Laptop Ebook

Laptop Repair Made Easy

This productis handled by a specialized laptop repair technician. Typically, a hardware fault requires the physical review of a laptop and testing for abnormalities. Suspected components, such as random access memory (RAM), hard disk, power supply or optical drive may be individually checked, troubleshooting or replaced if an error is detected. This usually requires special equipment and accessories to disassemble and reassemble the computer. The easy-to-repair laptop product is a trusted product, effectively providing the fundamental skills needed to solve problems and problems on a faulty laptop. This product has long been a stressful job, to reduce stress, the author had explored and created this awesome package that has been found to be effective by many users as it contains new and improved techniques to suit your tastes. This product is consistent and efficient in its mode of operation. Being a machine, it does not suffer from the human trait of tiredness and lack of consideration. It will perform the last task with same speed and accuracy as the first given to it, no matter the number of times it has to do it, The product can store and process large volumes of data without being affected. Laptop storage capacity has even increased considerably in recent times. This is as a result of large and complex software being developed nowadays. Read more here...

Laptop Repair Made Easy Summary


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Describe the Components Found on the Outside of the Laptop

Top View Outside Component Laptop

Laptop and desktop computers use the same types of ports so that peripherals can be interchangeable. These ports are specifically designed for connecting peripherals and providing network connectivity and audio access. Ports, connections, and drives are located on the front, back, and sides of the laptop because of the compact design. Laptops contain PC Card or ExpressCard slots to add functionality such as more memory, a modem, or a network connection. You learn more about PC Card and ExpressCard slots in the section Compare and Contrast Laptop and Desktop Expansion Capabilities, later in this chapter. Laptops require a port for external power. Laptops can operate using either a battery or an AC power adapter. This port can be used to power the computer or to charge the battery. The exterior of the laptop also has status indicators (also called light-emitting diode LED displays), ports, slots, connectors, bays, jacks, vents, and a keyhole. Exterior components and LED displays vary...

Compare and Contrast Desktop and Laptop Components

Most of the functions that a desktop can perform can also be performed by a laptop. However, these two kinds of computers are built very differently and the parts are not interchangeable. As an example, a airplane and a helicopter can each travel to the same destination, but they cannot be repaired with the same spare parts. This is also true for laptops and desktops. Few components can be shared between desktops and laptops. Laptop components are much more specialized than desktop components. This is because laptop manufacturers focus on refining laptop components to make them more efficient and compact. As a result, manufacturers design laptop components to follow their own specific form factors. Laptop components are proprietary, so you might not be able to use components made by one laptop manufacturer to repair a laptop made by another manufacturer. Technicians might have to obtain certification for each laptop manufacturer they support. Compare and contrast desktop and laptop...

Worksheet 1334 Laptop RAM

In this activity, you will use the Internet, a newspaper, or a local store to gather information about expansion memory for a(n) IBM T-43 laptop. (Please ask your instructor for the laptop model to research.) Instructor Note You may choose any laptop to research. The answers here are specific to the IBM T-43. 1. Research the manufacturer specifications for the memory in the IBM T-43 laptop. List the spec- Laptop Expansion Memory a(n) IBM T-43 laptop. 4. Is the new expansion memory compatible with the existing memory installed in the laptop Why is this important Yes. If the expansion memory speed is less than the manufacturer's specifications, the laptop may not work at its optimal performance and may crash the system.

Worksheet 612 Research Laptops Smart Phones and PDAs

Use the Internet, a newspaper, or a local store to gather information, and then enter the specifications for a laptop, smart phone, and PDA onto this worksheet. What type of equipment do you want What features are important to you For example, you may want a laptop that has an 80 GB hard drive and plays DVDs or has built-in wireless capability. You may need a smart phone with Internet access or a PDA that takes pictures. Shop around, and in the table that follows, list the features and cost for a laptop, smart phone, and PDA. Be prepared to discuss your decisions regarding the features you select. Laptop Computer Example 2053.00 USD

Describe Repairs for Laptops and Portable Devices

When a laptop or portable device begins to malfunction, what should you do The customer can replace some parts of a laptop, typically called Customer-Replaceable Units (CRU). CRUs include such components as the laptop battery and additional RAM. Parts that the customer should not replace are called Field-Replaceable Units (FRU). FRUs include such components as the laptop motherboard, LCD display, and keyboard. In many cases, the device may need to be returned to the place of purchase, a certified service center, or even the manufacturer. Figure 13-3 Repair Methods for Laptops and Portable Devices Figure 13-3 Repair Methods for Laptops and Portable Devices A repair center can provide service on laptops made by different manufacturers, or a repair center may specialize in a specific brand and be considered an authorized dealer for warranty work and repair. The following are common repairs performed at local repair centers Internal laptop cleaning If no local services are available, you...

Worksheet 1331 Laptop Batteries

In this activity, you will use the Internet, a newspaper, or a local store to gather information and then enter the specifications for a laptop battery onto this worksheet. Instructor Note You may choose another laptop battery to research. The answers here are specific to the IBM T-43. 2. Shop around, and in the following table list the features and cost for a generic and a(n) IBM T-43 laptop battery.

Describe the Components Found on the Inside of the Laptop

Typically, the laptop is closed when not in use. By opening the lid of the laptop, you can access a variety of input devices, LEDs, and a display screen. There are several input devices available when the laptop lid is open, as shown in Figure 6-7 Figure 6-7 Open Laptop A laptop receives and interprets data in many ways. As a result, the laptop is able to perform a variety of functions. Figure 6-8 Laptop Status LEDs Figure 6-8 Laptop Status LEDs Indicators can vary by laptop. A laptop monitor is a built-in liquid crystal display (LCD). It is similar to a desktop LCD monitor, except that the resolution, brightness, and contrast settings can be adjusted using software or button controls. The laptop monitor cannot be adjusted for height and distance because it is integrated into the lid of the case. A desktop monitor can be connected to a laptop. Using the function key, you can toggle the screen from the laptop to the desktop monitor or view both at the...

Identify Common Preventive Maintenance Techniques for Laptops and Portable Devices

Because laptops are mobile, they are used in different types of environments. Some environments can be hazardous to a laptop. Even eating or drinking around a laptop creates a potentially hazardous condition. Consider what would happen if a drink were spilled onto the keyboard of a laptop. Many components are placed in a very small area directly beneath the keyboard. Spilling liquid or dropping debris onto the keyboard can result in severe internal damage. It is important to keep a laptop clean and to ensure that it is being used in the most optimal environment. The following sections cover preventive maintenance techniques for the laptop.

