Most fault detection, isolation, and troubleshooting is accomplished in the Network Operations Center (NOC). Technicians are dispatched when issues have been analyzed. Several company locations might be involved in the overall network, spanning thousands of miles around the globe. Sometimes, network service providers or enterprise network customers will implement follow-the-sun support. Follow-the-sun support occurs when each NOC takes ownership of the network at the beginning of the day and hands it off to the next NOC in line at the end of the day, but the beginning of the day for the next NOC.
Four levels of activity occur within any NOC:
• Inactive— No monitoring is being done. If an alarm is received in this area, it is generally ignored.
• Reactive— NOC engineers react to a problem after it has occurred, although no monitoring has been applied.
• Interactive— Monitoring of components occurs, but troubleshooting is interactive to isolate and eliminate the side effect alarms and to isolate to a root cause.
• Proactive— Monitoring of components occurs and the system provides a root cause alarm for the problem at hand. Automatic restore processes are in place where possible to minimize downtime.
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