Contents

Introduction xvii Part I Networking Fundamentals 3

Chapter 1 Introduction to Computer Networking Concepts 5

Perspectives on Networking 5

The Flintstones Network: The First Computer Network? 7

Chapter 2 The TCP/IP and OSI Networking Models 15

"Do I Know This Already?" Quiz 16 Foundation Topics 20 The TCP/IP Protocol Architecture 21 The TCP/IP Application Layer 22 The TCP/IP Transport Layer 24 The TCP/IP Internetwork Layer 26 The TCP/IP Network Interface Layer 27 Data Encapsulation 29 OSI Reference Model 31 OSI Layers 31

OSI Layering Concepts and Benefits 34 OSI Terminology 35 OSI Summary 37 Foundation Summary 38 Q&A 41

Chapter 3 Data Link Layer Fundamentals: Ethernet LANs 43

"Do I Know This Already?" Quiz 43 Foundation Topics 47

OSI Perspectives on Local-Area Networks 47 Typical LAN Features for OSI Layer 1 47 Typical LAN Features for OSI Layer 2 50 Data Link Function 1: Arbitration 50 Data Link Function 2: Addressing 51 Data Link Function 3: Error Detection 51 Data Link Function 4: Identifying the Encapsulated Data 52 Early Ethernet Standards 52 Standards Overview 53

The Original Ethernet Standards: 10BASE2 and 10BASE5 53

Repeaters 55 10BASE-T Ethernet 56

Ethernet 10BASE-T Cabling 57 10BASE-T Hubs 59 Performance Issues: Collisions and Duplex Settings 60 Reducing Collisions Through LAN Switching 60 Eliminating Collisions to Allow Full-Duplex Ethernet 62

Ethernet Data-Link Protocols 63 Ethernet Addressing 64 Ethernet Framing 65

Identifying the Data Inside an Ethernet Frame 66 Layer 2 Ethernet Summary 68 Recent Ethernet Standards 68 Fast Ethernet 68 Gigabit Ethernet 69 Foundation Summary 70 Q&A 74

Chapter 4 Fundamentals of WANs 77

"Do I Know This Already?" Quiz 77

Foundation Topics 81

OSI Layer 1 for Point-to-Point WANs 81

WAN Connections from the Customer Viewpoint 84 WAN Cabling Standards 85 Clock Rates, DCE, and DTE 88 Link Speeds Offered by Telcos 89 OSI Layer 2 for Point-to-Point WANs 91 HDLC 91

Point-to-Point Protocol 92

Other Point-to-Point WAN Data-Link Protocols 94 Synchronization 94 Point-to-Point WAN Summary 95 Packet-Switching Services 95 Frame Relay 96

Frame Relay Basics 97 ATM and SONET 100 SONET 100 ATM 101

WAN Terminology Related to Packet Switching 102 Foundation Summary 104 Q&A 106

Chapter 5 Fundamentals of IP 109

"Do I Know This Already?" Quiz 109 Foundation Topics 114 Typical Features of OSI Layer 3 114 Routing (Path Selection) 114

PC1's Logic: Sending Data to a Nearby Router 114 R1 and R2's Logic: Routing Data Across the Network 115 R3's Logic: Delivering Data to the End Destination 116 Network Layer Interaction with the Data Link Layer 116

Network Layer (Layer 3) Addressing 118

Example Layer 3 Address Structures 119 Routing Protocols 119 IP Addressing Fundamentals 120 IP Addressing Definitions 120 How IP Addresses Are Grouped Together 121 Classes of Networks 122

The Actual Class A, B, and C Network Numbers 124 IP Subnetting 124 Network Layer Utilities 127

Address Resolution Protocol and the Domain Name System 127 ICMP Echo and the ping Command 130 RARP, BOOTP, and DHCP 130 IP Routing and Routing Protocols 133

IP Routing Protocols 135 Foundation Summary 138 Q&A 142

Chapter 6 Fundamentals of TCP and UDP 145

"Do I Know This Already?" Quiz 145 Foundation Topics 149 Typical Features of OSI Layer 4 149 The Transmission Control Protocol 150

Multiplexing Using TCP Port Numbers 151

Popular TCP/IP Applications 154 Error Recovery (Reliability) 155 Flow Control Using Windowing 156 Connection Establishment and Termination 158

Connectionless and Connection-Oriented Protocols 159 Data Segmentation and Ordered Data Transfer 160 TCP Function Summary 161 The User Datagram Protocol 161 Foundation Summary 164 Q&A 167

Part II Operating Cisco Devices 169

Chapter 7 Operating Cisco Routers 171

"Do I Know This Already?" Quiz 171 Foundation Topics 176

The Cisco IOS Software Command-Line Interface 176 Access to the CLI 176 CLI Help Features 179 The debug and show Commands 181

Configuring Cisco IOS Software 181 Example Configuration Process 183 Router Memory, Processors, and Interfaces 187 Managing Configuration Files 188

Viewing the Configuration and Old-Style Configuration Commands 190 Initial Configuration (Setup Mode) 190 Upgrading Cisco IOS Software and the Cisco IOS Software Boot Process 194 Upgrading a Cisco IOS Software Image into Flash Memory 194 The Cisco IOS Software Boot Sequence 197 Foundation Summary 200 Q&A 204

Chapter 8 Operating Cisco LAN Switches 209

"Do I Know This Already?" Quiz 209 Foundation Topics 213 Navigating Through a Cisco 2950 Switch 213 2950 Series Features and Functions 213

2950 Switch Operating System 214 Accessing the Cisco 2950 Switch CLI 215 Switch Initialization 216

Switch LEDs During POST 216 Initial Configuration Mode 218 Configuring 2950 IOS Software 220 Foundation Summary 221 Q&A 223

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