A

AAA services, 239 ABC (Always Best Connected), 76 acceptance policies, 380 access Cisco Systems, 284 direct access to devices, 67 fixed-mobile convergence, 77 ICT spending and, 61 wireless, 250 ACLs (access control lists), 51, 124 Acquisition Management System based on product assessment, 375 actuators, 75 ad hoc networks, 47 addresses, 250 constraints, 237 depletion, IPv4, 400 exhaustion of, 37 history of IPv6 standardization, 19-23 IP, Bechtel Corporation, 295 lifetime, 222 adjustments, 172...

About the Technical Reviewers

Larry Boucher is founder, president, and chief executive officer of Alacritech. His technical and business accomplishments include establishing and building three successful start-up companies and authoring an industry-standard technical specification. He is a recognized leader in the areas of server adapter, storage, and networking technologies. Larry received his MS in electrical engineering from the University of California, Berkeley, and his BS in business administration and his MBA from...

Academic Perspective

As the Internet became an unprecedented business phenomenon it generated more and more interest. One attraction was to model from an economic perspective its unique mode of operation and the opportunities it generates. Another attraction was to investigate the diffusion of new ideas in this environment with unique characteristics for innovation and standardization. Over the past decade, economics and innovation diffusion theories have been jointly leveraged to model various aspects of the...

Actions Based on Product Assessment

The outcome of the assessment should be a matrix that lists the following information IPv6 requirements for each element This information comes from the targeted goal of the deployment. What it takes to make the element IPv6 compliant The added capabilities required by each element. How to make each element IPv6 compliant Points to the procedures for making the element IPv6 ready. Documenting this information at this time is helpful during the implementation phases of the project. Cost...

Addressing Specific Customer Requirements

A sometimes reactive but powerful reason for technology adoption is demand-based, where customers will pay for a service or product only when it contains specific features. Some organizations have a business need for IPv6. Others take an early planner or even early adopter role and initiate the IPv6 integration process that translates into concrete product requirements. In certain cases, policies, fiscal incentives, or mandates lead organizations to demand IPv6-enabled products, IPv6-capable...

Alignment with Strategic Objectives

Organizations should ensure that the implementation of a new technology has strategic value to an organization. This alignment requires an understanding of the business and the capabilities of the new technology. The change may not have immediate and direct short-term ROI, but may be the foundation for other more significant changes over time. The alignment discussed below is applicable within the Bechtel context. Each organization should make its own assessment based on its strategic business...

Are NAT Benefits Lost by Moving to IPv6

Network Address Translation (NAT) use is a worldwide reality. It is the front end to enterprise and home networks. NAT was developed to conserve IPv4 addresses. Without its widespread use, the Internet would certainly have already exhausted its address space. The private address space definition (RFC 1918, Address Allocation for Private Internets) and its usage (RFC 3022, Traditional IP Network Address Translator Traditional NAT ) have been documented in several papers. The NAT operation is...

B

Control systems, 34 support, 162 backups, multihoming, 41 backward compatibility, 268 banking, Internet, 252 Barcelona, Spain, 386 Bechtel Corporation, 362-363 case for IPv6, 300-307 case study, 291-324 company profile, 291-292 infrastructure, 294-298 lessons learned, 320-324 network profile, 292-294 next generation infrastructure, 365 perspective on IPv6, 298-300 planning and implementation, 308-317 teams, 318-320 behavior at scale, 177 benefits of IPv6, 18-36 billing systems, 224 BoF (Birds...

Broadband Access Provider Comcast

In the context of this book's focus on IP, one might be tempted to think of broadband access providers just in terms of the Internet access services they offer. In reality, access providers deliver significant amounts of bandwidth to home users and businesses. Regardless of whether it is delivered over the existing telephone line, over coaxial cable, or over optical fiber, the major asset is the pipe they have all the way to our home or our business. Originally, the access infrastructure was...

Business and Technology News

The need for IPv6 business cases led to the creation of forums and task forces that are promoting the technology and helping with its understanding. The most active of such organizations are the following IPv6 Forum (http www.ipv6forum.com) The IPv6 Forum is a worldwide consortium of leading Internet vendors, Industry Subject Matter Experts, Research & Education Networks, with a clear mission to advocate IPv6 by dramatically improving technology, market, and deployment user and industry...

Business Strategies

Forward-thinking organizations are constantly evaluating industry trends in an effort to best position themselves economically for the future. Their strategic investments often involve establishing the foundation required for future product and service development. However, strategic investments are in constant tension with the economic and tactical competitive demands to reduce costs and minimize disruptive changes. Visions and strategies for the IPv6 transition should consider the...

C

(CMTSs), 161 Cable Television Laboratories, Inc., 121 capabilities for project execution, 302 CAPEX (capital expenditure), 24 capital expenditure (CAPEX), 24 Arch Rock, 331-333 Bechtel Corporation, 300-307 Bouygues Telecom, 224 Cisco Systems, 287-288 Comcast, 158-160 Command Information, 346-348 Factice World Bank, 253-254 Greek School Network, 237-239 Nextel, 174-179 SAVVIS, 211-212 Tata Communications, 196-197 U.S. government, 266-267 case studies, 148-152 Arch Rock, 324-335 Bechtel...

