

This shows the transmitted/received CMT bits. The transmitted bits are 0x008 for a Physical A type and 0x20C for a Physical B type. The number after the slash (/) is the received signal bits. If the connection is not active, the received bits are zero (0).

status

The status value displayed is the actual status on the fiber. The FDDI standard defines the following values:

• LSU— Line state unknown is the criteria for entering or remaining in any other line state that has not been met.

• NLS— Noise line state is entered upon the occurrence of 16 potential noise events without satisfying the criteria for entry into another line state.

• MLS— Master line state is entered upon the reception of eight or nine consecutive HQ or QH symbol pairs.

• ILS— Idle line state is entered upon receipt of four or five idle symbols.

• HLS— Halt line state is entered upon the receipt of 16 or 17 consecutive H symbols.

• QLS— Quiet line state is entered upon the receipt of 16 or 17 consecutive Q symbols or when carrier-detect goes low.

• ALS— Active line state is entered upon receipt of a JK symbol pair when carrier-detect is high.

• OVUF— This is elasticity buffer overflow/underflow. The normal states for a connected Physical type are ILS or ALS. A report that displays the QLS status indicates that the fiber is disconnected from Physical B, that it is not connected to another Physical type, or that the other station is not running.

Off

This indicates that the CMT is not running on the Physical sublayer. The state is off if the interface has been shut down or if the cmt disconnect command has been issued for Physical A or Physical B.

Brk

Break state is the entry point in the start of a physical connection management (PCM) connection.

Tra

Trace state localizes a stuck beacon condition.

Con

Connect state is used to synchronize the ends of the connection for the signaling sequence.

Nxt

Next state separates the signaling performed in the signal state and transmits protocol data units (PDUs) while MAC Local Loop is performed.

Sig

Signal state is entered from the next state when a bit is ready to be transmitted.

Join

Join state is the first of three states in a unique sequence of transmitted symbol streams that are received as line states—the halt line state, master line state,

and idle line state, or HLS-MLS-ILS—that leads to an active connection.

Vfy

Verify state is the second state in the path to the active state and is reached by a connection that is synchronized.

Act

Active state indicates that the CMT process has established communications with its physical neighbor.

The transition states are defined in the X3T9.5 specification. (Refer to the X3T9.5 specification for details about these states.)

ECM

ECM is the SMT entity coordination management, which overlooks the operation of CFM and PCM. The ECM state can be one of the following:

• out— The router is isolated from the network.

• in— The router is actively connected to the network. This is the normal state for a connected router.

• trace— The router is trying to localize a stuck beacon condition.

• leave— The router is allowing time for all the connections to break before leaving the network.

• path_test— The router is testing its internal paths.

• insert— The router is allowing time for the optical bypass to insert.

• check— The router is making sure optical bypasses are switched correctly.

• deinsert— The router is allowing time for the optical bypass to deinsert.

CFM

This contains information about the current state of the MAC connection. The Configuration Management (CFM) state can be one of the following:

• isolated— The MAC is not attached to a Physical type.

• wrap_a— The MAC is attached to Physical A. Data is received on Physical A and transmitted on Physical A.

• wrap_b— The MAC is attached to Physical B. Data is received on Physical B and transmitted on Physical B.

• wrap_s— The MAC is attached to Physical S. Data is received on Physical S and transmitted on Physical S. This is the normal mode for a single attachment stations (SAS).

• thru— The MAC is attached to Physical A and B. Data is received on Physical A and transmitted on Physical B. This is the normal mode for a DAS with one MAC. The ring has been operational for 1 minute and 42 seconds.

RMT

RMT (Ring Management) is the SMT MAC-related state machine.

The RMT state can be one of the following:

• isolated— The MAC is not trying to participate in the ring. This is the initial state.

• non_op— The MAC is participating in ring recovery and the ring is not operational.

• ring_op— The MAC is participating in an operational ring. This is the normal state while the MAC is connected to the ring.

• detect— The ring has been non-operational for longer than normal. Duplicate address conditions are being checked.

• non_op_dup— Indications have been received that the address of the MAC is a duplicate of another MAC on the ring. Ring is not operational.

• ring_op_dup— Indications have been received that the address of the MAC is a duplicate of another MAC on the ring. The ring is operational in this state.

• directed— The MAC is sending beacon frames notifying the ring of the stuck condition.

• trace— A trace has been initiated by this MAC, and the RMT state machine is waiting for its completion before starting an internal path test.

token rotation

Token rotation value is the default or configured rotation value as determined by the fddi token-rotation-time command. All stations on the ring use this value. The default is 5,000 microseconds.

ring operational

When the ring is operational, the displayed value is the negotiated token rotation time of all stations on the ring.

Operational times are displayed by the number of hours:minutes:seconds that the ring has been up. If the ring is not operational, the message "ring not operational" is displayed.

Upstream | downstream neighbor

This displays the canonical MAC address of outgoing upstream and downstream neighbors. If the address is unknown, the value is the FDDI unknown address (0x00 00 f8 00 00 00).

Last input

This is the number of hours, minutes, and seconds since the last packet was successfully received by an interface. Last input is useful for knowing when a dead interface failed.

output

This is the number of hours, minutes, and seconds since the last packet was successfully transmitted by an interface.

output hang

This is the number of hours, minutes, and seconds (or never) since the interface was last

reset because of a transmission that took too long.

When the number of hours in any of the "last" fields exceeds 24 hours, the number of days and hours is printed. If that field overflows, asterisks are printed.