Describe the Components Found on the Laptop Docking Station

A base station is a device that attaches to AC power and to desktop peripherals. When you plug the laptop into the base station, you have convenient access to power and the attached peripherals. Laptop connector Laptop Connector Laptop Connector Secure the laptop to the docking station with a key lock, as shown in Figure 6-11. Figure 6-11 Docking Station Key Lock Virtual Laptop Activity Docking Station Explore the different views of the docking station in the Virtual Laptop. Refer to the Virtual Laptop software on the CD that accompanies this book.

Compare and Contrast Desktop and Laptop Processors

Laptop processors are designed to use less power and create less heat than desktop processors. As a result, laptop processors do not require cooling devices that are as large as those found in desktops. Laptop processors also use CPU throttling to modify the clock speed as needed to reduce power consumption and heat. This results in a slight decrease in performance. It also increases the life span of some components. These specially designed processors allow a laptop to operate for a longer period of time when using a battery power source. Technicians should refer to the laptop manual for processors that can be used as replacement processors and for processor replacement instructions.

Describe the Safe Installation and Removal of Laptop Components

There are a number of components on a laptop that might need to be replaced. Remember always to make sure that you have the correct replacement component and tools as recommended by the manufacturer. Some components are hot-swappable, which means that you can remove and replace them while the computer is on. Some components that you might need to replace include the following Each laptop manufacturer uses unique hardware installation and removal procedures. Check the laptop manual for specific installation information, and follow safety installation and electrostatic discharge (ESD) precautions. Always disconnect power and remove the battery before installing or removing laptop components that are not hot-swappable. On some laptops, the PC Card, optical drive, and USB devices are hot swappable. However, the internal hard drive, RAM, and battery are not hot swappable. Step 1. On the bottom of the laptop, remove the screw that holds the hard drive in place. Step 6. On the bottom of the...

Identify Common Uses of Laptops

The most significant feature of a laptop is the compact size. The design of the laptop places the keyboard, screen, and internal components into a small, portable case. Another popular feature of the laptop is that it can be used almost anywhere. A rechargeable battery allows the laptop to function when it is disconnected from an AC power source. The first laptops were used primarily by businesspeople who needed to access and enter data when they were away from the office. The use of laptops was limited because of expense, weight, and limited capabilities compared to less expensive desktops. Today laptops have lower prices and increased capabilities. A laptop is now a real alternative to a desktop computer. Common uses for the laptop include the following

Select Laptop Components

Laptop components need to be replaced for a variety of reasons Original equipment manufacturer (OEM) OEM components are usually sold without packaging and require the user to locate documentation, software, drivers, and any additional hardware that might be needed. OEM components are usually less expensive and offer a shorter warranty period than similar retail packaged components. Using OEM components can result in substantial savings when upgrades are performed in bulk on many laptops, and additional support is not needed.

Identify and Describe the Components of a Laptop

Common laptop features include the following Most laptops can use docking stations and port replicators to connect peripherals. In the following sections, you look closely at the components of a laptop. You also examine a docking station. Remember, laptops and docking stations come in many models. Components can be located in different places on different models. Describe the components found on the outside of the laptop Describe the components found on the inside of the laptop Describe the components found on the laptop docking station

Explain How to Configure Laptops

Get the maximum performance from a laptop, such as increasing the length of time the laptop can be used on battery power. With laptops, you might need to exchange components occasionally to accomplish different tasks and respond to changing situations. You can customize a laptop for specific purposes by adding external components. For example, you can install a second hard drive in a laptop to provide additional storage capacity. Components need to be carefully inserted or connected to bays, connectors, and proprietary expansion areas to avoid damage to the equipment. It is important to follow safe removal procedures when disconnecting hot-swappable and non-hot-swappable devices. Describe the safe installation and removal of laptop components

Describe How to Troubleshoot Laptops and Portable Devices

When troubleshooting problems with laptops or portable devices, you should determine whether a repair is cost effective. To determine the best course of action, you should compare the cost of the repair to the replacement cost of the laptop or portable device, less the salvage value. Figure 6-19 Shipping and Transporting a Laptop Because many portable devices change rapidly in design and functionality, portable devices are often more expensive to repair than to replace. For this reason, portable devices are usually replaced while laptops can be replaced or repaired.

Describe How to Troubleshoot a Laptop

The troubleshooting process helps resolve problems with the laptop or peripherals. These problems range from simple ones, such as updating a drive, to more complex problems, such as installing a CPU. Use the following basic troubleshooting steps as a guideline to help diagnose and repair problems

Describe How to Schedule and Perform Maintenance on Laptops

Proper care and maintenance can help laptop components run more efficiently and extend the life of the equipment. The preventive maintenance schedule for a laptop may include practices that are unique to a particular organization, but they should also include these standard procedures To keep a laptop clean, be proactive, not reactive. Keep fluids away from the laptop. Do not eat when you are working on it, and close it when it is not in use. When cleaning a laptop, never use harsh cleaners or solutions that contain ammonia. Nonabrasive materials are recommended for cleaning a laptop Before you clean a laptop, disconnect it from all power sources. Routine maintenance includes the monthly cleaning of these laptop components At any time, if it is obvious that the laptop needs to be cleaned, clean it. Do not wait for the next scheduled maintenance.

Compare and Contrast Desktop and Laptop Power Management

This portability feature is achieved by combining the small size and weight of a laptop with the ability to operate from a battery. When the laptop is plugged in, laptop power management sends electricity from the AC power source to the laptop components. The laptop power management also recharges the battery. When the laptop is unplugged, laptop power management takes electricity from the battery and sends it to the laptop components.

Worksheet 672 Research Laptop Problems

To find information about the replacement parts, you may have to research the website of the laptop manufacturer. Before you begin this activity, you need to know some information about the laptop. Instructor Note This activity is designed to help the students find information on laptops. Provide students with the required information so that they can work individually or in small groups. To prevent lost lab time, instructors are encouraged to send students to sites that are known by the instructor. Instructors may want to pre-screen websites to reflect equipment that is present on campus. Laptop manufacturer _ Laptop model number _ Use the Internet to locate the website for the laptop manufacturer. What is the URL for the website Locate the service section of the website and look for links that focus on your laptop. It is common for a website to allow you to search by the model number. The list that follows shows common links that you might find...

Fundamental Laptops and Portable Devices

The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of multiple-choice, matching, fill-in-the-blank, and open-ended questions to test your knowledge of laptop computers, including maintaining and troubleshooting laptop computers. This portion also includes multiple-choice study questions to help prepare you to take the A+ certification exams and to test your overall understanding of the material. The Lab Exercises portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum worksheets to further reinforce your mastery of the laptop and portable devices content.

