A

AAA services, 239 ABC (Always Best Connected), 76 acceptance policies, 380 access Cisco Systems, 284 direct access to devices, 67 fixed-mobile convergence, 77 ICT spending and, 61 wireless, 250 ACLs (access control lists), 51, 124 Acquisition Management System based on product assessment, 375 actuators, 75 ad hoc networks, 47 addresses, 250 constraints, 237 depletion, IPv4, 400 exhaustion of, 37 history of IPv6 standardization, 19-23 IP, Bechtel Corporation, 295 lifetime, 222 adjustments, 172...

Alignment with Strategic Objectives

Organizations should ensure that the implementation of a new technology has strategic value to an organization. This alignment requires an understanding of the business and the capabilities of the new technology. The change may not have immediate and direct short-term ROI, but may be the foundation for other more significant changes over time. The alignment discussed below is applicable within the Bechtel context. Each organization should make its own assessment based on its strategic business...

Broadband Access Provider Comcast

In the context of this book's focus on IP, one might be tempted to think of broadband access providers just in terms of the Internet access services they offer. In reality, access providers deliver significant amounts of bandwidth to home users and businesses. Regardless of whether it is delivered over the existing telephone line, over coaxial cable, or over optical fiber, the major asset is the pipe they have all the way to our home or our business. Originally, the access infrastructure was...

C oN x x

EMEA Asia Pacific Americas 1 Historic and Projected Global ICT Spending by Region The largest single category in ICT spending is communications products and services. Half of the U.S. ICT spending in 2006 was on communications. With IP becoming the primary communications protocol, it is fair to say that the significant investments in ICT reflect the increasing economic value and importance of IP. WITSA data on individual national economies correlates the ICT investments and economic growth....

Company Profile

According to its corporate information page, Bouygues Telecom was created in 1994 by the Bouygues Group, an organization with focus on traditional (construction, transport) infrastructure development. Bouygues Telecom was the first mobile operator to introduce the talk-plan concept to the French market, in 1996. Through several innovative service plans and services, such as Short Message Service (SMS) messaging and music downloads through a partnership with Universal Music, Bouygues Telecom...

Creating Infrastructure Platforms

The basic deployment of new networking protocols depends, at a minimum, on network elements and host computers supporting the technology. Enabling computing and network platforms to support IPv6 is not an end in itself, but it is an important step in creating environments that lead to further innovations in services, applications, and product development. Market demand, however, is essential in driving the industry to continue adding IPv6 capabilities to products. 37. The build it and they will...

Defining the Standards

Many organizations find that involvement in defining new standards or extending existing standards might be a required step to the development of new products and services. Traditional standards bodies as well as industry-specific consortia are places where this is common. A standards ecosystem has evolved where parallel standards development efforts are interdependent. The core IPv6 standards are the basis for changes in several other standards. Although there is no immediate ROI for...

Does IPv6 Provide Increased Security

Today, security is certainly one of the biggest challenges faced by network managers. Any enhancement to security is always welcomed by operational teams. When reading that IPv6 is more secure than IPv4, it is natural to become more interested in the new protocol. In fact, several past business cases have had as a supporting argument the increased security of IPv6. So, is IPv6 more secure than IPv4 or is it just a misunderstanding turned into an IPv6 marketing pitch The source of the enhanced...

Does IPv6 Support Multihomed Sites

Top Down Profiling

It is often stated that multihoming of sites is an IPv6 problem. Multihoming is not a protocol problem. In the case of IPv6, the challenges are due to a set of prefix allocation policies enforced by the RIRs. Multihoming is widely used by enterprises for the following reasons Connect sites of a network with global reach Organizations with multinational infrastructures will connect to multiple service providers in different countries. Backup for the link to the SP An enterprise can have several...

Enabling Education

Education is essential to shaping socially integrated citizens and competent contributors to the society. The education standards and practices become more important in a global society in which a highly educated workforce easily can be leveraged from all over the world. The success of an educated workforce is reflected in the competitiveness of the population. Matching the digital revolution, educational concepts and practices have changed dramatically. Easy and rapid access to information,...

