PC Driver Downloader and Updater Software
One of the primary functions of an operating system is to provide hardware abstraction between platform hardware and the programs that run on it. This hardware abstraction typically occurs in device drivers that are part of the operating system, making those components an integral part of the system. IOS is no different in that regard. IOS contains device drivers for a range of platform hardware devices, such as Flash cards and NVRAM, but most notable are its device drivers for network interfaces. IOS network interface device drivers provide the primary intelligence for packet operations in and out of interfaces. Each driver consists of two main components a control component and a data component. The control component is responsible for managing the state and status of the device (for example, shutting down an interface). The data component is responsible for all data flow operations through the device and contains logic that assists with the packet switching operations. IOS device...
Printer drivers are software programs that enable the computer and the printer to communicate with each other. Drivers also provide an interface for the user to configure printer options. Every printer model has a unique driver. Printer manufacturers frequently update drivers to increase the printer's performance, to add options, or to fix problems. You can download new printer drivers from the manufacturer's website. To update and test a printer driver, follow these steps Step 2. Download the driver. Download the printer driver files to your computer. Most driver files come in a compressed or zipped format. Download the file to a folder, and uncompress or unzip the contents. Save instructions or documentation to a separate folder on your computer. Step 3. Install the downloaded driver. Install the downloaded driver automatically or manually. Most printer drivers have a setup file that automatically searches the system for older drivers and replaces them with the new one. If no setup...
But after the packet is in memory, device drivers notify the switching engine that there is a packet to be switched. Device drivers are the critical pieces of code that connect the interface processors to the switching path in the router. Device drivers generally do several things
When installing a new driver, be sure to disable virus protection software so that none of the files is incorrectly installed. Some virus scanners detect a driver update as a possible virus attack. Also, only one driver should be installed at a time otherwise, some updating processes may conflict. A best practice is to close all applications that are running so that they do not use any files associated with the driver update. Before updating a driver, you should visit the manufacturer's website. In many cases, you can download a self-extracting executable driver file that automatically installs or updates the driver. Alternatively, you can click the Update Driver button in the Device Manager toolbar.
Instructor Note There are many Internet sites where driver downloads may be found. It is likely there will not be one correct answer. If your students do not have Internet access, perform this lab as a demonstration. Complete the following table. An example has been provided for you. Drivers are routinely updated. Manufacturers often move driver files to different areas of their websites. Version numbers change frequently. The driver in the example was found by visiting the manufacturer's (www.intel.com) website. A search for the full name of the NIC was used to find the driver download file.
Computer problems can be attributed to hardware, software, networks, or some combination of the three. You will resolve some types of computer problems more often than others. A stop error is a hardware or software malfunction that causes the system to lock up. This type of error is known as the blue screen of death (BSoD) and appears when the system is unable to recover from an error. The BSoD is usually caused by device driver errors. The Event Log and other diagnostic utilities are available to research a stop error or BSoD error. To prevent these types of errors, verify that the hardware and software drivers are compatible. In addition, install the latest patches and updates for Windows. When the system locks up during startup, the computer can automatically reboot. The reboot is caused by the autorestart function in Windows and makes it difficult to see the error message. The auto-restart function can be disabled in the Advanced Startup Options menu. Table 12-4 is a chart of...
The sending process specifies a destination address defined as a multicast address. The device driver in the sending server converts this address to the corresponding Ethernet address and sends the packet out on the network. The receiving devices, or clients, must indicate that they want to receive datagrams destined for a given multicast address. Complications arise when multicasting is extended beyond a single physical network and multicast packets pass through routers.
The operating system manages the interaction between applications and the hardware. To access and communicate with the hardware, the operating system installs a device driver for each hardware component. A device driver is a small program written by the hardware manufacturer and supplied with the hardware component. When the hardware device is installed, the device driver is also installed, allowing the OS to communicate with the hardware component.
Recall from the preceding section that when a packet is received and copied into memory, the processor is interrupted and the device driver code runs. After the device driver has run, the switching code runs while the processor is still in the context of this receive interrupt.
Gateways can be almost any type of computer. The only criterion is that the gateway device be capable of translating between the two protocols' address architectures and data structures. This requires that the gateway computer have the necessary NICs, device drivers, and conversion software to function as a gateway. Of course, it would also be beneficial if this computer also had the processing power needed to accommodate the loads that will be placed on it
Step 8 The Update Device Driver Wizard launches and will eventually indicate that it was unable to locate a driver for the device. Click Next. Step 11 The Update Device Driver Wizard should indicate it has found the driver. Note The device driver included with Windows ME will need to be updated, as driver version 8.00 Step 6 Click on the Driver tab. Click the Update Driver button. This will launch the Update Device Driver Wizard. Note The device driver included with Windows 2000 will need to be updated, as driver version Note The device driver included with Windows XP will need to be updated, as driver version 8.00 Step 8 Click the Update Driver tab. This will launch the Hardware Update Wizard.
The Registry is a central, secure database in which Windows 2000 and Windows XP stores all hardware configuration information, software configuration information, and system security policies. Components that use the Registry include the Windows kernel, device drivers, setup programs, NTDETECT.COM, hardware profiles, and user profiles.
For example, the PC operating system includes basic functionality such as a file explorer and Internet browser, and might come bundled with a basic word-processing program and spreadsheet, with an abundance of additional applications available that run on top of it and make the PC operating system more useful. Those applications leverage certain operating system infrastructure, such as the file system. The management platform, on the other hand, provides out-of-the-box support for basic management needs such as network monitoring and discovery, with additional add-on applications available to cater to more advanced needs. Those applications use management platform infrastructure. An example are functions that allow applications to communicate with network devices, as well as functions that keep an inventory of the equipment in the network and that cache their configuration in an internal database. Also, where a PC operating system offers plug-in support for additional device drivers,...
IOS device drivers provide a hardware abstraction layer between the media hardware and the operating system. The network interface device drivers are tightly coupled to the packet switching software. In Chapter 2, Packet Switching Architecture, we examine this packet switching software in more detail.
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