Advanced Laptops and Portable Devices

The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of fill-in-the-blank and open-ended questions to test your introductory knowledge of laptops and portable devices. This portion also includes multiple-choice study questions to help prepare you to take the A+ certification exams and to test your overall understanding of the material. The Lab Exercises portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum worksheets to further reinforce your mastery of the laptop and portable devices content.

Desktops Laptops

Many companies consider servers to be their most important assets, but there is just as much (if not more) sensitive information on the desktops and laptops that the user community uses on a daily basis. In some cases, users of desktops and laptops have more freedom to install software to decide what information is processed on them, and where they can be placed to allow the business to operate. By their nature, desktops and laptops are also more vulnerable to attacks because of this flexibility and mobility, whether the attacks are web-based, application-based, or network-based. More users browse to malicious sites or run applications on their laptops or desktops than they would ever browse to from a server. In addition, the mobility of laptops makes them dangerous. Laptops can be moved into hostile environments, become infected, and then bring that infection back into your internal corporate environment where your typical protection methods are inadequate to stop that imported...

Even a CEO Can Be Dangerous to His Company

Following a slideshow presentation, the CEO of a publicly traded company briefly stepped aside from the podium. Upon his return, he discovered that his laptop, with all its precious corporate information, was gone. A security policy that forces employees to use a locking system for their laptop might have prevented this theft.

Head Office QoS and Voice

Venti Systems will use IP phones to digitize and packetize the voice traffic. As illustrated earlier in Figure 12-6, IP phones with a built-in switch will be used one port will connect to the access switch and another will connect to the user's laptop. Access switches will provide inline power for the IP phones, using power over Ethernet (PoE). The voice and data traffic will be on separate VLANs to allow easier implementation of QoS tools the connection to the access switch is an 802.1q trunk, with the laptop on the native VLAN. Classification and marking of voice traffic will be done by the IP phone. Recall that the point within the network where markings are accepted is known as the trust boundary any markings made by devices outside the trust boundary can be overwritten at the trust boundary. A Cisco IP phone could be considered to be a trusted device because it marks voice traffic appropriately, while a user's laptop would not usually be trusted because users could change...

Concept Questions

If you have a laptop computer that has 1 GB of RAM, and you are using 64 MB of shared video memory, how much memory is available for Windows If nothing is displayed on a notebook computer LCD monitor, what are some of the things you should check to troubleshoot the problem

Alternative Peerto Peer Topology

The basic service area can consist of a number of wireless PCs with a wireless network card. Operating systems such as Windows have made this peer-to-peer network easy to set up. This setup can be used for a small office (or home office) to allow a laptop to be connected to the main PC or for several people to simply share files.

Securing Console Access

Unauthorized users can access the console administrative interface by attaching a terminal (for instance, a laptop) directly to a router. Physical security has to be put in place for the router to prevent unauthorized users from gaining access to routers and the console interface. You also have to configure the router to require a password when users try to access it via the console port. The router or switch can authenticate users locally or via a remote security database, such as Cisco Secure Access Control Server (CSACS).

Not a Phone But a Client

On an IP network, however, we have clients at the desktop. These clients can be desktop computers, laptop computers, wireless PDAs, wireless laptops, printers, fax machines, and now with IP telephony, IP phones. Each of these clients is designed, by obeying the rules of the IP network, to interact with one another. So we begin to think of an IP phone more as an IP client designed to access network applications and place and receive phone calls.

Figure 23 IP Phone Connectivity into the IP Network

Figure 2-3 shows how the IP phone and the IP workstation (whether a desktop or a laptop) both use the same type of port on the network switch (i.e., an Ethernet port that is designed to interface with both data and voice clients at the desktop). Figure 2-3 shows how the IP phone and the IP workstation (whether a desktop or a laptop) both use the same type of port on the network switch (i.e., an Ethernet port that is designed to interface with both data and voice clients at the desktop).

Initial configuration using a CLI console session is required before you use the GUI

Cisco 2700 Series Wireless Location Appliances are servers that enhance the high-accuracy built-in Cisco WCS location abilities by computing, collecting, and storing historical location data for up to 1500 laptop clients, palmtop clients, VoIP telephone clients, radio frequency identifier (RFID) asset tags, rogue access points, and rogue access point clients.

Running Cisco Security Agent Analysis

Cisco Security Agent contains support for an optional application profiler known as Cisco Security Agent Analysis. This application profiler is enabled with a separate license for the Cisco Security Agent Management Center. This feature enables the Management Center and the Cisco Security Agent to determine what applications are deployed on a PC, laptop, or server with the Cisco Security Agent installed on that end station. This feature also enables the Management Center to determine the use pattern of these detected applications on the end stations.

Testing Pointto Point Wireless Links

You are measuring the speed of the wireless link, not the speed of the link and the speed of the Sterne-- To meacure only the ink speed, copy (down oae) a large file from a lightly loaded machine at your network operating center (NOC) to your laptop at the newly installed end user location. Then, upload the same file from your laptop to your NOC. You avoid going out on the Internet, so you avoid having variable Interne-traffic levels change the results of your test.

Different View of ROI

They will be moved for you. When you get to your new office or cube, plug the phone into the jack, and plug your laptop computer into your phone. That was the extent of the move. Because we had DHCP servers, we literally could unplug phones and or laptops, and they would register with the appropriate server and obtain an IP address automatically when they were plugged back into the network.

Addressing the Market Transformation and Needs

IP's ability to rapidly integrate new services and to deliver them in a cost-effective yet reliable way pushes both service providers and enterprises toward consolidating all their communications needs over a single protocol. A converged IT infrastructure would be easier and less expensive to manage. The service consolidation, however, increases the demand for IP addresses. An enterprise user now has multiple addresses for their devices and services. Fixed VoIP phone, fixed access for the PC, and Wi-Fi access for the laptop all require a different IP address. The combination of the market demand for converged services and the interest in

Authentication in Wireless Networks

The shared WEP key, as specified by IEEE 802.11, is a static key. If the key is discovered by an unauthorized user, it must be changed on access points and every individual client. Attackers can discover the key in many ways, including eavesdropping on numerous packets, but also by using simpler methods, such as asking naive users for the key or stealing users' laptop computers where the key is configured.

Connecting to the Controller

You will be connecting to the serial interface, so you will use a DB9 serial cable. You will also need a laptop with a serial connection. Many new laptops do not have serial connections, although you can purchase an adapter that connects to a USB port. After you set up the connection from the laptop to the serial port, you need to use a terminal emulation application such as HyperTerminal, SecureCRT, or ZTerm (for Mac OSX). Using the terminal emulation application, you can boot the controller to view the boot process.

