Computer Repair Mastery Course

Advance Technical Repair of Laptops Motherboard

With this online course you will learn all that there is to learn about laptops and how to repair them. You will learn how to take a laptop apart, advanced motherboard repair, how to hack a password, and the tools and test equipment that you'll need. You will also learn the best secrets to setting up your own laptop repair business, how to get the cheapest parts, how to refurbish broken laptops, how to get a steady stream of repeated business, and the best tip to making money in the laptop business that you will find anywhere. You don't have to be an electronics or computer expert now; just take the knowledge that you already have and we'll build on that so that you will learn the best tips and tricks that will help you build the best laptop business possible. Continue reading...

Advance Technical Repair of Laptops Motherboard Summary


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Motherboard Power Connections

Just like other components, motherboards require power to operate. The Advanced Technology Extended (ATX) main power connector has either 20 or 24 pins. The power supply may also have a four-pin or six-pin auxiliary (AUX) power connector that connects to the motherboard. A 20-pin connector will work in a motherboard with a 24-pin socket. Follow these steps for motherboard power cable installation How To Ol Step 1. Align the 20-pin ATX power connector to the socket on the motherboard. Step 3. Align the four-pin AUX power connector to the socket on the motherboard.

Identify the Names Purposes and Characteristics of Motherboards

The motherboard is the main printed circuit board. It contains the buses, or electrical pathways, found in a computer. These buses allow data to travel between the various components that comprise a computer. A motherboard is also known as the system board, backplane, or main board. Figure 1-4 shows a variety of motherboards. The motherboard accommodates the central processing unit (CPU), RAM, expansion slots, heat sink fan assembly, BIOS chip, chip set, and the embedded wires that interconnect the motherboard components. Sockets, internal and external connectors, and various ports are also placed on the motherboard. Figure 1-4 Motherboards The form factor of motherboards pertains to the board's size and shape. It also describes the physical layout of the different components and devices on the motherboard. Motherboards have various form factors An important set of components on the motherboard is the chip set. The chip set is composed of various integrated circuits attached to the...

Install the Motherboard

The motherboard is now ready to install in the computer case. Plastic and metal standoffs are used to mount the motherboard and to prevent it from touching the metal portions of the case. You should install only the standoffs that align with the holes in the motherboard. Installing any additional standoffs may prevent the motherboard from being seated properly in the computer case. Follow these steps for motherboard installation Step 1. Install standoffs in the computer case. Step 2. Align the I O connectors on the back of the motherboard with the openings in the back of the case. Step 3. Align the screw holes of the motherboard with the standoffs. Step 4. Insert all the motherboard screws. Step 5. Tighten all the motherboard screws. Virtual Desktop Activity Motherboard Complete the motherboard assembly in the Virtual Desktop motherboard layer. Refer to the Virtual Desktop software on the CD that comes with this book. Lab 3.3.3 Install the Motherboard In this lab you install the CPU,...

Upgrade and Configure a Motherboard

To upgrade or replace a motherboard, you might have to replace several other components, such as the CPU, heat sink fan assembly, and RAM. Figure 11-14 shows an example of an old motherboard and a replacement new motherboard. Figure 11-14 Motherboards A new motherboard must fit into the old computer case. The power supply must also be compatible with the new motherboard and be able to support all new computer components. You should begin the upgrade by moving the CPU and heat sink fan assembly to the new motherboard. These are much easier to work with when they are outside of the case. You should work on an antistatic mat and wear a wrist strap to avoid damaging the CPU. Remember to use thermal compound between the CPU and the heat sink. If the new motherboard requires different RAM, install it at this time. When it is time to remove and replace the old motherboard, remove the cables from the motherboard that attach to the case LEDs and buttons. They can have the same labels, but...

Select a Motherboard

New motherboards, as shown in Figure 11-5, often have new features or standards that can be incompatible with older components. When you select a replacement mother-board, make sure that it supports the CPU, RAM, video adapter, and other adapter cards. The socket and chipset on the motherboard must be compatible with the CPU. The motherboard must also accommodate the existing heat sink fan assembly. The existing power supply must have connections that fit the new motherboard. Pay particular attention to the number and type of expansion slots. Determine whether they match the existing adapter cards. For example, the new motherboard might lack an Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP) connector for an existing video adapter. The motherboard might have PCI Express (PCIe) expansion slots that the existing adapter cards cannot use. Finally, the new motherboard must physically fit into the current computer case. Figure 11-5 Motherboard

The Ethernet Physical Layers

Because Ethernet devices implement only the bottom two layers of the OSI protocol stack, they are typically implemented as network interface cards (NICs) that plug into the host device's motherboard. The different NICs are identified by a three-part product name that is based on the physical layer att rib utes.