C oN x x

EMEA Asia Pacific Americas 1 Historic and Projected Global ICT Spending by Region The largest single category in ICT spending is communications products and services. Half of the U.S. ICT spending in 2006 was on communications. With IP becoming the primary communications protocol, it is fair to say that the significant investments in ICT reflect the increasing economic value and importance of IP. WITSA data on individual national economies correlates the ICT investments and economic growth....

China

The rapid adoption of the Internet and the accelerated growth and modernization of the economy make IP addresses a strategic resource for China. IPv6 is a natural solution, although the inadequacy of the remaining IPv4 address space is not the primary driver. Chinese companies are receiving the IPv4 addresses requested from APNIC. The Chinese government views the adoption of IPv6 as an opportunity to take a leadership role, both in terms of technology and governance, in the new Internet. This...

Company Profile

According to its corporate information page Comcast was founded in 1963 as a single-system cable operation. Today, we're the country's largest provider of cable services and one of the world's leading communications companies. We're focused on broadband cable, commerce, and content. We deliver digital services, provide faster Internet and clearer broadband phone service, and develop and deliver innovative programming Comcast is a diversified, privately owned corporation. The primary source of...

Contents

Chapter 1 The Business and Economic Importance of IP Communications 1 The Internet Today 2 IP Infrastructure Strategic Assets 7 The Economies of Scale and the Growth of IP Infrastructures 12 What Comes Next for IP Communications 13 Summary 16 Chapter 2 IPv4 or IPv6 Myths and Realities 17 A Brief History of IPv6 Standardization 19 Looking at the Numbers 23 Earth Population Versus Internet Users 24 Mobile Phone Market Segment 27 Consumer Devices 29 Transportation 30 Industrial Sensors and Control...

Creating Infrastructure Platforms

The basic deployment of new networking protocols depends, at a minimum, on network elements and host computers supporting the technology. Enabling computing and network platforms to support IPv6 is not an end in itself, but it is an important step in creating environments that lead to further innovations in services, applications, and product development. Market demand, however, is essential in driving the industry to continue adding IPv6 capabilities to products. 37. The build it and they will...

D

Specification (DOCSIS), 121 data services, 168 Tata Communications, 191 Dearborn, Rob, 8 dedicated routers, 181 Dedicated Short-Range migration objectives, 362-370 standards, 119-122 demand for information, 74-75 for IPv6, 215 demilitarized zones (DMZs), 342 Department of Commerce (DoC), 100 Department of Defense (DoD), 94 dependence, Internet dependency applications, 274 Internet, 7-12 depletion of IPv4 addresses, 400 of numbers, 35 Deploying IPv6 Networks, 151 deployment applications, 365...

Defining the Standards

Many organizations find that involvement in defining new standards or extending existing standards might be a required step to the development of new products and services. Traditional standards bodies as well as industry-specific consortia are places where this is common. A standards ecosystem has evolved where parallel standards development efforts are interdependent. The core IPv6 standards are the basis for changes in several other standards. Although there is no immediate ROI for...

Documented Deployments

Despite much skepticism, many IPv6 deployments around the world followed the initial definition, prototyping, and implementation of the IPv6 protocol suite. More interestingly, several of these deployments have fully documented their work to be used as references for other deployments. Some of the well-known references follow 6bone (http go6.net ipv6-6bone ) The 6bone was the initial IPv6 infrastructure deployed to test the standard and its implementation. Created in the middle of the 1990s, it...

Does IPv6 Deliver Plugand Play Autoconfiguration

When mainframes and mini computers were the only devices running IP, autoconfiguration was not really an important feature, because devices were statically configured. With the proliferation of personal computers (PC), for scalable device management and reuse of resources, some dynamic autoconfiguration mechanisms became necessary. In IPv4, autoconfiguration relies on the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) (see RFC 4776), which is today extensively used in both enterprises and service...

Does IPv6 Offer Better QoS

Quality of service (QoS) in IP networks is delivered in the context of two architectures Differentiated Services (DiffServ) Relies on each network element allocating resources to the forwarding of a packet based on a 6-bit classifier (differentiated code point) carried in the packet header Integrated Services (IntServ) Relies on the RSVP signaling protocol to set up resources along the path of packets with given transport requirements These architectural models are defined for both IPv4 and...

Does IPv6 Provide Increased Security

Today, security is certainly one of the biggest challenges faced by network managers. Any enhancement to security is always welcomed by operational teams. When reading that IPv6 is more secure than IPv4, it is natural to become more interested in the new protocol. In fact, several past business cases have had as a supporting argument the increased security of IPv6. So, is IPv6 more secure than IPv4 or is it just a misunderstanding turned into an IPv6 marketing pitch The source of the enhanced...

Does IPv6 Support Multihomed Sites

It is often stated that multihoming of sites is an IPv6 problem. Multihoming is not a protocol problem. In the case of IPv6, the challenges are due to a set of prefix allocation policies enforced by the RIRs. Multihoming is widely used by enterprises for the following reasons Connect sites of a network with global reach Organizations with multinational infrastructures will connect to multiple service providers in different countries. Backup for the link to the SP An enterprise can have several...

E

Communications, 202 early planning, 215 earth population versus Internet users, 24-27 Eastern Europe, 385 Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), 57 economies of scale, 12-13, 67 economy of IP evolution business perspective of, 71-82 cost of, 82-86 enabling education, 69-71 ICT impact on productivity, 58-61 local industry development, 68-69 stimulating innovation, 66-68 WSIS, 62-65 EDGE (Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution), 120 adoption, 388-394 demand for information, 74 enabling,...

