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This section includes the most important configuration and EXEC commands covered in this chapter. To check to see how well you have memorized the commands as a side effect of your other studies, cover the left side of Table 9-6 with a piece of paper, read the descriptions on the right side, and see whether you remember the command.
If you work your way through this book while sitting at a Cisco router (actually, you may need a group of routers) and try to manipulate this environment's features and functions as they're discussed throughout the book, you should have little or no difficulty mastering this material. Also, don't forget that The Cram Sheet at the front of the book is designed to capture the material that's most important to memorize use this to guide your studies as well.
The most important and somewhat obvious objective of this book is to help you pass the CCNA exam (640-607). In fact, if the primary objective of this book were different, the book's title would be misleading. However, the methods used in this book to help you pass the CCNA exam are also designed to make you much more knowledgeable about how to do your job. Although this book and the accompanying CD together have more than 500 questions, the method in which they are used is not to simply make you memorize as many questions and answers as you possibly can.
The Foundation Summary section and your notes are your crib note knowledge of ISCW. These pieces of paper are valuable when you are studying for the CCIE or Cisco recertification exam. You should take the time to organize them so that they become part of your paper long-term memory.
It is imperative that you know the protection provided by each rule type, so that you can quickly write rules without using the Tuning Wizard or researching endlessly. The following is a list of rules most commonly used when tuning. The list is ordered by frequency of use in tuning. You should memorize these components to save time when tuning an environment because memorization greatly simplifies your workload.
Is it a good thing that Cisco is adding simulated labs to CCNA Absolutely If you have made it this far in the book, you definitely want to learn this stuff, not just pass a test. And the more Cisco can make the exam like a real implementation, asking you to apply the knowledge you have gained rather than just spew forth memorized answers, the more valuable the CCNA certification becomes. Wouldn't you rather configure a small IP network than memorize that pressing Esc-B backs up a single word in the command line With more hands-on skills on the exam, there will be less time for trivial questions.
To allow the duplication of addressing between VPN clients, a single identifier is required the route distinguisher (RD). The RD is added to the beginning of an IPv4 route before the route is distributed in BGP and is used for exchanging VPN routes between the PE routers. The combination of the RD and the IPv4 prefix constitutes the VPNv4 prefix. The exchange of routing information for MPLS-VPN or Layer 3 VPN is carried out using the dynamic routing protocols (BGP-4, OSPF, RIPv2, and EIGRP), one the PE-CE links, (or by static routing), and by using multiprotocol BGP between the PE routers. The multiprotocol extension of BGP is necessary because BGP does not carry simple IPv4 prefixes in the MPLS-VPN architecture. In fact, with the creation of the VPNv4 prefix through the addition of the RD to the IPv4 prefix, BGP should be able to transport prefixes that are no longer IPv4. After the route is memorized in the VRF, it is redistributed through the backbone as a VPNv4 prefix via...
As mentioned in the introduction, you have two choices for review questions. The questions that follow give you a bigger challenge than the exam itself by using an open-ended question format. By reviewing now with this more difficult question format, you can exercise your memory better and prove your conceptual and factual knowledge of this chapter. The answers to these questions are found in Appendix A.
Answer RAM is used as IOS working memory (storing such things as routing tables or packets) and for IOS code storage. (In some router models, not all IOS is copied into RAM. Some of IOS is left in Flash memory so that more RAM is available for working memory.) It also holds the currently-in-use configuration file called running-config.
Because four different networks are used, four network commands are required. If you noticed that this question does not specify the process ID (1 in this example) but configured one, you get full credit. A few of these network numbers are used in examples memorize the range of valid A, B, and C network numbers.
As you will see in the following examples, the available DLSw options are fairly extensive. The IOS commands displayed here demonstrate the numerous options available with DLSw+. You are not expected to memorize the IOS syntax, but it is added here to demonstrate the enormous amount of options you have with DLSw+ when compared to RSRB.
The second step is to dedicate and commit yourself to passing the exam. Plan to commit yourself to one to three years of intense training to become certified. You must be willing to read a lot of books and spend months in the lab. You must take your current understanding of topologies and protocols to the next level. You won't be memorizing how Spanning Tree works, but you will be understanding how and why it needs to work. Anything short of very serious preparation will leave you short when test day arrives.