Cisco NAC Appliance Agent Cisco NAA The Cisco NAA software resides on

Microsoft Windows systems and can verify if an application or service is running and if a registry key exists or if the value of a registry key is known. The Cisco NAA is referred to as a read-only agent the Cisco NAA does not alter client system information, but reads the information and reports this information to the Cisco NAC Appliance Manager (Cisco NAM). The Cisco NAA ensures that, for example, a corporate laptop has an up-to-date configuration of the standard corporate software before the laptop is allowed to access the corporate network. The Cisco NAA can ensure that users install the resources necessary to keep their machines from becoming vulnerable or infected.

Describe How to Configure Power Settings

One of the most popular features of a laptop is the ability to operate using batteries. This feature allows laptops to operate in locations where AC power is not available or is inconvenient. Advances in power management and battery technology are increasing the time laptop users can remain disconnected from AC power. Current batteries can last from 2 to 10 hours without recharging. Managing the power by configuring the power settings on a laptop is important to ensure that the battery charge is used efficiently. The Advanced Configuration and Power Interface (ACPI) standards create a bridge between the hardware and OS and allow technicians to create power management schemes to get the best performance from the computer. The ACPI standards can be applicable to most computers, but they are particularly important when managing power in laptops. Table 6-5 shows information about each power state. These steps are common to most laptops and should be used only as a guideline. Be sure to...

Worksheet 1332 Docking Station

In this activity, you will use the Internet, a newspaper, or a local store to gather information and then enter the specifications for a laptop docking station onto this worksheet. Be prepared to discuss your decisions regarding the docking station you select. Instructor Note You may choose another laptop docking station to research. The answers here are specific to the IBM T-43. Most laptops will use manufacturer proprietary docking stations. 1. Research a docking station compatible with a(n) IBM T-43 laptop. (Please ask your instructor for the laptop model to research.) What is the model number of the docking station 4. How does the laptop connect to the docking station The laptop has a docking station connector on the underside of the laptop, which attaches to a connector on the docking station. 6. Is this docking station compatible with other laptop models Yes, this docking station works with the entire IBM T series.

Worksheet 1353 Verify Work Order Information

A customer complains that the network connection on the laptop is intermittent. The customer states that he is using a wireless PC card for network connectivity. The customer believes that the laptop may be too far from the wireless access point however, he does not know where the wireless access point is located. experiencing with the laptop of the laptop the laptop How is the laptop getting power laptop recently Does your laptop have a wireless Remove the PC Card from the laptop and reinstall it. How much RAM does your laptop have

Step 1 Gather Data from the Customer

The first step in the troubleshooting process is to gather data from the customer. Table 13-3 lists open-ended and closed-ended questions to ask the customer about laptop errors. (This list is not comprehensive.) Table 13-3 Laptop Errors Open-Ended and Closed-Ended Questions to Ask Table 13-3 Laptop Errors Open-Ended and Closed-Ended Questions to Ask Has anyone done any repair work on the laptop using your laptop Has anyone else used the laptop How does your laptop connect to the Internet Does your laptop have a wireless NIC what happens when the laptop

Managing the Cisco Security Agent

The Cisco Security Agent represents the last line of defense in a layered self-defending network. The Cisco Security Agent operates directly on the end station by monitoring the OS kernel and requests to the file system, network resources, and registry keys. The Cisco Security Agent can reside directly on the PC, laptop, or server in the network. Cisco Security Agent is supported on Windows, Solaris, and Linux machines.

Worksheet 1320 Investigating Repair Centers

Instructor Note The information for this exercise should be obtained from a national computer repair center site such as 1. What laptop and desktop computers can be repaired at this repair center Toshiba, IBM, HP, Compaq, and Sony They are an authorized service and warranty repair center for Toshiba, IBM, HP, Compaq, and Sony. As an authorized service and warranty repair center, they repair in-warranty laptops or notebooks. There are no parts or labor charges for in-warranty work. They also provide extended-warranty repairs for these brands.

Modulation Techniques and How They Work

As the laptop in the figure sends data over the wireless network, the data must be encoded using a chip sequence and then modulated over the airwaves. In the figure, the chipping code for the bit value of 1 is expanded to the chip sequence of 00110011011, and the chipping code for the bit value of 0 is 11001100100. Therefore, after the data bits are sent, 1001 creates the chip sequence.

Identify Common Problems and Solutions

Laptop problems can be attributed to hardware, software, networks, or some combination of the three. You will resolve some types of laptop problems more often than others. Table 134 describes common laptop problems and solutions. A laptop user complains that the A laptop user is unable to connect to Reconfigure the wireless security on the laptop The laptop keyboard no longer works. take the laptop to a repair center or return it to A user reports that the laptop battery A user obtains a new laptop and reports Docking stations are proprietary. Verify that the that it does not fit in the existing user has a compatible model.

Identity Based Networking

Most modern corporate networks do not provide access to network services to a device or user without first establishing the device's or user's entitlement to those services. Identity-Based Networking Services (IBNS) lets network administrators restrict access to devices that can prove their identity to the network. Identity may involve different types of credentials for different devices. For example, a laptop or computer may require the user to enter his or her corporate user ID and password. Other devices that cannot necessarily respond to a password prompt, such as printers or Network Attached Storage (NAS) devices, may rely on other forms of authentication, such as the device's MAC address or a preloaded digital certificate.

War Driving and War Chalking

War-driving can be best described as a new form of hacking into the network. Crackers are equipped with an antenna either inside their cars or on the roof of their cars. The antenna is connected to a laptop in the car. Once installed in the car, the crackers start driving (or sometimes just park in garages) and log data as they go. Special software logs the latitude and longitude of the car's position as well as the signal strength and network name.

Identify Appropriate Cleaning Procedures

Proper routine cleaning is the easiest, least expensive way to protect and to extend the life of a laptop. It is very important to use the right products and procedures when cleaning a laptop. Always read all warning labels on the cleaning products. The components are very sensitive and should be handled with care. Consult the laptop manual for additional information and cleaning suggestions. This section provides basic steps for cleaning the laptop keyboard, ventilation area, screen, touchpad, disk drives, and discs. To clean a laptop keyboard, perform the following procedures How To O Step 1. Turn off the laptop. Step 3. Disconnect laptop from the electrical outlet. Step 6. Wipe laptop and keyboard with a soft, lint-free cloth lightly moistened with water or computer-screen cleaner. Step 1. Turn off the laptop. Step 3. Disconnect laptop from the electrical outlet. Step 1. Turn off the laptop. Step 3. Disconnect laptop from the electrical outlet. To clean the touchpad on a laptop,...