Education Greek School Network

By exposing young students to advanced networking technologies such as IPv6, we influence the communication and collaboration paradigms of future Citizens. Dr. Athanassios Liakopoulos, Network Operation & Support Manager, and Dr. Dimitrios Kalogeras, Senior Researcher Formal education represents an essential component of individual and societal development. At all levels of the education system, schools provide the information and training that helps individuals acquire fundamental and...

Educational and Information Resources

There are multiple sources of information regarding IPv6, each catering to one of the categories mentioned above. Some resources are free to those who are interested in a self-study approach or are just starting to get familiar with IPv6. An example of such a source of information is the European 6DISS project (http www.6diss.org). 6DISS is a Specific Support Action in the 6th Framework Program of the European Union. The project aims to promote widespread adoption of IPv6 by providing IPv6...

Enabling Education

Education is essential to shaping socially integrated citizens and competent contributors to the society. The education standards and practices become more important in a global society in which a highly educated workforce easily can be leveraged from all over the world. The success of an educated workforce is reflected in the competitiveness of the population. Matching the digital revolution, educational concepts and practices have changed dramatically. Easy and rapid access to information,...

Establishing Leadership Through New Services

Growth in market share and revenue is often derived by the introduction of new products and services. Market introduction timing needs to match anticipated customer demand. Introduction too late may cause a company to lose position relative to its competition. Long-term loss of revenue may be one result. Development of a product or service too early may divert funds from other critical areas, or result in a product that is based on an immature foundation, requiring additional update funds....

European Union

The European Union publicly stated as early as 2001 that IPv4 is stifling its economic growth. The challenge does not come just from the effects of future address resource depletion. The European Union holds a leadership position in mobile GSM technologies and deployment but it lags behind the United States in the ICT sector, particularly in the area of IP communications. This is despite the fact that member states had significant contributions to the development of the IPv4 Internet that is...

F

Ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooc ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooc Figure 5-8 Historical Data on Cisco's Global IPv4 Address Space Consumption NOTE With the rapid proliferation of IP devices, Cisco's IT department expects to request global IPv4 address space more often, every 18 months. Based on past experience, Cisco was able to avoid IPv4 address shortages and major renumbering events by designing and implementing a very good address plan. Integration of infrastructures from mergers and...

Facilitating and Stimulating Growth

Over the past decade IP environments have been growing at unprecedented rates. This growth has been driven by multiple factors, which stretched the networks not only in size but also in the capabilities required to support new services. The Internet's rapid adoption provides the service providers with a tremendous source of business growth. Internet access is no longer a luxury but a commodity in most household service portfolios. Figure 3-4 shows the growth from 2002 to 2007 in the number of...

Factice World Bank Exploratory Case Study

It was impossible to find a financial institution fully dedicated to the IPv6 integration however, several were investigating the potential technology benefits and challenges. This exploratory case study tries to be as close as possible from all comments received by the people interviewed at the financial institutions. Patrick Grossetete, Chip Popoviciu, Fred Wettling Social networking is one of today's buzz words, but the concept is rather old. There is one social network that has been in...

Foreword

Thirty years ago, when the original team of engineers started to design the Internet technology, none of them could have imagined that this technology eventually would be widely used not only in universities and laboratories but also in enterprises and residences all over the world. IPv6 Internet Protocol version 6 is the key word. Remarkably, without knowing that the Internet would become so ubiquitous, these engineers designed IPv4, the first widely deployed version of the TCP IP network...

G

Leaderships, 81-82 Galactic Network, 56 Galleria v6, 109 gap analysis, 226 gatekeepers, leverage of, 137 gateways, 34 ICT contribution to, 91 India, 113 GEANT, 115 General Packet Radio Service (GPRS), 120, 220 tunnels, 175 Geneva 2003, 63 GENI project, 400 George, Wesley, 167 geostationary satellites, 191 getaddrinfo() function, 136 gethostbyname() function, 136 GGSN (GPRS Support Node), 224 GIG (Global Information Grid), 95, 301 Internet impact on, 57 presence, 11 Global Information Grid...

Gaining Competitive Edge and Leadership

Competitive edge can be gained in two major ways Vision and strategic planning in implementing new services A business might have the foresight of a great opportunity and invest in it well ahead of its competitors. An example is the investment by Japanese access providers in building an infrastructure that supports the distribution of video content over IPv6 multicast. This gives them an edge over competing service providers that might not be able to scale the same service over their existent...

Global IPv6 Strategies

From Business Analysis to Operational Planning Patrick Grossetete, Ciprian Popoviciu, Fred Wettling Copyright 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without written permission from the publisher, except for the inclusion of brief quotations in a review. Printed in the United States of America...

Goals and Methods

This book intends to provide a business perspective on IPv6 and its adoption, complementing the many technical IPv6 titles available today. It also intends to provide the readers with some of the whys and the whens applied to IPv6 strategies and some of the hows discovered through implementation experience by various organizations, countries, and market segments around the world. If the clamor of IPv6 has reached your desk and you simply want to understand what the big deal is, this book will...