When comparing the multicast routing table with the unicast routing table, you might encounter gotchas, as outlined previously in the Multicast Troubleshooting Example section. You might encounter other en foreseen difficulties. Know where the IP Multicast section is on the Tonfiguration Guide section of the Documentation TD-ROM. This section is crucial to your research of unknown or unforeseen difficulties. In it, you might also come across small hints that jog your memory.
Cisco does want you to know what topics to study and wants you to be well prepared for your exams. However, Cisco does not want to be so specific that you could just memorize a certain set of facts and pass the exams. In short, Cisco wants you to pass the exams because you know your stuff, not because you memorized a set of questions that someone posted (possibly illegally) on an Internet site.
The most important and somewhat obvious objective of this book is to help you pass the CCNA exam (640-507). In fact, if the primary objective of this book was different, then the book's title would be misleading however, the methods used in this book to help you pass the CCNA exam are designed to also make you much more knowledgeable about how to do your job. While this book and the accompanying CD together have more than 500 questions, the method in which they are used is not to simply make you memorize as many questions and answers as you possibly can.
This chapter covers the selection of products for the central office, the branch office, and the SOHO or RO. The key is to know where product families fit, not to memorize individual product part numbers or codes. For instance, you can get by knowing the capabilities of the 3600 product family as compared to the 1600 product family, without getting into the granular details of either.
Given the network in Figure 3-23 and the address table in Table 3-17, perform the tasks that follow. This scenario uses an imaginary Layer 3 addressing structure as a method to review concepts. When in doubt, concentrate on the concepts. Also, the imaginary Layer 3 used in this example is here only to allow you to concentrate on the concepts instead of a particular protocol there is no need to memorize this scheme or expect questions like this on the exam.
The exam topics covered in this section will become second nature to you as you work with Cisco routers and switches more often. In fact, because this book purposefully was written for an audience that already has some training and experience with Cisco routers, several of the details in this chapter might already be ingrained in your memory. If you would like more review, or if you are still new to the IOS, read on the details in this section are important to using Cisco routers and switches. This chapter reviews such topics as the CLI and how to navigate the IOS command set using help and key sequences for command editing and recall.
Names, but the objective is to memorize things so that you can pass the test. Refer to Table 114 for reminders on how to remember the encapsulation names.) Examples 11-27 and 11-28 show just the configuration commands used to change the configuration on Mount Pilot and Raleigh to support each client.
We strongly recommend that you first read through the entire test quickly, before getting caught up in answering individual questions. This will help to jog your memory as you review the potential answers and can help identify questions that you want to mark for easy access to their contents. It will also let you identify and mark the really tricky questions for easy return as well. The key is to make a quick pass over the territory to begin with so that you know what you're up against. Then you can survey that territory more thoroughly on a second pass as you begin to answer all questions systematically and consistently.
Unlike other Cisco exams, the CCDA has both a technical and a process focus. While many technical facts can be memorized, the process for developing a sound design must be understood. The various steps in the process must make sense to be useful. Eventually, as the process becomes clear, it will become easier to accurately define your customer's objectives and formulate satisfactory designs.
Cisco requires that CCNAs understand encapsulation, particularly with IPX. It is always Cisco's desire that the professional certifications prove that the candidate knows how to make networks that work rather than to certify individuals who are willing to memorize just for the sake of passing the test. However, IPX encapsulation is one area in which memorization is important once the base concepts are understood. Table 5-32, later in this section, lists several terms you should remember.
The exam topics covered in this section will become second nature to you as you work with Cisco routers and switches more often. In fact, because this book purposefully was written for an audience that already has some training and experience with Cisco routers, several of the details in this chapter might already be ingrained in your memory. If you would like more review, or if you are still new to the IOS, read on the details in this section are important to using Cisco routers and switches. This chapter reviews such topics as router components, the CLI, and how to navigate the IOS command set using Help and key sequences for command edit and recall.
Cisco expects CCNAs to remember the names and functions of the LAN standards, not just the concepts behind them. So, while the concepts in this chapter might in part be review and in part be new information or a reminder of something you have forgotten, do not neglect to memorize the LAN standard's names, at least. The concepts are very important to your success in your job knowing the names of standards is very important to being able to communicate about your networks, which is one of Cisco's expectations for CCNAs.