Select a Docking Station or Port Replicator

Docking stations and port replicators increase the number of ports available to a laptop. A port replicator may contain a SCSI port, a networking port, PS 2 ports, USB ports, and a game port. A docking station has the same ports as a port replicator, but it adds the capability to connect to PCI cards, additional hard drives, optical drives, and floppy drives. Docking stations make it convenient to connect a laptop to an office network and peripherals. A laptop connected to a docking station has the same capabilities as a desktop computer. Figure 13-5 shows several docking stations and port replicators that support the same laptop. Some docking stations connect to a laptop using a docking station port that is located on the bottom of the laptop, as shown in Figure 13-6. Other docking stations are designed to plug directly into a USB port of the laptop. Most laptops can be docked when in use or while shut off. The addition of new devices when docking can be handled by using...

Summary of Exercises

This is a summary of the Labs, Worksheets, Remote Technician exercises, Class Discussions, Virtual Desktop activities, and Virtual Laptop activities associated with this chapter. Worksheet 13.2.0 Investigating Repair Centers Worksheet 13.3.1 Laptop Batteries Worksheet 13.3.2 Docking Station Worksheet 13.3.3 Research DVD Drive Worksheet 13.3.4 Laptop RAM Worksheet 13.5.3 Verify Work Order Information

Identify Optimal Operating Environments

An optimal operating environment for a laptop is clean, free of potential contaminants, and within the temperature and humidity range specified by the manufacturer. With most desktop computers, the operating environment can be controlled. However, because of the portable nature of laptops, it is not always possible to control the temperature, humidity, and working conditions. Laptops are built to resist adverse environments, but technicians should always take precautions to protect the equipment from damage and loss of data. It is important to transport or ship laptops carefully. Use a padded laptop case to store your laptop. When you carry it, use an approved computer bag. If the laptop is shipped, use sufficient packing material to prevent damage during transport. Figure 6-19 shows examples of laptop carrying cases and packing boxes. Figure 6-19 Shipping and Transporting a Laptop Laptops are transported to many types of environments. Dust particles, temperature, and humidity can...

Campus Network Architecture

For example, a wireless client roaming throughout a wireless-enabled campus using both a laptop and a Cisco 7920 802.11b IP Phone would need to have the ability to seamlessly home from access point to access point with no interruption in service. This is especially true of voice calls in progress. The presence of voice and data together would necessitate a fully QoS-enabled network for both wired and wireless connected devices. An access point would be required to be able to exchange session state information and user device credentials with no user interaction.

Small Office and Home Wireless LANs

With a wireless LAN, employees can bring laptops home from work and continue working just as they do from their offices. For many professions, this makes it possible for people to work from home more effectively, whether it is to spend a few more hours researching information on the Internet or to enable telecommuting on a daily basis. Of course, with a wireless laptop, you truly can work from anyplace in the house. There is nothing tying you down to a desk in a particular room. You are free to use the Internet or access files on other computers while relaxing in a comfy chair in front of a TV, lounging on the patio breathing fresh air, or sitting at a desk in a quiet bedroom, just like you see in the commercials. Purchase a Wi-Fi router With most home wireless LAN installations, you need a Wi-Fi router, not just an access point. The router includes Layer 3 functions on top of the access point. For example, Linksys (a Cisco company) specializes in offering Wi-Fi routers for home use....

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol

DHCP (RFC 2131 1541 1531) solved these problems by creating address scopes in subnets to be assigned automatically to DHCP clients. A scope is a range of subnet addresses used to dynamically assign IP addresses. This provides the benefit of being able to move a laptop from one subnet to another and be assigned an IP address.

InBand Process Flow Cont

Laptop is assessed and quarantined and remediation begins. 6. The Cisco NAA that is running on the user laptop performs a posture assessment. That is, the Cisco NAA collects data about the laptop operating system, software, and hardware vulnerabilities. The Cisco NAA then sends a posture report to the Cisco NAS to make a network admission decision about the user device. 7. The Cisco NAS forwards the posture report to the Cisco NAM for further analysis. If the Cisco NAM determines that the laptop is not in compliance with security and vulnerability standards, it instructs the Cisco NAS to put the laptop into the temporary role. The temporary role can be as small as a 30 subnet. 8. The Cisco NAM sends the necessary remediation steps to the Cisco NAA that is running on the user laptop and starts the session timer for the user session.

What Problems Need to Be Solved

Support rich media communications such as document and desktop application sharing and video, allowing all participants to share and collaborate. Unified Communications must also support many devices with different levels of capabilities, from a phone or cell phone for audio up through a laptop or desktop computer with complete audio, video, and web conference application capability. The system must also integrate the collaboration scheduling and joining processes with current standard calendaring systems, such as Microsoft Outlook.

Troubleshooting Tools

Because packet analyzers capture all traffic, a hacker can use the tool not only to observe data as it flows through the network, but also to introduce lethal and disruptive traffic into the network. The final tool is a regular laptop computer. A network administrator can install network-management, packet-analyzer, and database software and carry all the software tools he needs to troubleshoot and correct a problem on location.

Quality of Service as Network Protection

QoS also has a role to play in highly available networks. Often when one or more devices (such as laptops) on the network have been compromised with malicious software, such as a virus or worm, they can be used as a launching point for attacks on other parts of the network, such as network devices or application servers. If such an attack comes from outside the network, such as from the Internet, or from a single laptop on the network, it can often be easily recognized and halted, if not prevented. However, when attacks originate from several or many devices, and those same devices appear to be sending legitimate traffic over the network, they can be very difficult to locate and halt.

Portability Versus Mobility

Wireless access with laptops typically is nomadic. This means that users use a laptop in one location and then move to a new one. Therefore, roaming is not much of an issue. However, with increased use of PDAs and voice-over-Wi-Fi-capable devices, roaming capability is essential.

Network Admission Control

Network Admission Control (NAC) builds on IBNS by providing an additional hurdle that devices must leap before being allowed to access the network. After a laptop passes the identity check (assuming that IBNS is being used), the network provides an additional challenge to the device to assess its health. Health is determined by the corporate security policy. It typically includes auditing the laptop for proper installation and current operation of mandatory security software programs, such as Cisco Security Agent (CSA), antivirus, anti-spyware adware, and so on. The device is challenged by the network using a special NAC protocol it needs to provide its health credentials to the network. The credentials are validated against a policy server. If the device is in compliance, it is allowed to access the network.