Facilitating and Stimulating Growth

Over the past decade IP environments have been growing at unprecedented rates. This growth has been driven by multiple factors, which stretched the networks not only in size but also in the capabilities required to support new services. The Internet's rapid adoption provides the service providers with a tremendous source of business growth. Internet access is no longer a luxury but a commodity in most household service portfolios. Figure 3-4 shows the growth from 2002 to 2007 in the number of...

Factice World Bank Exploratory Case Study

It was impossible to find a financial institution fully dedicated to the IPv6 integration however, several were investigating the potential technology benefits and challenges. This exploratory case study tries to be as close as possible from all comments received by the people interviewed at the financial institutions. Patrick Grossetete, Chip Popoviciu, Fred Wettling Social networking is one of today's buzz words, but the concept is rather old. There is one social network that has been in...

Global IPv6 Strategies

From Business Analysis to Operational Planning Patrick Grossetete, Ciprian Popoviciu, Fred Wettling Copyright 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without written permission from the publisher, except for the inclusion of brief quotations in a review. Printed in the United States of America...

Government Agencies Early Adopters

An August 2, 2005, memorandum from the Executive Office of the President, Office of Management and Budget, triggered an intense wave of activity to address the strategic deployment of IPv6 within all U.S. federal agencies As I stated in my testimony of June 29, 2005, before the House Committee on Government Reform, we have set June 2008 as the date by which all agencies' infrastructure (network backbones) must be using IPv6 and agency networks must interface with this infrastructure. This...

Industry Perspective

The primary challenges to IPv6 adoption come from wrong perspectives and major misunderstandings with respect to its role and its value. Throughout this book, we have highlighted these problems and addressed them following are some of the primary problems IPv6 is not a feature One common perspective is that IPv6 is a feature that can be turned on to provide new capabilities. The problem with this perspective is that it greatly underestimates the task of integrating IPv6 and it minimizes the...

Introduction

The continued evolution and operation of the Internet as a truly global asset faces multiple challenges impending exhaustion of the global IPv4 address space, new operating systems and applications, next generation infrastructures, and demand for always-on connectivity for a growing variety of devices. The requirements of a new Internet, the pressure generated by the lack of resources for the existing one, and government mandates are just a few drivers for the soaring interest in IPv6 and the...

IP Infrastructure Characteristics

FWB's IT infrastructure is still largely heterogeneous because it has made a few acquisitions over the past four years. Nevertheless, the IT department decided to standardize the deployment of Cisco equipment for campus and WAN routers. The merger of regional banks, opening and closing of branch offices, and starting new overseas operations are part of the IT department's regular activities. To support its branch operations, FWB has negotiated the outsourcing of its WAN to a global ISP that is...

IP Infrastructure Strategic Assets

With IP networks taking on more and more responsibilities by supporting more services, it is only natural that these networks be recognized as strategic resources. This characteristic of today's IP network is independent of its scope or purpose as it has edged into all aspects of our lives. Let's look at what-if scenarios for a dramatic assessment of our dependence on the Internet Home What if your home loses IP connectivity to the Internet Your VoIP telephones will not operate, you will not be...

IP Todays Constraints and Tomorrows Solutions

Despite 15 years' worth of efforts to develop, implement, and deploy a new version of IP, IPv6 lovers and IPv6 haters still argue about what IPv6 can do and cannot do. This debate has resulted in many myths and rumors, which often are contradicted by facts and papers, such as The Case for IPv6, which was published as a draft RFC in 1999 (draft-ietf-iab-case-for-ipv6-06.txt). To offer a realistic and honest perspective on the benefits and challenges of the new protocol, this section addresses...