Install the Wireless NIC

A wireless NIC, as shown in Figure 3-7, enables a computer to connect to a wireless network. Wireless NICs use PCI and PCIe expansion slots on the motherboard. Some wireless NICs are installed externally with a USB connector. Step 1. Align the wireless NIC to the appropriate expansion slot on the motherboard.

Physical Interconnectivity

A router has a minimum of two, and frequently many more, physical I O ports. I O ports, or interfaces as they are better known, are used to physically connect network transmission facilities to a router. Each port is connected to a circuit board that is attached to the router's motherboard. Thus, it is the motherboard that actually provides the interconnectivity among multiple networks.

Table 92 nameif Command and Required Fields

The hardware name for the network interface that specifies the interface's slot location on the PIX Firewall motherboard. Interface boards are numbered from the leftmost slot nearest the power supply as slot 0. The internal network interface must be in slot 1. The lowest security_level external interface board is in slot 0, and the next lowest security_level external interface board is in slot 2.

The Role of Digital Signal Processors

Some Cisco routers could also have DSPs embedded on the motherboard or added in riser cards. Above all, it is important for you to add the necessary number of DSPs to your router to support the number of active voice call, conferencing, and transcoding (converting one codec to another) sessions you plan to support. You can add DSP chips either directly to a router's motherboard (if the router supports this) or to the network modules you add to the router to support voice cards. Cisco bundles these DSP chips into packet voice DSP modules (PVDM), which resemble the old memory SIMMs (see image in Figure 7.3). Based on the DSP requirements given by the Cisco DSP calculator, you can then purchase one or more of the following PVDMs

The Difficulties of Secure Networking

Fifth, computers are complex systems. It is an amazing feat of engineering that computers work at all, let alone are relatively secure. Consider the components you have in a general-purpose PC CPU, motherboard, network card, video card, hard drive, operating system (OS), and applications. In many computers, each one of these elements is made by a separate company. Recall from Chapter 1, Network Security Axioms, that complexity is the enemy of security. By connecting several of these components into an overall network (which starts the vendor options over again), you can create an exceedingly complex environment.

Check Your Understanding

As an on-site technician, you have been given the assignment of replacing a damaged motherboard on a customer's computer. You will need to transport the motherboard to the residence. Which is the best method to carry the motherboard a. Wrap the motherboard in a piece of lint-free cloth. b. Carry the motherboard in an antistatic bag. c. Carry the motherboard in a metal-lined plastic box. d. Carry the motherboard in a paper bag.

Identify the Names Purposes and Characteristics of Internal Cables

Drives require both a power cable and a data cable. A power supply has a SATA power connector for SATA drives, a Molex power connector for PATA drives, and a Berg four-pin connector for floppy drives. The buttons and the LED lights on the front of the case connect to the motherboard with the front panel cables. Figure 1-10 shows some examples of internal PC cables. Data cables connect drives to the drive controller, which is located on an adapter card or the motherboard. Some common types of data cables are as follows

Identify the Names Purposes and Characteristics of CPUs

The central processing unit (CPU) is considered the computer's brain. It is sometimes called the processor. Most calculations take place in the CPU. In terms of computing power, the CPU is the most important element of a computer system. CPUs come in different form factors, each style requiring a particular slot or socket on the motherboard. Common CPU manufacturers include Intel and AMD. The CPU socket or slot is the connector that is the interface between the motherboard and the processor. Most CPU sockets and processors in use today are built around the pin grid array (PGA) architecture, in which the pins on the underside of the processor are inserted into the socket, usually with zero insertion force (ZIF). ZIF refers to the amount of force needed to install a CPU into the motherboard socket or slot. Slot-based processors are cartridge-shaped and fit into a slot that looks similar to an expansion slot. Tables 1-2 through 1-8 list common CPU socket specifications. Single-core CPU....

