The access nerwo rk connecting the CEs to the PEs could be built with Ethernet technology or with next-generation SONET/SD/ running Ethernet framing over the G menc Frammg Pforoc ol (GeP) or any l og . gal links such as ATM kVCs nd T1/E1 "ID Ml or any virtual or physical connect ions over wle ich bridiged Ethernet t raffic |s carnied.

The eoilowing suctions di scus s tine differe nt aspects of: a VP LS model:

• VPLS requirements

• VPLS encapsulation

• Creating a loop-free topology

• MAC address withdrawal

• Unqualified versus qualified learning

• Scaling the VPLS service via hierarchical VPLS (/VPLS)

• Autodiscovery

• Signaling using BGP versus LDP

• Comparing the Frame Relay and MPLS/BGP approaches

• Frame Relay a ccess with MPLS edge/core r Decoupled Transparent LAN Service (DTLS)

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