Pv6 in Other Standards

In addition to products and services, IPv6 is being adopted in standards that enterprises are implementing. Table 6-6 lists some of these standards. 3GPP (3rd Generation Partnership Project) SNIA (Storage Networking Industry Association) DMTF (Distributed Management Task Force) OASIS (Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards) SMI-S (Storage Management Initiative Specification) http www.wimaxforum.org http www.3gpp.org http www.dmtf.org http www.oasis-open.org Table...

Pv6 Planning and Implementation

Based on internal requirements, on market demand, and on its vision for the future service offerings, Sprint has a multifaceted business case for IPv6 that targets the following overall services Enable existing services for IPv6 Enable SprintLink for dual-stack to support the Internet access services initially offered over the IPv6 evaluation network. Provide VPNv6 services to enterprises. Offer managed services for IPv6-capable customer premises equipment. Value-added services With rapidly...

IT Profile

ICT in general and more and more IP networks represent an essential infrastructure for today's optimal operation of the government. Some of the technologies currently used are in the process of being updated and upgraded to support the requirements and scale of today's communications applications. One example is the effort of modernizing the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) infrastructure to support the demands and the scale of today's air traffic environment, an effort similar to that of...

Japan and South Korea

The Japanese government was one of the first to highlight the national importance of ICT and, particularly, an IP access infrastructure. Japanese Prime Minister Yoshiro Mori's September 21, 2000, policy speech to the Japanese Parliament (Diet) was designed to strategically position the country for the 21st century, socially and economically. Prime Minister Mori identified the IT revolution as a national movement as the most important pillar in the rebirth of 16. Japan. Ubiquitous access to...

Lessons Learned

Many of the federal agencies who took on the role of IPv6 early adopter have often done the same thing in the past with other technologies or applications. These organizations are familiar with both the challenges and opportunities of early adoption and have generally demonstrated strong commitment to modernizing their IT infrastructures and to pursuing new IP-enabled services. While some of these agencies started evaluating IPv6 before 2005, the OMB mandate provides additional momentum and...

Network and IT Profile

In terms of the number of IP devices, Comcast operates one of the largest infrastructures in the world. Comcast's infrastructure is made out of at least 21 converged regional-area networks (CRAN) that provide cable TV and IP services to the subscribers in a market or a region. The CRANs are connected by a 3. common, high-speed backbone that enables them to share high-bandwidth content and information. The access network is a DOCSIS-based, bridged cable environment. The OSs currently deployed in...

Networked Sensor Technology Arch Rock

The next step for the Internet is for it to be embedded into the physical world, allowing users to remotely interact with things, spaces, assets, and the environment at large. Roland Acra, President and CEO of Arch Rock In its simplest, most basic form, the title of this section, Networked Sensor Technology, encompasses a huge field of technology and product developments with significant implications for both economic and quality-of-life improvements. The technology's impact is felt in areas...

Perspective on IPv6

Sprint's perspective on IPv6 reflects its long-term investigation of the protocol suite and its exposure to a wide spectrum of customers with varied service requirements. From a protocol analysis perspective, Sprint identifies several benefits of IPv6 adoption Address space scalability IPv6 offers sufficient resources to address the needs of users and to provide new IP-based services to a growing range of device types. The address space enables more scalable and simplified address schemes that...

Project Timeline

The overall migration to an IPv6-only network will probably take a long time and is likely to be achieved through either multiple projects or a single multiphase project. Similar to any technology integration, planning of each step has to meet the delivery dates while taking into consideration multiple timelines, some under the control of the organization and some not Equipment refresh schedules Equipment and software certification cycle Timelines of related projects Manufacturer product and...

Real Life Case of Updating Purchasing Policies

Let's evaluate a real-life case of updating purchasing policies. At the beginning of 2005, a service provider was running an IP network based on Cisco 12000 series routers equipped with Engine 0, 2, 3, and 4 based line cards. Under pressure from a couple of its customers who requested IPv6 connectivity, the service provider did a network assessment, which clearly identified the need to upgrade all line cards to Engine 5 in order to offer IPv6 services at production level and on a large scale....