Meetings Are an Activity Not a Place

Participants can see who is attending and who is speaking, because Presence (discussed in the next topic) is integrated. As the meeting progresses, participants can discuss ideas with audio, share slides that are displayed on everyone's laptop screen, send e-mail, and even discuss an idea offline with someone using instant messaging. Participants can also see and review meeting minutes as they are being typed. (This is helpful for colleagues who never manage to show up on time.)

Management Capabilities

Employees can improve their productivity by taking advantage of powerful call management capabilities. Users can make a call from a desk phone using a visual directory or use a softphone on a laptop to click-to-dial from an instant-messaging contacts list. Users can easily add capabilities to the communication, such as adding a voice call to an instant messaging session or converting to a multiperson web conference to share documents.

Deep Packet Inspection

Encryption can be a very effective way to secure communications between two devices, whether it is a laptop encrypting a session across the Internet to the corporate headquarters (such as with IPSec VPN) or securing a voice-over-IP phone call between two IP phones (such as with SRTP).

Corporate Employee Clean and Dirty Networks

With virtualized networks, we can implement a clean network partition. As soon as employees authenticate and ensure that their laptop or computer is healthy, it is admitted to the clean network and has access to normal applications. Endpoints found to be dirty (with a virus or other noncompliance issue) are admitted only to the dirty network, with access only to remediation services. In this type of system, each endpoint is scanned to ensure that all virus prevention signatures (or other criteria or credentials) are up to date.

Conferencing Gets Simple

VoIP makes conferencing more flexible and cost-effective. Because the VoIP packets are already digital encodings of audio, they can simply be routed to a conferencing server, a really fast computer, that can take the digital audio streams, combine them, and replay them back out to all the participants. Mix in a dash of being able to point and click on a laptop to schedule and host a conference, and voila conferencing can be used by everyone.

Combating Access Based Attacks

A common entry point for network threats are the wired (and wireless) access ports where devices connect, such as laptops, printers, IP phones, and others. Without appropriate measures, hackers attempting to cause mischief in networks can plug into a port and use it as a launching location to work their way into the rest of the network. Such intrusions may require physical access to the corporate location. Physical security measures such as locked doors, badge readers, video surveillance, and security staff are always a critical line of defense to prevent such attacks. Physical access is not necessarily required. A virus, worm, or Trojan horse program can be placed on a laptop that an employee carries inside the business and plugs into the network. A company's wireless connectivity can extend into nearby buildings or parking lots, removing the need for an intruder to enter the company.

Cisco Unified Personal Communicator CUPC

The Cisco Unified Personal Communicator (CUPC) refers to an integrated Unified Communications client that runs on a laptop or handheld computer, bringing together many forms of communications on a single device. Types of communications include voice, video, instant messaging, voice mail, e-mail, application sharing, and web conferencing and collaboration. The CUPC endpoint is integrated into the business Unified Communications system. Therefore, it has a phone number in the corporate dial plan and is integrated into all other communications systems in the business, making it a very productive tool for employees.

What Makes Up a Cisco NAC Appliance Host Security Policy

One of the hardest things about writing a comprehensive host security policy is figuring out what should be included in the policy. This chapter will guide you through the parts and pieces that, at a minimum, should be included in any host security policy written for a NAC Appliance solution. For your NAC Appliance solution to be most effective, it is necessary to first determine exactly what an acceptable host security posture is under different circumstances. After this is done, you can then easily translate your host security policy into the proper checks and security requirements that NAC Appliance will use to posture assess hosts. For example, if the host is a corporate asset and connected to the wireless network, a strict host security policy should be enforced. However, if the same host moves to the wired network, a less strict security policy should be in place. It is also necessary to determine what the host security policy should be for different types of hosts, either based...

Select Storage Devices

Storage devices are CRUs, unless a warranty requires technical assistance. You have several options when adding, replacing, or upgrading a storage device for a laptop External USB hard drive An external USB hard drive connects to a laptop using the USB port. A laptop automatically detects when an external hard drive is plugged into a USB port. Firewire hard drive An IEEE 1394 external hard drive that connects to the Firewire port. A laptop automatically detects when an external hard drive is plugged into a Firewire port. The form factor of an internal hard drive storage device is smaller for a laptop than for a desktop computer. However, the smaller drive may have a greater storage capacity. Before purchasing a new internal or external hard drive, check the laptop documentation or the manufacturer's website for compatibility requirements. Documentation often contains Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) that may be helpful. It is also important to research known laptop component issues on...

Select Additional RAM

Adding RAM can optimize laptop performance. Additional RAM speeds up the process by decreasing the number of times the operating system reads and writes data to the hard drive swap file. Reading and writing data directly from RAM is faster than using swap files. Also, RAM helps the operating system run multiple applications more efficiently. Graphic processing in laptops usually is performed by the CPU and often requires extra RAM to store the video while the CPU decodes it for viewing. New applications, such as video sharing and video editing, demand increased performance from laptops. Installing expansion RAM can help increase laptop performance. The laptop's make and model determine the type of RAM chip needed. It is important to select the correct memory type that is physically compatible with the laptop. Most desktop computers use memory that fits into a Dual Inline Memory Module (DIMM) slot. Most laptops use a smaller profile memory chip that is called Small-Outline DIMM...

Major Advantages of Cisco VPN 3000 Series Concentrators

Dial-up connections using modems are prevalent throughout many corporate communities, especially on laptop systems. For some types of users, however, broadband VPN services provide speed and always-on connectivity that permit corporations to extend their office LANs into small office home office (SOHO) environments. The popularity of cable modems and DSL modems has made broadband services commonplace for the home office user. Connecting these high-speed networks to the corporate network via IPSec tunnels gives SOHO users secure, full access to network assets at speeds up to 25 times faster than 56-kbps modems. Figure 3-2 shows typical modem and broadband connectivity to a VPN concentrator. Laptop Laptop

Step 18 Testing Whether OOB and User Role Based VLAN Assignment Works

Now connect a laptop to interface Fa1 0 5. You will see that the port was immediately moved to the untrusted VLAN 110. This was triggered by the switch sending an SNMP MAC-notification trap to NAC Appliance Manager. The port was moved to VLAN 110 because the port profile had the auth (untrusted) VLAN set to VLAN 110. See Figure 10-58 for details.

Proper Disposal of Batteries

Batteries often contain rare-earth metals that can be harmful to the environment. Batteries from portable computer systems can contain lead, cadmium, lithium, alkaline manganese, and mercury. These metals do not decay and will remain in the environment for many years. Mercury is commonly used in the manufacturing of batteries and is extremely toxic to humans.