Concept Questions

Answer the following questions about installing the motherboard What is used to physically separate the motherboard so that metal contacts do not make contact with the metal case What are the basic steps when installing a motherboard Step 1. Install the standoff onto the motherboard. Only install standoffs that align with the holes in the motherboard because extra standoffs may interfere with the seating of the motherboard in the computer case. Step 2. Carefully place the motherboard inside the computer case. Step 3. Align the I O connectors on the back of the motherboard with the holes in the I O shield on the back of the computer case. Use gentle pressure to compress the contacts of the motherboard on the I O shield. Step 4. When the motherboard is properly in place, align the screw holes of the motherboard with the case. Step 5. Insert all the screws and align the motherboard. Step 6. After the motherboard is in place, tighten the screws. Never overtighten the screws, because you...

Select the CPU and Heat Sink Fan Assembly

Before you buy a CPU, make sure that it is compatible with the existing motherboard Manufacturers' websites are a good resource to investigate the compatibility between CPUs and other devices. When upgrading the CPU, make sure that the correct voltage is maintained. A voltage regulator module (VRM) is integrated into the motherboard. The voltage setting for the CPU can be configured with jumpers or switches located on the motherboard. Figure 11-6 shows two similar CPUs that use different sockets.

Small Computer System Interface SCSI cable

Southbridge A chip that implements the slower capabilities of the motherboard. It is connected to the CPU through the northbridge chip. Also called the Input Output (I O) Controller Hub (ICH). standoff A barrier screw used to physically separate parts in particular, the system board from the case.

Compare and Contrast Desktop and Laptop Components

Desktop components tend to be standardized. They usually meet universal form factors, meaning that desktops made by different manufacturers can often use the same components. A common desktop form factor is Advanced Technology Extended (ATX). When purchasing upgrade parts for this form factor, you will look for ATX motherboards and ATX power supplies. This standard should guarantee that the motherboard and power supply will work in the ATX case. A DVD CD-RW drive is another example of a desktop component that has a standard form factor. Compare and contrast desktop and laptop motherboards

Installing a Processor

Now that you can identify the various parts of a computer, can follow ESD prevention procedures, and are familiar with the safety issues, you are ready to learn the various steps to build a PC. Because the processor is considered the brain of the computer, you will eventually need to install the processor and its thermal solution onto the motherboard. When installing a processor, the chip must be oriented properly on the motherboard. If a processor is off by 90 degrees or inserted backward, it may damage the processor or the motherboard. Pin A1 on the processor is often used to identify one corner of the processor and to help you properly insert the processor into the motherboard. These are designated by a slightly clipped corner, a small dot or triangle on one corner, or a missing pin on one or two of its corners.

Brand and Model Number FeaturesCost

List three components that must have the same or compatible form factor Case, power supply, motherboard List three components that must conform to the same socket type Motherboard, CPU, heat sink fan List two components that must utilize the same front side bus speed Motherboard, CPU Motherboard What determines compatibility between a motherboard and a video card Slot type

Describe How to Configure a NIC and a Modem

A network interface card (NIC) is required to connect to the Internet. The NIC may come preinstalled, or you may have to purchase one. In rare cases, you may need to update the NIC drivei. You can use the driver disc that comes with the motherboard or adapter card, or you can supply a driver that you downloaded from the manufacturer.

Identify the Names Purposes and Characteristics of Cases and Power Supplies

The computer case provides protection and support for the computer's internal components. All computers need a power supply to convert alternating-current (AC) power from the wall socket into direct-current (DC) power. The size and shape of the computer case is usually determined by the motherboard and other internal components.

Describe Repairs for Laptops and Portable Devices

When a laptop or portable device begins to malfunction, what should you do The customer can replace some parts of a laptop, typically called Customer-Replaceable Units (CRU). CRUs include such components as the laptop battery and additional RAM. Parts that the customer should not replace are called Field-Replaceable Units (FRU). FRUs include such components as the laptop motherboard, LCD display, and keyboard. In many cases, the device may need to be returned to the place of purchase, a certified service center, or even the manufacturer.

Install a CPU and a Heat Sink Fan Assembly

Heat Sink Assembly Motherboard

The central processing unit (CPU) and the heat sink fan assembly may be installed on the motherboard before the motherboard is placed in the computer case. Figure 3-2 shows a close-up view of the CPU and the motherboard. The CPU and motherboard are sensitive to electrostatic discharge. When handling a CPU and motherboard, make sure that you place them on a grounded antistatic mat. You should wear an antistatic wrist strap while working with these components. Figure 3-2 CPU and Motherboard Figure 3-2 CPU and Motherboard The CPU is secured to the socket on the motherboard with a locking assembly. CPU sockets today are zero insertion force (ZIF) sockets. You should be familiar with the locking assembly before attempting to install a CPU into the socket on the motherboard. Figure 3-4 Heat Sink Fan Assembly on the Motherboard Figure 3-4 Heat Sink Fan Assembly on the Motherboard Step 5. Align the heat sink fan assembly retainers with the holes on the motherboard. Step 8. Connect the heat...