ROI for Services Supported by IPv6

In recent years U.S. cable TV multiple system operators (MSO) interconnected their various market-contained networks via powerful, nationwide backbones. Although private IPv4 address space was sufficient to manage the devices within a given market, in a consolidated environment, RFC 1918 (private address space) does not offer enough resources to manage the pooled devices. From a technical perspective, the MSOs would always have the option of federating their nationwide network, reuse the...

Standards Compliancy and Interoperability Information

As with any new protocol suite, the industry needs to define and ensure standards compliancy and full interoperability among products from various vendors. Over the past ten years, it was an objective of several test environments to validate the IPv6 implementations. Official agencies and events also work on testing and publishing reports on the topic. Table 6-5 provides a non-exhaustive list of organizations involved in the IPv6 certification process. Keep in mind that IPv6 is not a feature it...

Summary

The key takeaway of this chapter is that IPv6 represents an evolution of IP, not a revolution. Its development reflects the lessons learned from IPv4 and the requirements of today's Internet. The primary benefit comes from increased resources, not from radical protocol changes, as sometimes claimed. The original design goals of the new protocol were also very specific about enabling a smooth transition over the years and facilitating a long-term coexistence of IPv4 and IPv6. 18. The commonly...

The Business Case for IPv6

To a large degree, mass adoption of new technology is fueled by a person's vision of What's in it for me Can the new technology improve my business operations Can I use it to provide a new profitable service Is adoption needed to stay competitive Will the new technology enrich my personal life At the end of the '70s, few of the IP designers envisioned the rapid and widespread adoption of IP IP became the convergence layer for communication services in many industry segments such as home, mobile...

The Case for IPv6

Arch Rock went beyond its technology commitment to IP and focused on IP's next generation. With little existing legacy in IP-based sensor networks or applications, there was an opportunity to pick the most efficient and future-proof IP technology for such an emerging field. Thus, enabling these devices to communicate using IPv6 makes sense considering that they are all part of the next generation networks and that they have rigid requirements for power, memory, processing, and bandwidth...

The Costs of an IP Evolution

The thought of transitioning such vast and operationally critical infrastructures as the IP networks from one version to another is daunting. At first sight the expected costs appear very large, and the question that immediately and naturally comes to everyone's mind is What is the return on such a large investment The networking world and its IPv6 community lived for a very long time under the heavy weight of the return on investment (ROI) question a question that became very common...

The Economies of Scale and the Growth of IP Infrastructures

Despite its incredible growth, the Internet and the many networks it comprises has yet to take full advantage of the economies of scale for the services we are familiar with at home, on the road, and at our desks in the office. The adoption of IP continues at an accelerated rate, and drives the need for an ever-increasing infrastructure that supports a large, growing user base. More interesting, however, is the fact that this growth is not capped by the world population. In fact, over the past...

The Global Information Society WSIS

In a short period of time, the Internet adoption introduced IP in all aspects of our lives, whether we know it or not. The Internet's rapid adoption and its overall success can be credited to multiple factors but primarily to its operating and development principles. The Internet, as envisioned by its founders, is a network of networks and operates in a highly distributed, nonregulated manner. Its management and governance are developed and implemented locally by the user community....

The IPv6 Team

IPv6 is not just a technology exercise. The work scope is broad, touching all aspects of IT in the enterprise. The success of Bechtel's IPv6 deployment can be mainly attributed to the people involved. Here are some of the primary team members in Bechtel's IPv6 deployment Senior IS& T management Bechtel's corporate IS& T leadership was involved in the discussion and decision about the company's IPv6 deployment from the beginning. They are involved in funding decisions and the priority of...

What Comes Next for IP Communications

IP by itself is only the network layer that enables applications and services to communicate. Its real value is tied to the evolution of other technologies, such as Physical and network connections Examples include wireless technologies such as Wi-Fi (wireless fidelity), WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access), IEEE 802.15.4, 3G 4G, and 802.11p high-speed technologies such as Packet over SONET, Gigabit Ethernet, and 10 Gigabit (and 40 and 100 Gigabit in the future) Ethernet and...