Governance Considerations

Regardless of its implementation pace, IPv6 integration is not a single, isolated, network-centric project. It is an evolution of the IT environment that gives it a strategic dimension. The success of a strategic project depends on supporting guidelines and rules that span the entire organization at all its levels Senior management visibility and support A clear and consistent message of commitment from the senior management is essential to making sure that each group within the organization is...

Government Agencies Early Adopters

An August 2, 2005, memorandum from the Executive Office of the President, Office of Management and Budget, triggered an intense wave of activity to address the strategic deployment of IPv6 within all U.S. federal agencies As I stated in my testimony of June 29, 2005, before the House Committee on Government Reform, we have set June 2008 as the date by which all agencies' infrastructure (network backbones) must be using IPv6 and agency networks must interface with this infrastructure. This...

Government Sponsored Adoption

A government has many resources and instruments that can be leveraged to stimulate and accelerate the adoption of a technology or the deployment of an infrastructure deemed strategically important to the national economy. There are many examples where governments sponsored and drove technology adoption in the public sector. Looking at some of the modern technologies, examples include the public switched telephone network (PSTN) that provides universal access to phone service, the upgrade of...

H

Hain, Tony, 37 handover, seamless, 219 hardware computing platforms, 123 ICT spending, 59 U.S. government, 273 HD (Host-Density) ratio, 26 HDTV (high-definition TV) programming, 1G5 health-care information, 3 high densities of subscribers, 218 high-definition TV (HDTV) programming, 1G5 history of IPv6 standardization, 19-23 hobbies, pursuing, 3 Hoffmann, Lionel, 22G Hokkaido, 1G7 holographic telepresence, 4G2 home Internet connections, dependence on, 7 Hong, Wei, 328 Host-Density (HD) ratio, 26...

How This Book Is Organized

The structure of the book was developed to start with the larger context of the economic and business importance of IP communications and to gradually focus on the various aspects of the IP upgrade. One chapter is dedicated to debunking some of the common IPv6 technology myths in order to set a realistic baseline for the discussion. The review of perspectives on IPv6 is paired with examples of developed and implemented adoption strategies. The final chapter provides IPv6 integration planning...

I

Association), 12G IAB (Internet Advisory Board), 2G Authority), 21, 210 ICANN (Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers), 21, 124 Configuration Board), 4 ICCP (Information, Computer, and Communications Policy), S7 Icont for Gate Management System, 132 government-sponsored, 105-114 mandates, 94-105 national, 90-94 enabling education, 69-71 impact on productivity, 58-61 Japan, 108 local industry development, 68-69 stimulating innovation, 66-68 WSIS, 62-65 environments), 136 IEEE...

Industry Perspective

The primary challenges to IPv6 adoption come from wrong perspectives and major misunderstandings with respect to its role and its value. Throughout this book, we have highlighted these problems and addressed them following are some of the primary problems IPv6 is not a feature One common perspective is that IPv6 is a feature that can be turned on to provide new capabilities. The problem with this perspective is that it greatly underestimates the task of integrating IPv6 and it minimizes the...

Information Technology Networking Cisco Systems

To keep the human network running as the global growth engine it has become, we must integrate and transition to IPv6. IPv4 simply cannot keep up with the potential change that the network will create. Craig Huegen, Cisco, Director IT Network Architecture The Internet Protocol has become an intrinsic component of most if not all information communications technology companies today. For evident business reasons, they are naturally aware, through the requirements placed on their products, of...

Introduction

The continued evolution and operation of the Internet as a truly global asset faces multiple challenges impending exhaustion of the global IPv4 address space, new operating systems and applications, next generation infrastructures, and demand for always-on connectivity for a growing variety of devices. The requirements of a new Internet, the pressure generated by the lack of resources for the existing one, and government mandates are just a few drivers for the soaring interest in IPv6 and the...

IP Infrastructure Characteristics

In the past, Comcast's CRANs were relatively independent and were independently managed. In that context, the RFC 1918-defined IP address space was sufficient to manage the devices in each market. With its rapid growth, Comcast naturally moved toward a consolidated environment by building a highspeed, nationwide backbone network that integrates all CRANs into a single administrative domain. In this new environment, RFC 1918 addresses (or a similar space, such as 24.0.0.0) are insufficient for...

IP Infrastructure Strategic Assets

With IP networks taking on more and more responsibilities by supporting more services, it is only natural that these networks be recognized as strategic resources. This characteristic of today's IP network is independent of its scope or purpose as it has edged into all aspects of our lives. Let's look at what-if scenarios for a dramatic assessment of our dependence on the Internet Home What if your home loses IP connectivity to the Internet Your VoIP telephones will not operate, you will not be...

IP Todays Constraints and Tomorrows Solutions

Despite 15 years' worth of efforts to develop, implement, and deploy a new version of IP, IPv6 lovers and IPv6 haters still argue about what IPv6 can do and cannot do. This debate has resulted in many myths and rumors, which often are contradicted by facts and papers, such as The Case for IPv6, which was published as a draft RFC in 1999 (draft-ietf-iab-case-for-ipv6-06.txt). To offer a realistic and honest perspective on the benefits and challenges of the new protocol, this section addresses...

Pv6 Address Planning

One critical technical aspect of the IPv6 integration project is that of planning the IPv6 addressing scheme. This process must be initiated well in advance of deployment and cannot be properly executed without extensive training in the following IPv6 address architecture (RFC 4291) IPv6 allocation policies defined by each regional registry AFRINIC (http www.afrinic.net policy.htm), APNIC (http www.apnic.net policy index.html), ARIN LACNIC and RIPE (http www.ripe.net rs ipv6 index.html) IPv6...

