In the first part of this chapter, you learned about how TCP/IP protocols at the various layers work with each other and how TCP/IP encapsulates data. Those same concepts are true of OSI, as well as other networking models. The basic ideas can be summed up as follows:
■ Each layer provides a service to the layer above it in the protocol specification.
■ Each layer communicates with the same layer's software or hardware on other computers.
■ To accomplish these tasks, the data is encapsulated progressively with new headers when sending the data and is de-encapsulated when receiving the data.
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