Install the Video Adapter Card

A video adapter card, shown in Figure 3-8, is the interface between a computer and a display monitor. An upgraded video adapter card can provide better graphics capabilities for games and graphic programs. Video adapter cards use PCI, AGP, and PCIe expansion slots on the motherboard. How To Ol Step 1. Align the video adapter card to the appropriate expansion slot on the motherboard.

Computer Based Routers

Traditional, standalone routers are hardware specific You purchase a specialized physical platform, including a chassis, sheet metal, power supply, CPU, memory, I O ports, and a motherboard together with the routing engine. These components are described in Routers and WANs.

Types of Drive Interfaces

Hard drives and optical drives are manufactured with different interfaces that are used to connect the drive to the computer. When you install a storage drive in a computer, the connection interface on the drive must be the same as the controller on the motherboard. Some common drive interfaces are as follows

Worksheet 1137 Research Computer Components

Instructor Note All the components a student chooses must be compatible with the components provided. (For example, the selected CPU and RAM must work in the provided motherboard.) All the components a student chooses must have improved performance or additional capabilities. The answers provided are examples. Student answers may vary.

Upgrade and Configure BIOS

Motherboard manufacturers periodically release updates for their basic input output system (BIOS). The release notes describe the upgrade to the product, compatibility improvements, and the known bugs that have been addressed. Some newer devices only operate properly with an updated BIOS. To view the current BIOS settings on your computer, you must enter the BIOS setup program as shown in Figure 11-17. Press the setup sequence keys while the computer is performing the POST. Depending on the computer, the setup key might be F1, F2, or Delete. Watch the text on the screen or consult the motherboard manual to find the setup key or combination of keys. Although it is still common to flash the BIOS through a command prompt, several motherboard manufacturers provide software on their websites that allow a user to flash the BIOS from within Windows. The procedure varies from manufacturer to manufacturer.

Select a Case and Power Supply

The computer case holds the power supply, motherboard, memory, and other components, as shown in Figure 11-4. When purchasing a new computer case and power supply separately, you should ensure that all the components will fit into the new case and that the power supply is powerful enough to operate all the components. Many times a case comes with a power supply inside. You still need to verify that the power supply provides enough power to operate all the components that will be installed in the case.

Describe the Installation of a Modem

An internal modem plugs into an expansion slot on the motherboard. To configure a modem, jumpers may have to be set to select the IRQ and I O addresses. No configuration is needed for a plug-and-play modem, which can only be installed on a motherboard that supports plug and play. A modem using a serial port that is not yet in use must be configured. Additionally, the software drivers that come with the modem must be installed for the modem to work properly. Drivers for modems are installed the same way drivers are installed for NICs.

Branch Network Architecture

Cisco integrates security, switching, network analysis, content caching, and converged voice video services into a series of products known as integrated services routers (ISRs). Aside from filling the role of traditional router platforms, these devices are multitalented and designed for performance. ISRs are affectionately known as branch-in-a-box routers. They very effectively stand up to that name. Key individual services, such as voice and security, are built into the motherboard as standard components. Additional modules provide voice messaging and content services that easily install into the same chassis.

Inspect Computer Components

The video adapter can sometimes become unseated because the large monitor cable can put pressure on it, or it is mishandled when someone is tightening the retainer screws. If a video adapter is used in an expansion slot, the integrated video adapter from the motherboard is likely to be disabled. If you connect a monitor to it in error, the computer appears not to work. The video adapter can sometimes become unseated because the large monitor cable can put pressure on it, or it is mishandled when someone is tightening the retainer screws. If a video adapter is used in an expansion slot, the integrated video adapter from the motherboard is likely to be disabled. If you connect a monitor to it in error, the computer appears not to work.