Pv6 Adoption Challenges

At the beginning of 2008, a decade since the IPv6 core specifications became IETF draft standard documents (August 10, 1998), IPv6 commercial adoption remains limited and confined to walled gardens, albeit some quite large ones. This chapter shows that many people give a lot of thought to IPv6 adoption and that both national and business strategies are being developed and implemented in its support. Nevertheless, we naturally wonder Why has it taken so long What are the IPv6 adoption challenges...

Pv6 in Other Standards

In addition to products and services, IPv6 is being adopted in standards that enterprises are implementing. Table 6-6 lists some of these standards. 3GPP (3rd Generation Partnership Project) SNIA (Storage Networking Industry Association) DMTF (Distributed Management Task Force) OASIS (Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards) SMI-S (Storage Management Initiative Specification) http www.wimaxforum.org http www.3gpp.org http www.dmtf.org http www.oasis-open.org Table...

Pv6 Planning and Implementation

Based on internal requirements, on market demand, and on its vision for the future service offerings, Sprint has a multifaceted business case for IPv6 that targets the following overall services Enable existing services for IPv6 Enable SprintLink for dual-stack to support the Internet access services initially offered over the IPv6 evaluation network. Provide VPNv6 services to enterprises. Offer managed services for IPv6-capable customer premises equipment. Value-added services With rapidly...

Is IPv6 Improving Routing

The evolutionary and not revolutionary nature of the new protocol is probably best exemplified in the case of its routing protocols. No new, dramatic concepts were introduced. The IPv4 routing protocols were, however, rebuilt in a cleaner way. RIPv2 led to RIPng, OSPFv2 led to a similar but improved OSPFv3, and EIGRP, IS-IS, and BGP were extended to support IPv6. The IPv6 routing protocols have no tricks to help alleviate the concerns about the size of the Internet routing tables. Considering...

Is IPv6 Required for Mobility

Before addressing the topic, it is important to clarify what mobility really means for a given environment. Over the past few years, mobility became a fashionable term used in many marketing presentations. Nevertheless, it is not always related to IP. So, let's start with a few definitions Mobile client A mobile client is a device such as a laptop, PDA, smartphone, iPod, or sensor that regularly changes location but does not necessarily have its own network interface. For example, an Apple iPod...

Is Renumbering Easier with IPv6

Renumbering a network, assigning it a new addressing scheme, is a task dreaded by network managers. Renumbering, however, is a fact of life in the evolution of a business and is triggered by factors such as Although it is true that IPv6 autoconfiguration mechanisms help in the renumbering process, it is incorrect to state that IPv6 solved the renumbering problem. The actual change of IP addresses on the interfaces of hosts, routers, switches, and appliances represents only one step of the...

IT Profile

The OSs currently deployed in FWB's infrastructure and those it plans to use going forward are listed in Table 5-26. Table 5-26 Factice World Bank IT Profile Operating Systems Table 5-26 Factice World Bank IT Profile Operating Systems Windows Vista and Windows Server 2008 Table 5-26 Factice World Bank IT Profile Operating Systems (Continued) Table 5-26 Factice World Bank IT Profile Operating Systems (Continued) The IT department is running around 3000 applications over the Internet, 80 percent...

IT Utility Service SAVVIS

Due to the ever-changing industry standards, vendor product enhancements, and compliance requirements, IT departments are strained to keep pace while staying within their budgets. IPv6 adds yet another level of complexity to this environment, virtually touch ing most aspects of IT. SAVVIS provides a complete portfolio of products and services that deliver a secure, managed IT infrastructure, built to respond to these strategic IT challenges, including IPv6. Anticipating increasing demand for...

Japan and South Korea

The Japanese government was one of the first to highlight the national importance of ICT and, particularly, an IP access infrastructure. Japanese Prime Minister Yoshiro Mori's September 21, 2000, policy speech to the Japanese Parliament (Diet) was designed to strategically position the country for the 21st century, socially and economically. Prime Minister Mori identified the IT revolution as a national movement as the most important pillar in the rebirth of 16. Japan. Ubiquitous access to...

L

Labs, phases of, 310 lack of use, 140 large-scale network support, 265 Latin America, 385 launching project goals, 365 leadership, gaining, 81-82 learning, Bechtel Corporation, 323 Legoff, Anne-Marie, 188 lessons learned, 151 Arch Rock, 334-335 Bechtel Corporation, 320-324 Bouygues Telecom, 228-229 Cisco Systems, 290 Comcast, 165 Command Information, 353-354 Factice World Bank, 255-256 Greek School Network, 242-244 Nextel, 185-186 SAVVIS, 215-216 Tata Communications, 202-203 U.S. government,...

Lessons Learned

As an early IPv6 adopter in the MSO market space, Comcast has to deal with many technology, product, and policy challenges that are natural for a new technology. Comcast developed a strategy that took all these elements into consideration and its approach was validated by the lessons learned IPv6 can solve problems today As the large cable providers have shown, one does not have to assiduously search for a reason to deploy IPv6, but rather keep it in mind as a possible solution to technical...