IP Telephony Best Practices for Outof Band Mode

If your voice-facing NAC Appliance Server is running in OOB mode, your design becomes a little bit more complex. This makes sense given that with OOB mode you are controlling the actual switch port that the IP phone and its connected client are attached to. The basic rule of thumb is that if you will not have a client connecting to an IP phone, make sure that the phone's switch port is still set to be controlled in NAC Appliance Manager. Use MAC address filters to identify and permit your IP phones. This practice ensures that rogue users cannot gain access by disconnecting an IP phone and plugging in a laptop. If your clients do connect directly to the IP phones, you should consider the following design recommendations

Install and Configure a Wireless NIC

Before purchasing a wireless adapter, you should make sure that it is compatible with other wireless equipment that is already installed on the network. Also, verify that the wireless adapter is the correct form factor to fit in a desktop or laptop. A wireless USB adapter can be used with any desktop or laptop computer that has an open USB port.

Describe Cellular WAN Technology

Originally, cellular networks were designed for voice communication only. Cellular technology has been evolving and now enables the transfer of voice, video, and data simultaneously. It also enables the use of laptops and portable devices remotely. With a cellular WAN adapter installed, a laptop user can travel and access the Internet. Common cellular WAN characteristics include the following Although they are slower than DSL and cable connections, cellular WANs are still fast enough to be classified as a high-speed connection. To connect a laptop to a cellular WAN, Connecting to a cellular WAN is a simple process. Cellular WAN cards, as shown in Figure 13-2, are plug and play. These cards plug in to the PC Card slot or are built in to the laptop.

Define Computer Networks

A computer data network is a collection of hosts connected by networking devices. A host is any device that sends and receives information on the network. Peripherals are devices that are connected to hosts. Some devices can serve as either hosts or peripherals. For example, a printer connected to your laptop that is on a network is acting as a peripheral. If the printer is connected directly to a networking device, such as a hub, switch, or router, it is acting as a host. Laptop computers

Customizing the Display and Hard Drive Power Settings

You can customize the display and hard drive power settings depending on your requirements and save the power scheme with a customized name. For example, a student uses a laptop for research on the Internet but does not create or save files often. In this scenario, the student needs access to the display, but rarely accesses the hard drive. The student customizes the settings as shown in Figure 6-16 and saves the settings as Research. One of the biggest power consumers on a laptop is the hard drive. In this scenario, the hard drive is not accessed often. The Turn off hard disks time is set for 1 hour when the laptop is plugged in and 3 minutes when the laptop is running on batteries.

Configuring Power Schemes

When you open Power Options, you will notice that Windows XP has preset power schemes. These are the default settings and were created when Windows XP was installed. You can use the default power schemes or create customized schemes that are based on specific work requirements. Figure 6-15 shows the default power scheme set for a laptop.

Computer Shared Printers

A user's computer that has a printer attached can share that printer with other users on the network. Windows XP makes the process of enabling shared printers fast and easy. In a home network, it means that users can print documents from wherever they are in the house by using a wireless laptop. In a small office network, sharing a printer means one printer can serve many users.

Check Your Understanding

Chapter 6 Fundamental Laptops and Portable Devices 39 Which power mode would you use on a laptop running Windows XP to minimize When you are ready to clean a laptop's LCD, which of the following would you select Which of the following features make laptops a good alternative to desktop computers Which laptop device is commonly hot-swappable 8. Which type of memory is used in laptops 11. What should a user do when operations on a USB memory device have been completed and it is necessary to remove it from the laptop computer 12. Which of the following steps are recommended when cleaning a laptop LCD screen (Choose two.) b. Disconnect all devices attached to the laptop prior to cleaning the display screen. c. Power off the laptop prior to cleaning the display screen. e. Remove the LCD screen from the laptop. 13. What is the easiest, least expensive way to extend the life of a laptop and keep it in optimal working order b. Clean the laptop regularly.

Physical Security Guidelines

A security designer must identify the consequences of device theft on network security. For example, if a laptop computer is stolen from a roaming user, does it contain cryptographic keys that enable the attacker to connect to the enterprise network while impersonating a legitimate user Moreover, does the network administrator have some scalable means of revoking such credentials that the attacker could obtain through physical theft Another example is a government intelligence agency concerned about the theft of laptops that might contain extremely sensitive data. To manage this risk, the agency deploys robust file encryption software on the laptops this software decrypts sensitive files only on special request. Sensitive information is therefore hidden from a potential thief, who could otherwise read raw data from the laptop's disk.

NAC Framework and Cisco NAC Appliance

NAC allows network access only to compliant and trusted wired or wireless endpoint devices, such as PCs, laptops, servers, and personal digital assistants (PDA), and it can restrict the access of noncompliant devices. Two NAC options are available the NAC framework and the NAC appliance. The Cisco NAC appliance is a turnkey solution, sold as either a virtual or integrated appliance, to control network access based on user authentication and to provide wired and wireless endpoint compliance with built-in device remediation. The Cisco NAC appliance identifies whether networked devices, such as laptops and PDAs, are compliant with the network security policies. It repairs any vulnerability before permitting the device to access the network. For example, a Cisco router can act as a network access device (NAD) that intercepts attempts to connect from local or remote users. A Cisco trust agent, installed on a user's laptop, provides the NAD with pertinent information, such as the version of...

Selecting Devices for Remote Users

Telecommuters and mobile users who access the central-site network for fewer than 2 hours per day can use an analog modem. Most laptop and desktop computers ship with a built-in analog modem. When selecting computers for remote users who will use modems, research the performance and functionality of the built-in modem. Some modems are notoriously unreliable, especially when connecting to modems of a different brand or connecting to certain types of services. Read articles in trade magazines and on the web to ensure that you select reliable modems with few interoperability problems, high throughput, low latency, and support for advanced features, such as compression and error correction.

Deploying Security in the Enterprise Campus

Consider an organization that has experienced several incidents in which laptop users on the campus network have brought in viruses from home, some users have attempted to intercept network traffic, and some interns have tried to hack the network infrastructure. To manage the risks, the organization implements identity and access control solutions, threat detection and mitigation solutions, infrastructure protection, and security management. Figure 10-21 illustrates where various security technologies might be deployed within the Enterprise Campus.

Positioning an Access Point for Maximum Coverage

Access points can be mounted in a horizontal or a vertical position. It's important to make sure that an omnidirectional antenna points straight up. In addition to the access point antenna, also consider the antenna in receiving stations, usually notebook computers. Every wireless NIC and computer is differen Some laptops have long antennas that extend from the card up through the back of the laptop, behind screen. Other computers may not have a built-in antenna and must rely on a smaller antenna in the NI You should test your WLAN design with a variety of computers and other devices that the actual users w be using.