Physical Security

One good method of preventing casual hackers from gaining access to the console port is to physically disconnect the console port from the router's motherboard. This requires the router case to be opened. This is really the equivalent of hiding a door key under the doormat it will not stop any but the most casual hacker. Anyone opening the case to the router will quickly see that the console port is disconnected. However, this method is better than not securing

Overview of Modems

There are two different types of basic modems. The first is an analog modem, which is the type of modem installed on a user's computer. These can be internal (hardware card installed on a system, motherboard) or external (independent, free-standing hardware). Examples of these modems are 3Com US Robotics Sportster, Lucent WinModems, and Best Data V.90 modems. These modems demodulate the signals coming from an analog line and pass that data off to your computer. They also modulate the data into analog signals and send it down the analog line to your provider.

Rommon Security

On the 3640 and 3660, in an emergency you can remove the NVRAM and reseat it. The NVRAM is implemented using battery backed-up SRAM. Removing the SRAM will erase the contents of NVRAM, which contains the no service password-recovery configuration. The NVRAM chip is located on the motherboard of the 3640 next to the PCMCIA connector. The silkscreen on the motherboard will identify it as NVRAM. Please be sure to use proper anti-static procedures when handling the NVRAM.

Identify Beep Codes

POST checks to see that all the hardware in the computer is operating correctly. If a device is malfunctioning, an error or beep code alerts the technician that a problem has occurred. Typically, a single beep denotes that the computer is functioning properly. If a hardware problem exists, the computer may emit a series of beeps. Each BIOS manufacturer uses different codes to indicate hardware problems. Table 3-1 is a sample chart of beep codes. The beep codes for your computer may be different. Consult the motherboard documentation to view beep codes for your computer. Bad motherboard Bad CPU or motherboard Bad motherboard 11 beeps Cache memory bad Bad CPU or motherboard 11 beeps Cache memory bad Bad CPU or motherboard

Hairpin Calls

Voice Gateway

A pure TDM hairpin call in its simplest form occurs within a single module slot of a voice gateway. This intraslot TDM hairpin can occur on digital or analog voice ports and is typically dependent on the module installed in the slot. For example, on ISR voice gateways such as the 2800 and 3800 series, a two-port FXS card (VIC2-2FXS) inserted into an HWIC slot on the motherboard module slot 0 will automatically perform TDM hairpins between the two FXS ports.

Study Guide

What Essentials

The case is the box that most of the computer components rest in, and it is designed to protect these components. It contains the power supply, motherboard, processors, RAM, floppy drives, hard drives, optical drives, and expansion cards. motherboard The computer is built around an integrated circuit called the processor (also known as microprocessor and central processing unit CPU ). It is considered the brain of the computer because all the instructions it performs are mathematical calculations and logical comparisons. The processor is the central component of the computer. It is plugged into a large circuit board called the motherboard (sometimes referred to as system board). Some motherboards with dual processor sockets require having a special terminator or voltage regulator module (VRM) in the empty processor slot or socket when both processors are not installed. Motherboards The motherboard allows the processor to branch out and communicate with all the computer components. It...


Different power supply form factors provide different power output connections, depending on system requirements. AT form factors have been slowly phased out by ATX form factor power supplies because of the different case sizes and advanced features. ATXv12 was created to add power support for the motherboard by adding another four-pin power connector. Motherboard, Baby AT and earlier CPUs, and many motherboard components Different connectors are used to connect specific components and various locations on the motherboard A 20-pin or 24-pin slotted connector is used to connect to the motherboard. The 24-pin slotted connector has two rows of 12 pins each, and the 20-pin slotted connector has two rows of 10 pins each. A four-pin-to-eight-pin auxiliary power connector has two rows of two to four pins and supplies power to all areas of the motherboard. The four-pin-to-eight-pin auxiliary power connector is the same shape as the main power connector, but smaller. Older standard power...

Lab Exercises

This lab does not include removing the motherboard, CPU, and cooling device from the computer because of the replacement cost of these items. If possible, allow students to remove these components from broken computers that are kept in the classroom for part identification and demonstration.

Memory Modules

Early computers had RAM installed on the motherboard as individual chips. These individual memory chips, called dual inline package (DIP) chips, were difficult to install and often became loose on the motherboard. To solve this problem, designers soldered the memory chips on a special circuit board called a memory module. The different types of memory modules are as follows Dual Inline Package (DIP) is an individual memory chip. A DIP had dual rows of pins used to attach it to the motherboard.