M

M& A (mergers and acquisitions), 80 M2M (machine-to-machine), 74 machine-to-machine (M2M), 74 magnet, Internet, 5 maintenance IT environments, 80-81 security, 212 addresses, 157, 250 Bechtel Corporation, 318-321 change, 322 configuration, 135, 360 costs, 307 devices, 153 facilities, 132 IP addresses, 295 IT environments, 80-81 lack of, 226 policies, 377-378 project timelines, 369-370 refresh cycles, 307 renumbering networks, 50-51 security, 48-50, 307 services, 77, 168 simplifying, 237...

N

Naked Sun, The, 402 NANOG conference (2006), 131 nano-machines, 75 Napolitan, Rick, 8 NAT (Network Address Translation), 13, 85, 399 benefits of, 39 national adoption strategies, 90-94 National Higher Education ICT Initiative, 69 (NICTIA), 117 National Information Infrastructure (NII), 95 Technology (NIST), 86 national IT strategies, 401 National LambdaRail, Inc. (NLR), 115 Networks (NREN), 232 national research environments, 114-117 natural technology evolution, 301 naysayers, 322 NDP...

National Strategies

The ICT revolution is a relatively young phenomenon. Businesses just started to see quantifiable returns toward the end of the 1990s and their investments in ICT have been growing exponentially ever since. The results of the adoption were soon reflected at the macroeconomic level. In most countries, ICT investments resulted in increased productivity and new access to remote markets. In a few countries, an entire ICT industry developed and became a significant contributor to the gross domestic...

Network and IT Profile

In terms of the number of IP devices, Comcast operates one of the largest infrastructures in the world. Comcast's infrastructure is made out of at least 21 converged regional-area networks (CRAN) that provide cable TV and IP services to the subscribers in a market or a region. The CRANs are connected by a 3. common, high-speed backbone that enables them to share high-bandwidth content and information. The access network is a DOCSIS-based, bridged cable environment. The OSs currently deployed in...

Networked Sensor Technology Arch Rock

The next step for the Internet is for it to be embedded into the physical world, allowing users to remotely interact with things, spaces, assets, and the environment at large. Roland Acra, President and CEO of Arch Rock In its simplest, most basic form, the title of this section, Networked Sensor Technology, encompasses a huge field of technology and product developments with significant implications for both economic and quality-of-life improvements. The technology's impact is felt in areas...

No Case for IPv6

Identifying a business case for IPv6 was not at all an objective for FWB's IT team. In fact, it has considered the technology to be not mature enough and reserved for researchers and universities. Recently, however, the IT team started to consider IPv6 as a must do topic following various external events, such as press articles, presentations from vendors such as Cisco and Microsoft, reports from analysts, an adoption mandate from U.S. federal agencies, and the opening of Internet banking...

Operations Simplifications

Managing and maintaining today's IT environments is a significant contributor to the OPEX of most medium-sized and large organizations. This applies to the infrastructure that supports internal processes and the infrastructure that offers services to customers. The expense proves to be justified by the returns generated through IT. However, the elimination of operation complexities and the subsequent reduction in IT operating costs remains a goal of every business. On the one hand, improvements...

Opportunities to Develop Local Industry

As discussed earlier, IPv6 adoption will stimulate innovation in a relatively greenfield environment. This makes it easier for new companies to penetrate the ICT markets with point products or entire solutions. With IPv6, the government's intention to develop a national ICT industry and promote ICT-based innovations can facilitate and support the growth of new companies. National ICT companies focusing on IPv6 can leapfrog traditional, imported ICT technologies in either isolated and...

Organization Profile

The Greek School Network (GSN) is the educational intranet of the Ministry for National Education and Religious Affairs of Greece (http www.sch.gr ). It provides IP connectivity and IT services to the majority of primary and secondary schools in Greece. The GSN environment facilitates the development of new learning communities and the integration of IT technologies and services in the educational process. The profile of the GSN is summarized in Table 5-20. Table 5-20 Greek School Network...

P

P Internet Protocol (PIP), 21 packets, processing, 173 PANs (personal-area networks), 76 paradigm shifts, 322 partner adoption of IPv6, 301 Navigation), 265 Peer Naming Resolution Protocol (PNRP), 400 peer to peer applications, enabling, 237 Protocol (PNRP), 44 penetration of the modern Internet, 3 performance, Cisco Systems, 288 Performance-Based Navigation personal-area networks (PANs), 76 perspective on IPv6 Bechtel Corporation, 298-300 Bouygues Telecom, 223-224 Cisco Systems, 285-287...

Perspective on IPv6

In Comcast's vision, IPv6 and its early adoption would provide Comcast the following benefits Resolve address shortage challenges IPv6 is the only long-term solution to the IP address needs of large infrastructures. The adoption of IPv6 for device management will eliminate obstacles to growth and will reduce operational costs. Gain competitive advantage The integration of IPv6 and DOCSIS 3.0 into an access provider's network is inevitable and will take time. The impact will be from the core...

Policy Considerations

IPv6 adoption requires the implementation of specific policies that facilitate its integration and reduce the deployment costs and the operational risks. At the same time, IPv6 offers an opportunity to revisit existent policies and improve them in the light of past experiences and the future goals of the business. There are multiple areas of the IT environment in which IPv6-specific policies will be required, and they should be identified during the assessment process. Some of the larger-scope...