Last clearing

This is the time at which the counters that measure cumulative statistics (such as number of bytes transmitted and received) shown in this report were last reset to zero. Note that variables that might affect routing (for example, load and reliability) are not cleared when the counters are cleared.

Asterisks (***) indicate that the elapsed time is too large to be displayed.

0:00:00 indicates that the counters were cleared more than 2 31 ms (and less than 2 32 ms) ago.

Output queue, input queue, drops

This is the number of packets in output and input queues. Each number is followed by a slash, the maximum size of the queue, and the number of packets dropped due to a full queue.

Five-minute input rate Five-minute output rate

This is the average number of bits and packets transmitted per second in the past 5 minutes.

The five-minute input and output rates should be used only as an approximation of traffic per second during a given 5-minute period.

These rates are exponentially weighted averages with a time constant of 5 minutes. A period of four time constants must pass before the average is within 2% of the instantaneous rate of a uniform stream of traffic over that period.

packets input

This is the total number of error-free packets received by the system.

bytes

This is the total number of bytes, including data and MAC encapsulation, in the error-free packets received by the system.

no buffer

This is the number of received packets discarded because the main system has no buffer space. Compare with ignored count.

LAN broadcast storms and bursts of noise on serial lines are often responsible for no input buffer events.

broadcasts

This is the total number of broadcast or multicast packets received by the interface.

runts

This is the number of packets discarded because they are smaller than the medium's minimum packet size.

giants

This is the number of packets discarded because they exceed the medium's maximum packet size.

CRC

This is the cyclic redundancy checksum that is generated by the originating LAN station or far-end device that does not match the checksum calculated from the data received.

On a LAN, this usually indicates noise or transmission problems on the LAN interface or the LAN bus. A high number of CRCs is usually the result of collisions or a station transmitting bad data. Because collisions do not occur on a FDDI LAN during normal operation, and FDDI does not support early token release, CRC errors are usually caused by faulty equipment or stations that transmit bad data.

frame

This is the number of packets received incorrectly that have a CRC error and a noninteger number of octets.

On a FDDI LAN, this can be the result of a failing fiber (cracks) or a hardware malfunction.

overrun

This is the number of times that the serial receiver hardware was unable to hand received data to a hardware buffer because the input rate exceeded the receiver's ability to handle the data.

ignored

This is the number of received packets ignored by the interface because the interface hardware ran low on internal buffers. These buffers are different from the system buffers mentioned previously in the buffer description.

Broadcast storms and bursts of noise can cause the ignored count to be increased.

packets output

This is the total number of messages transmitted by the system.

bytes

This is the total number of bytes, including data and MAC encapsulation, transmitted by the system.

underruns

This is the number of transmit aborts (when the router cannot feed the transmitter fast enough).

output errors

This is the sum of all errors that prevented the final transmission of datagrams out of the interface being examined. Note that this might not balance with the sum of the enumerated output errors. Some datagrams can have more than one error, and others can have errors that do not fall into any of the specifically tabulated categories.

collisions

This statistic is always zero because a FDDI ring cannot have collisions.

interface resets

This is the number of times that an interface has been reset. The interface can be reset by the administrator or automatically when an internal error occurs.

restarts

This should always be zero for FDDI interfaces.

transitions

This is the number of times that the ring made a transition from ring operational to ring non-operational, or vice versa. A large number of transitions indicates a problem with the ring or the interface.

traces

Trace count applies to FCI, FCIT, and FIP. Traces indicates the number of times that this interface started a trace.

claims

This pertains to FCIT and FIP only. Claims indicates the number of times that this interface has been in claim state.

beacons

This pertains to FCIT and FIP only. It indicates the number of times that the interface has been in beacon state.

Protocol

This is the protocol that is operating on the interface.

Pkts In

This is the number of packets received for that protocol.

Chars In

This is the number of characters received for that protocol.

Pkts Out

This is the number of packets transmitted for that protocol.

Chars Out

This is the number of characters transmitted for that protocol.

Some important "early warning" information can be obtained by the output displayed from the show interface fddi port command.

The following output is used to demonstrate these early warning signs of potential network issues:

FddiO is up, line protocol is up

Hardware is cBus Fddi, address is 0000.0c06.8de8 (bia 0000.0c06.8de8) Internet address is 131.108.33.9, subnet mask is 255.255.255.0 MTU 4470 bytes, BW 100000 Kbit, DLY 100 usec, rely 255/255, load 1/255

Encapsulation SNAP, loopback not set, keepalive not set ARP type: SNAP, ARP Timeout 4:00:00

Phy-A state is active, neighbor is B, cmt signal bits 008/20C, status ILS

Phy-B state is connect, neighbor is unk, cmt signal bits 20C/000, status QLS

ECM is insert, CFM is c_wrap_a, RMT is ring_op token rotation 5000 usec, ring operational 1d01

Upstream neighbor 0000.0c06.8b7d, downstream neighbor 0000.0c06.8b7d Last input 0:00:08, output 0:00:08, output hang never Last clearing of "show interface" counters never Output queue 0/40, 0 drops; input queue 0/75, 0 drops Five minute input rate 5000 bits/sec, 1 packets/sec Five minute output rate 76000 bits/sec, 51 packets/sec 852914 packets input, 205752094 bytes, 0 no buffer Received 126752 broadcasts, 0 runts, 0 giants

0 input errors, 124823 CRC, 0 frame, 0 overrun, 0 ignored, 0 abort 8213126 packets output, 616453062 bytes, 0 underruns 0 output errors, 0 collisions, 4 interface resets, 0 restarts 5 transitions, 0 traces

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