PATA Data Cables

The parallel advanced technologies attachment (PATA) cable is sometimes called a ribbon cable because it is wide and flat. The PATA cable can have either 40 or 80 conductors. A PATA cable usually has three 40-pin connectors. One connector at the end of the cable connects to the motherboard. The other two connectors connect to drives. The end of the PATA cable is keyed and can be inserted only one way. A stripe on the data cable denotes pin 1. Plug the PATA cable into the drive with the pin 1 indicator on the cable aligned to the pin 1 indicator on the drive connector. The pin 1 indicator on the drive connector is usually closest to the power connector on the drive. Many motherboards have two PATA drive controllers, which provides support for a maximum of four PATA drives.

Interrupt Requests

Computer components use interrupt requests (IRQ) to request information from the CPU. The IRQ travels along a wire on the motherboard to the CPU. When the CPU receives an interrupt request, it determines how to fulfill this request. The priority of the request is determined by the IRQ number assigned to that computer component. Older computers had only eight IRQs to assign to devices. Newer computers have 16 IRQs, which are numbered 0 to 15, as shown in Table 1-10. As a general rule, each component in the computer must be assigned a unique IRQ. IRQ conflicts can cause components to stop functioning and even cause the computer to crash. With the numerous components that can be installed in a computer, it is difficult to assign a unique IRQ to every component. Today, most IRQ numbers are assigned automatically with plug-and-play operating systems and the implementation of PCI slots, USB ports, and FireWire ports.

Select RAM

When selecting new RAM, you must ensure that it is compatible with the current motherboard. It must also be the same type of RAM as installed in the computer. The speed of the new RAM must be the same or faster than the existing RAM. It can help to take the original memory module with you when you shop for the replacement RAM. If the motherboard does not have compatible expansion slots, external devices can be an option

Router Series

Although this series is somewhat versatile, any changing of components requires the removal of the entire motherboard tray. Care should be taken here. Many 4000 routers have been destroyed at this point because although there is a handle on the tray that facilitates its removal, most people are not ready for the sudden weight change when the end of the tray clears the chassis and the whole thing drops. Newer 4000 chassis have a clip built in that stops the tray to get your attention when the tray stops, you have to move the clip aside to continue removing the board.

Single CPU Designs

In addition, if the CPU is a general-purpose computer, the interaction between the CPU motherboard and the line cards usually conforms to an open bus operating-system standard, enabling the administrator to choose among multiple vendors for both the line cards and the CPU. Single CPU designs also can be very cost-effective because the majority of the complex hardware is focused on the CPU itself.

Process Switching

The original Cisco AGS was a central CPU packet switch that was similar to host-based routers, except that the range of protocols and interfaces supported was greater, and the operating system was optimized for packet-forwarding functions. Interface cards were connected to the CPU motherboard through the Motorola 16 Mbps Multibus, and interface cards maintained the simple packet buffers necessary when there was contention on the internal bus and external media (see Figure 5-2).

Cisco Unity Express

The Unity Express option represents the smallest Unity solution you can add to your network. Unity Express runs from either a flash module or hard drive that can be added to a variety of Cisco router platforms. The flash module version of Unity Express is added as an Advanced Integration Module (AIM) card, which plugs in to the motherboard of the router. The hard drive version of Unity Express installs as a network module. Although the flash Unity Express version does not consume a network slot on the router, you are very limited on storage space for voice mails and automated-attendant recordings or scripts. The network module version offers considerably more storage space.

Install the RAM

Like the CPU and the heat sink fan assembly, random-access memory (RAM) is installed in the motherboard before the motherboard is secured in the computer case. Before you install a memory module, consult the motherboard documentation or website of the manufacturer to ensure that the RAM is compatible with the motherboard.


Ethernet is a physical and data link layer standard for the transmission of frames on a LAN. Since its invention in the 1970s by Xerox Corporation, Ethernet has gained widespread popularity and adapted to new demands for capacity, reliability, and low prices. The cost of an Ethernet port on a workstation or internetwork device is very low compared to other technologies. Many PC and workstation vendors build Ethernet into the motherboard of the computer so that it is not necessary to purchase a separate NIC.

Floppy Data Cables

The floppy drive data cable has a 34-pin connector. Like the PATA data cable, the floppy drive data cable has a stripe to denote the location of pin 1. A floppy drive data cable usually has three 34-pin connectors. One connector at the end of the cable connects to the motherboard. The other two connectors connect to drives. If multiple floppy drives are installed, the A drive connects to the end connector after the twist in the cable. The B drive connects to the middle connector. Plug the floppy drive data cable into the drive with the pin 1 indicator on the cable aligned to the pin 1 indicator on the drive connector. Motherboards have one floppy drive controller, which provides support for a maximum of two floppy drives.

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