Product Assessment

Bechtel continues to work closely with its technology partners to understand and communicate IPv6 capabilities in ways that can be used throughout the lifecycle of each product and service that is in use or planned. They have found that a platform-based approach is very effective. Table 6-3 is an example of this approach, with platforms listed on the vertical axis and IPv6 capabilities and applications listed on the horizontal axis. Bechtel tracked vendor-reported IPv6-supportable services and...

Professional Services Command Information

IPv6 represents one of the greatest advancements to the Internet in the past 20 years. It will allow us to realize a potential from the network we've been unable to access due to the limitations of the current version of Internet Protocol. While organizations need to integrate IPv6 in an economically sensible fashion, failure to begin that integration process today will only yield higher integration costs in the future, as well as loss of market leadership and missed opportunities to be an...

Project Goals

The goals of the IPv6 project are essential in defining the resources necessary for its planning and later for its implementation. There are multiple options and they are often organization- or business-specific. The following list provides several examples of IPv6 project goals of varying complexities Launch of a targeted, tactical project for which IPv6 is not yet important but for which security policies and monitoring capabilities must be updated to address the presence of IPv6-capable...

Project Plan Development

From this point on, the planning discussion focuses on projects with a larger scope, projects that pursue the integration of IPv6 in an existent infrastructure. The process is in great measure incremental and evolutionary, similar to the experience of adopting the web. The following steps are to be expected Develop a strategy to achieve the future state. Prioritize activities while considering dependencies. After the strategic perspective on IPv6 is established at the business level and the...

Project Scope

The goals of the project identify the IT environment elements that would be involved in its implementation. Nevertheless, the nature of the project influences its coverage. For example, an enterprise that is ready to interface with regional IPv6 ISPs requires localized coverage, whereas an ISP that delivers video content in accordance with national regulation that requires the service to be available to a service provider's entire subscriber base needs global coverage. The project coverage can...

Project Timeline

The overall migration to an IPv6-only network will probably take a long time and is likely to be achieved through either multiple projects or a single multiphase project. Similar to any technology integration, planning of each step has to meet the delivery dates while taking into consideration multiple timelines, some under the control of the organization and some not Equipment refresh schedules Equipment and software certification cycle Timelines of related projects Manufacturer product and...

R

Radio access network (RAN), 170 radio-frequency identification (RFID), 34 Raghavan, Raju, 188 RAN (radio access network), 170 reachability, 29, 180 reactive transition, 303 readers, 34 Real-Time Operations solution, 222 Reconfigurable Ubiquitous Networked Embedded Systems (RUNES), 125 recycle issues, 92 redundant parallel network infrastructures, 24 references, 390 refresh cycles, 307 Regional Internet Registries (RIRs), 37, 92 relative technological advantage, 142 remote access, Cisco Systems,...

Real Life Case of Updating Purchasing Policies

Let's evaluate a real-life case of updating purchasing policies. At the beginning of 2005, a service provider was running an IP network based on Cisco 12000 series routers equipped with Engine 0, 2, 3, and 4 based line cards. Under pressure from a couple of its customers who requested IPv6 connectivity, the service provider did a network assessment, which clearly identified the need to upgrade all line cards to Engine 5 in order to offer IPv6 services at production level and on a large scale....

Requirements Driven by Mandate Responses

In the United States, government-mandated and government-sponsored IPv6 adoptions have provided clear direction that some form of change will be required. The U.S. federal mandates were even more prescriptive, with specific target dates. Earlier in 2007, the U.S. GSA awarded two very large ten-year Networx contracts to The Nextworx program offers comprehensive, best value telecommunications providing for new technologies, industry partners and ways to achieve a more efficient, and effective...

Requiring Zero Impact of IPv6

At a minimum, organizations deploying IPv6 expect products to operate (not break) when IPv6 is enabled. Many legacy applications will continue to operate over IPv4 when IPv6 is enabled on the hosts and the network operates in a dualstack environment. However, organizations that are testing or implementing an IPv6-enabled environment will find that a few commercial applications will fail if IPv6 is enabled on hosts and networks. This usually is caused by poor and or inadequate coding practices...

Research Efforts

As mentioned repeatedly throughout this book, IPv6 is an opportunity for innovation, because the Internet can now be expanded in market places that were out of reach in the past. These opportunities range from research projects investigating new architectures and services to OS frameworks that give software developers the opportunity to create the next generation of applications. Examples of such research projects follow The European U-2010 (http www.u2010.org) and U.S. MetroNet6 (http...

ROI for Services Supported by IPv6

In recent years U.S. cable TV multiple system operators (MSO) interconnected their various market-contained networks via powerful, nationwide backbones. Although private IPv4 address space was sufficient to manage the devices within a given market, in a consolidated environment, RFC 1918 (private address space) does not offer enough resources to manage the pooled devices. From a technical perspective, the MSOs would always have the option of federating their nationwide network, reuse the...

S

Applications, 209 Saitama Building, 132 Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), 271 case for IPv6, 211-212 case study, 204-216 company profile, 205-206 infrastructure, 209-210 lessons learned, 215-216 network profile, 206-207 perspective on IPv6, 210-211 planning and implementation, 212-215 Data Acquisition), 9 scalability, 57 address space, 172 infrastructure at Comcast, 131 addresses, 283 addressing, 272 renumbering, 50-51 Schreyer, Paul, 58 scope, project, 309, 366-368 SCTE (Society of Cable...