The objective is to memorize things so that you can pass the test. Refer to Table 5-42 for reminders on how to remember the names.) Example 5-42 and Example 5-43 show just the configuration commands used to change the configuration on Mount Pilot and Raleigh to support each client.
The third step calls for you to configure VLAN trunks between the switches. As we mentioned previously, configuring static trunks is a lot easier and quicker than trying to memorize the huge autonegotiation table. Example 2-37 demonstrates the configuration of an ISL and 802.1q trunk on the yin switch.
First things first, memorize Table 2-1. For larger numbers, there are two methods. The first method is to convert decimal to binary and then from binary to hex. The second method is to divide the decimal number by 16 the residual is the right-most bit. Then keep dividing until the number is not divisible. For the first method, use the schemes described in later sections. For the second method, follow the examples described here.
Frame types are not j ust anoth er table to memorize to take a Cisco test. They are real troubleshooting targets regardless of the upper-layer protocols. For instance, machines running only Ethernet_II ca nnot see mac lames r rnning only Ethernet_802.3 and vice versa. On the Cisco side, s interfaces and second ary addressea support multiple trame uyp es, and on the Novell server side you can bind multiple frame types to the NIC or use multiple NICs. Be aware, however, that running multiple frame types affects network speed and performance. Routers assist with mult iple framp types by st ripping the Layer 2 package and repackaging it according to the destination network address.
Certainly, one of the difficulties in passing any QoS exam is memorizing some of the details that, frankly, you would never need to memorize to do your job well. Take the time to read the Foundation Summary, review the example configurations scattered throughout this book, and focus on tables such as the two in this summary section to memorize the details long enough to pass the exam
Although each chapter has its own topic and stands alone, it is best to read this book in sequential order. Only if you are an MPLS-experienced reader will you be able to jump to any chapter from Part II without problem. Even if you fit into that category, you might want to browse through the chapters of Part I to refresh your memory and then proceed to Part II, which holds the chapters that require a thorough understanding of the MPLS fundamentals. If you cannot get enough of MPLS, you can find online supplements of Chapters 4, 7, 8, 9, and 10 at http www.ciscopress.com title 1587051974. Make sure you read the corresponding chapter in this book before reading the online chapter supplement. Appendix B, Static MPLS Labels, is available only on this website.
The CIDR Report from Tony Bates (tbates cisco.com) is a weekly analysis of the rate of growth of the Internet Route Table. The report, sent to all the major operations' mailing lists, provides the name of ISPs injecting the most prefixes, aggregated and unaggregated. Everyone saw who was causing the growth and then could apply peer pressure to have the corrections made. Figure 4-10 (the up-to-date version of this graph can be seen at http www.telstra.net ops bgp) shows the growth of the Internet Route Table. Between late 1995 and 1998, peer pressure helped to stabilize the growth, and indeed helped slow down the growth rate, by late 1998, as can be seen in Figure 4-10. As newer routers with faster processors and more memory capacity were deployed, ISPs became less concerned with the growth in the routing table and hence lost interest in providing or accepting peer pressure. The CIDR reports are interesting but are losing their earlier impact, and they arguably are no longer serving...
As mentioned in the section, How to Use This Book, in the Introduction to this book, you have two choices for review questions. The questions that follow next give you a bigger challenge than the exam itself by using an open-ended question format. By reviewing now with this more difficult question format, you can exercise your memory better and prove your conceptual and factual knowledge of this chapter. The answers to these questions are found in the appendix.
Another underutilized documentation tool exists in your network equipment. Most equipment has built-in documentation features such as description strings for interfaces, modules, chassis, and so forth. Use these to prompt your memory for connectivity. It takes only a few seconds to put a description string on the port configuration. On the Catalyst 5000 6000, use the set port name mod_num port_num port_name command to document interfaces with useful information. For example, you might indicate who or what attaches to the port. If the port is a trunk, indicate what Catalyst it connects to. As with previous documentation discussions, be sure to keep the descriptions current. You will see the port name if you use the show port status command as shown in Example 16-1. Here, Ports 1 1 and 3 1 have assigned names indicating the device the port attaches to.