Where to Go from Here

Although the industry has reached consensus regarding the inevitability of an IP upgrade, the time to start on that path is largely dependent on the market an organization belongs to, on its long-term vision, and on the national and international environment in which it operates. The timing of an IPv6 adoption is ultimately similar to that of adopting other technologies. It is the result of balancing the benefits and expenses of being an early adopter with the risks of being a late adopter. The...

Be a Follower

If you are a follower, the problems you face are that you might loose leadership and that early adopters might not solve the problems specific to your environment. A rapid IPv6 ramp-up is not simple, and can be expensive. And, there may be little time left to wait. Being a follower creates a downstream impact of having to react to certain change. Having an unidentified protocol running on an enterprise network can be a potential security threat, if undetected. Current versions of several...

IP and Sensor Networks

Arch Rock is focusing not only on sensor technologies but also on their integration into the larger ecosystem of Internet technologies Wireless sensor networking is critical for broad and immediate access to sensory information. The technology removes the physical boundaries that shackle instruments, bringing sensing to places and things previously unobservable and creating networks to make that information readily accessible. Equally important are leading-edge Internet and Web technologies...

ROI for Services Supported by IPv6 Continued

In this simple, theoretical example, Comcast would spend 0.36 for provisioning each subscriber in a centralized model that could not be supported by IPv4. In a federated environment, the inefficiencies in the use of licenses raises the provisioning costs to 0.64 per subscriber. MSOs typically target a maximum cost of 0.50 per subscriber. These estimates do not include, for example, the cost savings for staff, which would also be reduced in a centralized model. The major U.S. cable providers...

Mandated Adoption

In 2003, the interest in IPv6 integration was almost nonexistent in the U.S. market. Even though ICT companies such as Cisco Systems, Apple Computer, and Microsoft were already developing IPv6-capable products, their requirements came primarily from non-U.S. customers. Despite tireless efforts by organizations such as the North American IPv6 Task Force6 and the IPv6 Forum7 to increase IPv6 awareness among businesses, and despite visibly increased attention paid to IPv6 in the Asian markets,...

Tier 1 Service Provider Tata Communications

As a Tier 1 provider of IP wholesale transit services, early adoption of IPv6 has provided us a powerful differentiator in the market place. Now it is the turn of national and regional networks to also reap the benefits of early adoption with their enterprise and retail customer base. Private enterprise networks themselves now start to identify competitive advantages that early use of IPv6 will bring them within their respective industry sectors. Yves Poppe, Director Business Development, Tata...

South Korea

South Korea's strategy on IPv6 shares many similarities with Japan's. Korea had specific per capita GDP goals and was aware of the increasingly positive effect of ICT on the Korean economy, including its exports and trade surplus. The government emphasized the importance of ICT and actively supported the development of the IP infrastructure. The Korean Ministry of Information and Communication (MIC) drew up the IT839 Strategy in 2003 to specifically focus on services, infrastructure, and...

Establishing Leadership Through Innovation

Not all IPv6 adoption efforts are mandated or driven by fears of address exhaustion. There is a lot of innovation happening on IPv6. In some cases IPv6 simply provides the resources for a cleaner implementation of an idea, while in others it offers protocol capabilities that lead to better solutions. A better understanding of IPv6, familiarity and experience with it, and sometimes an IPv6-enabled test or development environment naturally lead to new ideas. These new ideas translate into new...

National Research Environments and Projects

The Internet and the World Wide Web emerged from successful research projects sponsored by the U.S. government. The tremendous return on that investment is impossible to measure. Sponsoring research projects and environments remains one of the most important and least expensive tools available to governments to stimulate innovation and maintain scientific and technological competitiveness. IPv6 will be the foundation of the next generation Internet. Why not repeat the research sponsored...