In this network, Cat-A is the Root Bridge, and Cat-C (an IDF switch) has selected Port 1/2 as its Root Port because it has a lower Root Path Cost (23 versus 1000). Assume that the cable connecting Cat-C and Cat-B fails. This produces an immediate physical layer loss of link on Cat-C:Port-1/2 and causes that port to be placed in the not-connected state. Port 1/2 is then immediately excluded from STP processing and causes Cat-C to start searching for a new Root Port. 30 seconds later (twice the Forward Delay), Port 1/1 enters the Forwarding state and connectivity resumes.
Max Age is used to detect and recover from indirect failures.
On the other hand, Figure 7-21 depicts an indirect failure.
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