The most important and somewhat obvious goal of this book is to help you pass the MPLS elective exam (640-910) of the CCIP certification track. In fact, if the primary objective of this book were different, the book's title would be misleading however, the methods used in this book to help you pass the MPLS elective exam are designed to also make you much more knowledgeable about how to do your job. Although this book has many questions to help you prepare for the actual exam, they are not used to simply make you memorize as many questions and answers as you possibly can. This book is designed to help you discover the exam topics that you need to review in more depth, to help you fully understand and remember those details, and to help you prove to yourself that you have retained your knowledge of those topics. So, this book does not try to help you pass by memorization but helps you truly learn and understand the topics. The MPLS elective exam covers an extremely important...
With the advent of Fast Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet, the variety of Ethernet standards has increased to the point that most networking personnel do not memorize all the standards. The CCNA exam probably will not require you to be that familiar with Ethernet standards or, at least, not the full list. Table 4-5 lists the key Ethernet specifications and several related details about the operation of each.
Echo caused by impedance mismatches impacts the perceived quality of voice traffic and can render the connection unusable. Echo is essentially the electrical voice signal reflected back from an end system. To counteract echo, an echo canceler can be placed inline between the codec transmitting to the voice port and the end system. Echo cancelers operate by storing samples of voice signals in one direction and waiting for the reflection of the stored signal to be received on the return path. At this point the canceler combines the echoed signal with the inverse of the memorized signal and effectively eliminates the echo. The length of time which an echo canceler remembers traffic patterns is sometimes called its coverage. To enable echo cancellation and adjust its coverage, the following voice-port commands are used
If you printed the IOS Command Reference documents, you would end up with a stack of paper several feet tall. No one should expect to memorize all the commands and no one does in real life, either. Several very easy, convenient tools can be used to help you remember commands and then also save you time typing. As you progress through your Cisco certifications, the exam will cover progressively more commands. However, the only Cisco exam that covers the methods of getting command help is the CCNA exam. So, the following details are important in real life as well as for cramming for the exam.
Coverage of ISDN protocols and their specifications on the CCNA exam poses a particularly difficult problem for the CCNA candidate. The ITU defines the most well-known specifications for ISDN, but there are far more specifications than anyone could memorize. The problem is choosing what to memorize and what to ignore. My personal philosophy is that standards information is best kept in a book rather than in my own memory. With Cisco's emphasis on proving your hands-on skills using the CCNA and CCNP exams, hopefully a de-emphasis on memorizing standards will be a convenient side effect. However, these standards are fair game for the exam. The OSI layers correlating to the different ISDN specifications are also mentioned in both the ITM and ICND CCNA prerequisite courses. It's also useful to memorize the specifications listed in Table 9-11, as well as which OSI layer each specification matches.
The OSI model consists of seven layers, each of which can (and typically does) have several sublayers. Cisco requires that CCNAs demonstrate an understanding of each layer as well as the protocols that correspond to each OSI layer. The names of the OSI model layers and their main functions are simply good things to memorize. And frankly, if you want to pursue your Cisco certifications beyond CCNA, these names and functional areas will come up continually. CCNAs deal with many aspects of Layers 1 through 4 on a daily basis. However, the upper layers are not as important to CCNAs. In addition, most networking people know what the OSI model is but do not need to memorize everything about it. Table 3-2 shows plenty of detail and explanation for a more in-depth idea of the OSI model components. If you are daunted by the task of memorizing all the examples in Table 3-2, you can refer to Table 3-3, which offers a
Long-term memory that retains instructions when the computer is shut down and that provides basic instructions to the computer. RAM is the computer's short-term memory. Program instructions and data are stored on the RAM chips, which the processor accesses directly. The more RAM you have, the more instructions and data you can load. The amount of RAM greatly affects the performance of the PC. However, if power is discontinued to the RAM, as when you shut off your PC, the contents of the RAM disappear. This is why disks are used for long-term storage.
NOTE Table 11-10 has details that may be difficult to memorize. To make it easier, you could start by ignoring the use of summary static routes, because it is not recommended by Cisco. Then, note that RIP supports the other three methods, whereas EIGRP supports two methods and OSPF supports only one with EIGRP and OSPF not supporting any of the same options.