Vocabulary Exercise Completion

Fill in the blanks with the appropriate terms about these laptop components Processors Although desktop processors can be used in laptop computers, mobile processors make a better choice because they have less power consumption and produce less heat. Mobile processors also have the capability to throttle so that they run at lower speeds to consume less power. Motherboard Laptop motherboards vary by manufacturer and are proprietary. RAM The most common RAM that you will find in a laptop is SODIMM. These memory chips have 144 pins contacts or 200 pins contacts and are 64-bits wide. Expansion Slots The standard expansion slots found on laptop computers are PC cards. Type I cards are used for SDRAM Flash type II cards are used for modems, LAN adapters, and wireless cards and type III cards are used for hard drives. If you have two stacked card slots, it will support 2 type II card(s) or 1 type III card(s). Internal expansion cards include mini-PCI cards. Power Laptops run on AC power or a...

File System Cryptography

Although it is certainly true that servers are critical resources in need of protection, stealing a portable computer can provide an attacker equally sensitive information with a lot less effort. File system security should be done in most situations where it is viable. This generally means mobile user

Contact Information

You are unable to use your laptop's wireless connection while at work. The wireless connection works fine at home and at the coffee shop downstairs, but for some reason, it will not connect to the wireless anywhere in the office. Because you are unable to access the wireless connection, you have been using the Ethernet cable connection instead. The cable connection is working fine.

Be Aware of Physical PC Security Threats

Oftentimes, inexperienced network designers begin with an unacknowledged assumption that all the sensitive data within an organization is contained on servers. In reality, there is sensitive information about my company sitting on the laptop I am using to write this book, as well as on the servers. Like most employees at my company, server resources are used when necessary, but often interesting The first is that portable computer theft is a big problem, not just in the cost of replacing the computer but in the proprietary information that is stored on it. The best protection against having a lost portable computer turn into lost trade secrets is some type of file system encryption. (Some are built into modern OSs.) Chapter 4 has more details on such systems.

Overview of WLAN Security

Affordability, ease of use, and convenience of wireless devices, wireless local-area networks (WLAN), and related technologies have caused a substantial increase in their usage over recent years. At the same time, the number of reported attacks on wireless devices and networks has surged. Hackers have access to affordable wireless devices, wireless sniffers, and other tools. Unfortunately, the default wireless security settings are usually open and vulnerable to intrusion and attacks. For example, if encryption is not enabled, sensitive and private information sent over a wireless LAN can easily be sniffed (captured). One of the common methods that hackers use is called war driving. War driving refers to the process whereby someone drives around with a laptop equipped with a wireless network interface card (NIC), looking for vulnerable wireless devices and networks. Best practices require that authentication and encryption be used to protect wireless client data from security and...

The Economies of Scale and the Growth of IP Infrastructures

Carry a cell phone, a laptop, and a PDA in the execution of their jobs. At home, IP has also become pervasive. We use modems for dial-up set-top boxes to interact with digital television programming PCs and wireless IP tablets to send e-mail, chat, or use Voice over IP to make calls across the network. Consider less apparent devices such as the Nabaztag (http, a Wi-Fi enabled electronic device that needs its own IP address. Overall, the number of IP devices per person is growing and it requires additional infrastructure support.

Resolving Problems at the Transport and Application Layers

I asked my colleague to calm down and tell me why he simply did not download the IOS from our TFTP server. We have a TFTP server in our office that stores the IOS and the up-to-date configuration of all our routers and switches. My colleague responded that that was exactly what he was trying to do, but he was not having any luck with it. However, he suspected that his lack of success might have to do with his state of mind, and that was the reason he sought my assistance. I told my colleague to connect his laptop to the console port of the failed router while we were on the phone, and while in ROMMON mode, type for help. When he did that, the router listed the commands available to him in that mode, similar to the output shown in Example 13-9.

Impact of an Internet Worm Attack

In the example, a worm is introduced into the network via a laptop PC, which in turn infects an e-mail server, which results in the e-mail server infecting other servers, while the worm is propagated to all ends of the enterprise network. Without a QoS mitigation strategy, this example is very likely to happen.

Countermeasures to DHCP Exhaustion Attacks

When using IP telephony solutions, it's possible to see up to three addresses for a short duration. For example, when a Cisco IP phone is plugged into a port and a host (a PC or laptop) is directly connected to the phone, up to three MAC addresses can appear on the port. The phone's MAC address appears temporarily in the data VLAN so that the switch and the phone can exchange Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP) packets.

Windows Firewall Checklist

When configuring Windows Firewall, you must configure several features depending on the system role in the network. The answers to the following questions will depend on whether the system will connect using a public network (such as a wireless network in a coffee shop or a library) or a private network (such as a corporate LAN or home network) or both. Additionally, Windows Firewall settings on servers that may be configured as a web server, an authentication server, or a database server will differ from the settings on a simple desktop or laptop system. You can use this checklist to help ensure that the Windows Firewall settings are appropriate for a given system. This is determined by the consideration of whether the system will be exposed to a less-secure network than anticipated. This really needs to be considered more for laptops rather than desktop systems. The end user or administrator needs to decide whether all network interfaces will have the firewall active or just those...

The Appropriate Use of VLANs

Second, campus-wide VLANs make it possible to use technology like Cisco's User Registration Tool (URT). By functioning as a sophisticated extension to the VLAN membership policy server (VMPS) technology discussed in Chapter 5, VLANs, URT allows VLAN placement to be transparently determined by authentication servers such as Windows NT Domain Controllers and NetWare Directory Services (NDS). Organizations such as universities have found this feature very appealing because they can create one or more VLANs for professors and administrative staff while creating separate VLANs for students. Consequently, the same physical campus infrastructure can be used to logically segregate the student traffic while still allowing the use of roving laptop users.

Keep and Maintain Network Documentation

Document your network with both electronic media and old-fashioned paper. Electronically, use spreadsheets, graphics programs, network management tools, or any other means at your disposal to keep the documentation up to date. Electronic documentation has the advantage of portability however, it has the disadvantage of limited access and vulnerability to outages. If you keep the documentation on your laptop or desktop, but make it inaccessible to others on your staff by either taking it with you or using passwords, they cannot use the documentation when you are not around. For security reasons (or to satisfy company politics), you might desire this, but in most cases this is not a good practice.

Windows Wireless Zero Configuration

If you are deploying a preset client, laptop users will most likely disable the Cisco Secure Services Client when roaming from the office. However, if a configurable client is deployed, the Cisco Secure Services Client will display all wireless networks it detects, and the user can select the network SSID to join the network (much like the WZC utility). Whichever deployment model you choose, make sure you educate the user community on how to connect to nonenterprise networks.

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