Service Provider Sprint Nextel

Sprint has been testing IPv6 applications with customers for over a decade. With the expansion of IP infrastructures worldwide, IP addresses have become strained, particularly with the emergence of always on applications. The general availability of IPv6 will not only expand that address space but will add an additional level of security, will foster network efficiencies and will accommodate application growth. Our Federal customers are leading that transition. Tony D'Agata, Vice President,...

Standards Compliancy and Interoperability Information

As with any new protocol suite, the industry needs to define and ensure standards compliancy and full interoperability among products from various vendors. Over the past ten years, it was an objective of several test environments to validate the IPv6 implementations. Official agencies and events also work on testing and publishing reports on the topic. Table 6-5 provides a non-exhaustive list of organizations involved in the IPv6 certification process. Keep in mind that IPv6 is not a feature it...

Stimulating Innovation

ICT is now a recognized, powerful enabler for all economic sectors. Investment in ICT is essential to maintaining competitiveness in a global economy. Extensive technology adoption increases exposure to business challenges that can be addressed in the context of advanced communications infrastructures. ICT enables each economic sector to adapt rapidly to new demands, to interface efficiently with partners, to open remote markets, and to innovate. According to the 2006 WITSA report, the global...

Summary

This chapter reminds us, if not reveals some new aspects, of IP's importance in our lives and our organizations. It presents the many aspects of IP communications that subconsciously or unknowingly we include in the now ubiquitous term Internet. It highlights how much our business and our economy depends on reliable IP communications and how this dependence will continue to increase over time. Through a few simple examples, the IP infrastructure clearly comes across as a strategic asset that a...

T

Tables, routing, 19 TAHI suites, 109 Taito, Japan, 107 Tata Communications case for IPv6, 196-197 case study, 187-203 company profile, 189-191 infrastructure, 194-195 lessons learned, 202-203 networks profile, 191-194 perspective on IPv6, 195-196 planning and implementation, 197-202 Tata Indicom Cable, 191 TCP and UDP with Bigger Addresses (TUBA), 21 TCP IP Internet specifications, 4 teams Bechtel Corporation, 318-320 core, 318 Engineering Center), 113 technology education, 104, 383-387...

The Business Case for IPv6

To a large degree, mass adoption of new technology is fueled by a person's vision of What's in it for me Can the new technology improve my business operations Can I use it to provide a new profitable service Is adoption needed to stay competitive Will the new technology enrich my personal life At the end of the '70s, few of the IP designers envisioned the rapid and widespread adoption of IP IP became the convergence layer for communication services in many industry segments such as home, mobile...

The Case for IPv6

Tata Communications global presence exposed it early on to various levels of request for and interest in IPv6. Based on this market feedback, the business case for offering IPv6 connectivity at Tier 1 level was evident as long as the new service was incremental and had no impact on existent services. From a global Tier 1 network perspective, IPv6 was viewed as a powerful differentiator in the marketplace and an enabler to increase its customer base by attracting customers planning for a future...

The Costs of an IP Evolution

The thought of transitioning such vast and operationally critical infrastructures as the IP networks from one version to another is daunting. At first sight the expected costs appear very large, and the question that immediately and naturally comes to everyone's mind is What is the return on such a large investment The networking world and its IPv6 community lived for a very long time under the heavy weight of the return on investment (ROI) question a question that became very common...

The Economies of Scale and the Growth of IP Infrastructures

Despite its incredible growth, the Internet and the many networks it comprises has yet to take full advantage of the economies of scale for the services we are familiar with at home, on the road, and at our desks in the office. The adoption of IP continues at an accelerated rate, and drives the need for an ever-increasing infrastructure that supports a large, growing user base. More interesting, however, is the fact that this growth is not capped by the world population. In fact, over the past...

The Global Information Society WSIS

In a short period of time, the Internet adoption introduced IP in all aspects of our lives, whether we know it or not. The Internet's rapid adoption and its overall success can be credited to multiple factors but primarily to its operating and development principles. The Internet, as envisioned by its founders, is a network of networks and operates in a highly distributed, nonregulated manner. Its management and governance are developed and implemented locally by the user community....

The IPv6 Team

IPv6 is not just a technology exercise. The work scope is broad, touching all aspects of IT in the enterprise. The success of Bechtel's IPv6 deployment can be mainly attributed to the people involved. Here are some of the primary team members in Bechtel's IPv6 deployment Senior IS& T management Bechtel's corporate IS& T leadership was involved in the discussion and decision about the company's IPv6 deployment from the beginning. They are involved in funding decisions and the priority of...

The Macroeconomic and National Perspective

The past few decades have seen tremendous developments in information and communications technology (ICT). These developments have lead to significantly increased capabilities available at lower prices. The computational capacity of devices grew by two orders of magnitude over the last three decades while the equipment prices decreased at a rate of 8 percent a year. This trend facilitates access to IT while increasing its contribution to users' productivity. Early studies raised doubts about...

Training Assessment

Everyone does not need the same skill set or training at the same time. Justin-time training is based on technology being a required skill set, technology being developed deployed, and location (some sites are first). The simplified matrix example shown in Table 6-4 can be completed with the appropriate training dates for each location. The tiers refer to the level of competence required, from Tier 1 (limited basic education) to Tier 4 (the highest level of technical skill needed). The focus of...