Many people find it difficult to keep the details memorized. To help overcome confusion, the features of CBWFQ are covered in the next several pages. At the end of this section, some summary tables list the key features and compare CBWFQ to some of the other queuing tools. To begin the coverage, examine Figure 4-19, which outlines the typical queuing features in sequence.
If the desired services are provided externally, a translation pattern is configured to translate the appropriate vanity number. Instead of memorizing a long number for the travel agency (which may change over time), users can be given a phone number that aligns to the corporate dial plan. The translation pattern will match on the dialed digits of 7998 and
As mentioned in the introduction, All About the Cisco Certified Security Professional Certification, you have two choices for review questions. The questions that follow next give you a bigger challenge than the exam itself by using an open-ended question format. By reviewing now with this more difficult question format, you can exercise your memory better and prove your conceptual and factual knowledge of this chapter. The answers to these questions are found in Appendix A.
In this lab, the only one that requires two switches, you configure VLANs and trunking. You must exercise your memory of the commands. In this and the rest of the labs, you are told what to do, but not the command you need in order to do it. This lab exercises your memory of basic IP configuration, as well as how to use the more popular IP troubleshooting commands.
This chapter provides pointers to help you to prepare for the CCIE Routing and Switching written exam, including how to choose proper answers, how to decode ambiguity, how to work within the Cisco testing framework, how to decide what you need to memorize, and what to expect before, during, and after the exam. After presenting exam pointers, this chapter supplies a 100-question sample test devised to quiz you on subject matter related to Cisco CCIE Routing and Switching written exam 350-001. You'll find the answers to the sample test in Chapter 12.
One of Cisco's goals for CCNA and its other certifications is to ensure that passing means that you really understand the technology rather than simply understanding how to pass a particular exam. Focusing on understanding the concepts, as always, gives you a chance to get the exam questions correct. Table 3-6 summarizes the flow control terms and provides examples of each type. Memorizing these terms should help trigger your memory of flow-control concepts.
Classifying a network as Class A, B, or C should become an instantaneous process before you take the test. Memorize the ranges in the second column of Table 5-11. Also memorize the number of octets in the network part of Class A, B, and C addresses, as shown in Table 5-9.
When using the IPSec AH protocol, the message digest is created using the immutable fields from the entire IP datagram, replacing mutable fields with 0s or predictable values to maintain proper alignment. The computed MD is then placed into the Authentication Data (or ICV) field of the AH. The destination device then copies the MD from the AH and zeroes out the Authentication Data field to recalculate its own MD. Refer to Figures 2-8 and 2-10 to refresh your memory about the structure of the AH datagram.
Unquestionably, the primary goal for this book is to help you pass the DQOS certification exam. However, the means by which that goal is accomplished follows the Cisco Press Exam Certification Guide philosophy, which makes a statement about helping a reader pass the test through a deeper understanding of the material, as opposed to simply helping the reader memorize the answers to multiple-choice questions.
Most SNMP capability is embedded in network devices such as hubs, routers, Frame Relay Access Devices (FRADs), digital service units channel service units (DSU CSUs), and switches. These devices primarily pass or route data, although they can provide snapshots of the network at intervals ranging from 5 to 30 minutes via SNMP through a get request command. They have neither the processing power nor the memory capacity to store real-time data for any length of time. This does not enable you to see what is going on in your network 100 percent of the time instead, you must piece together snapshots. If you want to see everything that is going on, you need to consider adding a device (that is, a specialized server or poller) specifically designed to fulfill this requirement. Another way of achieving this it through your NMS, which is discussed in the next section.
Both models have advantages and disadvantages. For example, in operating systems where processes are protected from writing into each other's space, one process cannot corrupt another process's memory, so the system might not experience as many failures because of memory corruption. On the other hand, operating systems that use a flat memory model allow processes to share information easily and quickly. Because almost all Cisco IOS Software was originally written with simplicity and speed as the top priorities, a flat memory model was chosen. The show processes memory command, which is explained in the section Hardware and Software Show Commands, later in this chapter, provides information about the memory being used by each process.
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