Summary

IP infrastructures have become strategic resources, so their growth and evolution is of critical importance at all levels: global, national, organizational, and personal. IPv6 represents a major evolutionary step for IP, one that is becoming either a necessity for some organizations and nations or an opportunity for others. But, this does not mean IPv6 is the final achievement. In the larger context of IT strategies, nations and businesses must develop IPv6 adoption plans. They must decide based on industry trends and future growth goals how soon IPv6 should be integrated in the IP infrastructures.

This chapter reviews IPv6 adoption strategies that emerged primarily between 2000 and 2008. They reflect the multitude of drivers for the IPv6 adoption and the perspective taken on IPv6 by various countries and businesses. Although these strategies fit in the theoretical frameworks of technology adoption, they bare the unique aspects of the adoption of infrastructure technologies, technologies for which business cases have to be developed by taking into consideration many aspects of the IT environment.

Several conclusions can be drawn from analyzing the IPv6 strategies developed as of 2008:

• National strategies have a positive effect: Government support of IPv6 adoption is a good driver for raising industries' interest in an infrastructure technology. The implementations of national strategies are different from one country to another. However, the ones showing results involve concrete actions (mandates, policies, requirements, and so on) and partnerships with the industry.

• Globalization helps IPv6 strategies: The global economy exposes IT product vendors to regional or vertical markets that may have specific IPv6 requirements. A business case and a strategy can be developed at first around these requirements and later can be expanded and applied to the entire market.

• There might be consequences to late adoption: In the case of an infrastructure technology such as IPv6, a "late adopter" has to accept the decisions made by others with respect to the structure and use of the protocol. Late adoption also will imply a slower start on IP innovation.

• Plenty of room for innovation: IPv6 opens the door to many innovations and new business development.

The IPv6 strategies covered in this chapter are representative of a certain stage in the IPv6 adoption process. They continue, however, to evolve as more and more organizations discover their integration needs and take the time to make IPv6 part of their larger IT strategy.

The IPv6 adoption strategies discussed in this chapter are reflected in the concrete case studies presented in Chapter 5. Although not an easy task, the development of these strategies represents the first step in the complex process of integrating IPv6 in existing IT environments.

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CHAPTER 5

Analysis of Business Cases for IPv6: Case Studies

This chapter would not have been as informative and practically useful as it is without the expert and enthusiastic help provided by the representatives of the featured organizations. It was an honor to work with everyone and we are grateful for their guidance and support.

—Patrick Grossetete, Ciprian Popoviciu, and Fred Wettling

Up to this point, this book has provided an objective review of the benefits and challenges of IPv6, a review of business and economic aspects of an IP-enabled world, and a mix of theoretical and practical analyses of IPv6 adoption strategies. Although the information provided comes from our experience with large-scale deployments, deployments that do exist but usually as services in a closed environment or "walled-in garden," nothing can replace the value of case studies based on actual organizations that must demonstrate the real-life business value of IPv6. A natural corollary of the previous chapters offers a collection of case studies that materialize in the context of specific market conditions. These case studies may also help you to discover similarities between the described experiences and business values and requirements in your own organization.

The case studies show all IPv6 planning steps in the context of the business, operational, and technical realities of actual organizations. The time dimension is equally important because it shows the determining factors and the progression of an organization from the "interested in IPv6" stage to the "IPv6 planner" stage and finally to the "IPv6-enabled" stage. With the approach of the U.S. OMB mandate deadline, the approaching exhaustion date for the IPv4 global address space, and the emergence of IPv6 applications and of OSs with IPv6 turned on and preferred by default, more and more organizations are publicizing their IPv6 efforts and documenting their experiences.1 This rapidly increasing database of experiences and expertise can be used to illustrate and validate the points made in this book.

1. See, for example, John Eldridge, Tan C. Hu, and Lawrence F. Tolendino, "A Report on FY06 IPv6 Deployment Activities and Issues at Sandia National Laboratories," June 2006, http://www.prod.sandia.gov/cgi-bin/techlib/access-control.pl/2006/063635.pdf, and William Jackson, "Lockheed to Begin IPv6 Transition as 'Pathfinder' for Government Clients," Government Computer News, August 29, 2007, http://www.gcn.com/online/vol1_no1/44960-1.html.

The case studies presented in this chapter, however, capture multiple aspects related to planning and implementing the IPv6 integration. In selecting and developing these case studies, we had the following specific goals:

• Select a broad spectrum: Select as many organizations as possible that represent major markets and various governmental institutions. Until recently, this was not possible because of the inhomogeneous level of IPv6 readiness and interest across markets.

• Present a global perspective: Select organizations with national coverage from all regions (the United States and others), as well as global organizations.

• Present an objective perspective: The organizations featured in the case studies were not selected based on their favorable perspective on IPv6. They were selected to focus on the business impact. The goal is not to sell IPv6. Hence, the reader will find enthusiastic early adopters and aggressive early planners and organizations that have only long-term plans for IPv6. The goal is to provide a realistic assessment of the need for IPv6.

• Combine business and engineering perspectives: The individuals who assisted the authors in developing the case studies represent business, marketing, and engineering communities. The goal is to highlight what makes business and engineering sense when developing an IPv6 strategy.

Table 5-1 summarizes the case studies covered in this chapter and the individuals who generously guided and assisted us in preparing them.

NOTE Several other organizations have valuable experiences to share related to planning and deploying IPv6. We believe the selected case studies offer the variety and relevancy necessary to cover most aspects of IPv6 adoption from a technology, market, and historical perspective.

The case studies were developed in collaboration with representatives of the featured organizations. They were initially drafted around the answers provided to

Table 5-1 List of Case Studies Presented

Market Organization Contributors

Service Providers

Broadband access provider Carriers

IT utilities provider Mobile providers Enterprises

Education and research

Financial Government

Information technologies

Global Engineering & Construction

Startup—sensor networks

Professional Services

Comcast Sprint

Tata Communications SAVVIS

Bouygues Telecom

Greek School Network

Consolidated market perspective

Consolidated market perspective

Cisco Systems

Bechtel

Arch Rock

Command Information

Alain Durand

Wesley George

Yves Poppe, Anne-Marie Legoff, Raju Raghavan

Robert LeBlanc, Wen Wang

Lionel Hoffmann

Ciprian Popoviciu and Patrick Grossetete

Craig Huegen

Fred Wettling

Roland Acra Yurie Rich

Athanassios Liakopoulos, Dimitrios Kalogeras

Patrick Grossetete a questionnaire developed specifically for the two major categories: service provider and enterprise. Along with the answers to these questions, the respondents provided additional historical, background, and future planning information to help build the timeline of the IPv6 efforts. Publicly available material was leveraged and referenced whenever it was found useful in the development of the case study.

The case studies share a similar structure that is designed to describe the starting (IPv4 infrastructure and services) and ending (IPv6 strategy, implementation plans, and deployment) points of an organization's IPv6 experience. This approach is intended to help readers identify similarities between their environments and their IT goals and those of the organizations covered in the case studies. The technical details of the IPv6 deployments have been left out intentionally.

Such information is already extensively covered in existing literature such as Deploying IPv6 Networks, by Ciprian Popoviciu, Eric Levy-Abegnoli, and Patrick Grossetete (Cisco Press, 2006). Most of the case studies in this chapter have the following structure:

• Company profile: Provides an overview of the company profile, the scope of its business, and its size and market coverage. The goal is to help the reader relate to the business goals of the featured organization.

• Network and IT profile: Provides an overview of the IT environment and the way it supports the business goals of the organization. It reviews the type of devices and the OSs deployed and the applications used. The goal is to help the reader recognize aspects of their own IT environment in that of the case study, including hardware and software.

• IP infrastructure characteristics: Provides an overview of the IP aspects of the IT environment, listing any challenges experienced or envisioned. This section touches on the addressing scheme, renumbering, and management considerations. It should bring forth some challenges faced by the readers in their own environments.

• Perspective on IPv6: Presents this organization's perspective on IPv6 as a technology and on the IPv6 adoption trends within its market space. It reflects its appreciation of the level of urgency in adopting IPv6 in order to stay competitive.

• The case for IPv6: Combines the perspective on IPv6 covered in the previous section with the early or late adopter position considered by the organization and any specific drivers or opportunities it identified in relation to IPv6. The result of this information leads to the creation of a case for IPv6 adoption, which comprises motivation, goals, and timelines.

• IPv6 planning and implementation: The case made for IPv6 adoption shapes the adoption strategy and its implementation. There are, however, many other determining factors that must be considered, such as alignment of timelines, alignment with other IT initiatives to reduce impact and costs, availability of resources, and so forth. In reflecting the strategy implementation stages of the featured organizations, for some case studies this section is heavy on the planning side while for others it focuses on both planning and deployment.

• Lessons learned: Concludes the case study with the main lessons learned by the organization. Whether the organization was already operating IPv6 services or just planning for them at the time of this writing, there are lessons that have been learned from the process.

Departures from this structure were warranted in certain situations by the specifics of the market or the specifics of the organization featured in the case study.

NOTE In certain case studies, the internal deployment of IPv6 is not as relevant as the company's investment in developing IPv6-based technologies and services. Startup or consulting companies, for example, might develop a significant part of their business model around IPv6, which can provide valuable insight, whereas their internal adoption of IPv6 might be of less interest.

You can choose to go over the case study of an organization whose IT environment and market drivers are most similar to those of your own organization, as this will provide immediate value to your own IPv6 efforts. At the same time, it is recommended that you read the other case studies as well, because they will likely offer a perspective on the challenges faced by some of the upstream or downstream business partners and providers with whom your organization interacts and on whom it might depend.

Without further ado, here are the case studies organized based on major market segments. Their title identifies the market they represent and the name of the featured organization.

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