Basic Internet Protocol

IP is a term widely used in today's networking world to describe a Network layer protocol that logically defines a distinct host or end systems such as a PC or router with an IP address. An IP address is configured on end systems to allow communication between hosts that are geographically dispersed. An IP address is 32 bits in length with the network mask or subnet mask (also 32 bits in length) defining the host and subnet portion. A subnet is a network that you, as network administrator,...

BGP Attributes

BGP has a number of complex attributes used to determine a path to a remote network. These attributes allow greater flexibility and enable a complex routing decision to ensure that the path to a remote network is the best possible path. The network designer can also manipulate these attributes. BGP, when supplied with multiple paths to a remote network, always chooses a single path to a specific destination. (Load balancing is possible with static routes.) BGP always propagates the best path to...

Advanced OSPF and Integrated Intermediate Systemto Intermediate System

This chapter focuses on a number of objectives falling under the CCNP routing principles. Understanding advanced OSPF routing principles not only applies to the CCNP Routing certification but to all Cisco-based certifications, and it lays the foundations for future certifications in any field of networking. Chapter 3, Basic Open Shortest Path First, started by covering some of the basic Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) concepts. This chapter covers some of the ways OSPF deals with large Internet...

Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol

Now that you have learned about and practiced with some basic and advanced routing protocols, this chapter covers a protocol developed by Cisco Systems used on Cisco IOS routers only. The chapter starts by covering the basic Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) concepts. It then explains of how EIGRP can be configured and monitored. You discover how EIGRP learns about new neighbors and how EIGRP operates in NBMA networks. The five scenarios in this chapter help to complete your...

Basic Border Gateway Protocol

This chapter focuses on Border Gateway Protocol Version 4 (BGP4). BGP4 is covered only slightly in the CCNP routing examination. However, this chapter covers BGP4 in a little more detail to ensure that you have a good appreciation of the way networks connect to the Internet or in large organizations. This chapter covers the basics of Border Gateway Protocol (BGP). Chapter 7, Advanced BGP, covers more advanced BGP topics and scenarios. This chapter contains five practical scenarios to complete...

Advanced BGP

This chapter focuses on the advanced features of Border Gateway Protocol Version 4 (BGP4) and builds on the material presented in Chapter 6, Basic Border Gateway Protocol. This chapter covers BGP4 in even greater detail than the CCNP Routing Exam does in order to ensure that you have a good appreciation for how networks are connected to the Internet. BGP is a routing protocol designed for use in large IP networks. The five practical scenarios in this chapter complete your understanding and...

Chapter

1 How many IP routing tables are there when more than one routing protocol is configured on a Cisco router A There is only one IP routing table, which can include routing information dynamically discovered using OSPF or RIP. For example, the following indicates all the possible routing methods on a Cisco router Codes C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external...

Route Redistribution and Optimization

This chapter covers the issues and challenges facing networks when information from one routing algorithm is redistributed into another. In such a situation, information can be controlled to ensure that the network is routing Internet Protocol (IP) as correctly and efficiently as possible. Routing with one particular algorithm is difficult enough, and managing and controlling many different routing algorithms that might be used in a network is a considerable challenge. The CCNP Routing exam...

CCNP Routing Self Study

This chapter is designed to assist you in your final preparation for the Routing exam by providing you an extensive lab scenario that incorporates many of the technologies and concepts covered in this book. The lab presented here requires a broad perspective and knowledge base. This means that any knowledge you have acquired through the practical examples presented in this guide and real-life network implementations will help you achieve the end goal a routable network according to the set...

Cisco IOS Command Syntax for Redistribution

To configure redistribution among routing protocols, the following command is used under the routing process configuration redistribute protocol process-id level-1 level-1-2 level-2 as-number metric metric-value metric-type type-value match internal external 1 external 2 tag tag-value route-map map-tag weight number-value subnets The redistribution command syntax is further explained in Table 8-2. The redistribution command syntax is further explained in Table 8-2. Table 8-2. Command Syntax for...

Example 210 show ip route on R2

- static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2 E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP i - IS-IS, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2, * - candidate U - per-user static route, o - ODR Gateway of last resort is not set 131.108.0.0 16 is variably subnetted, 9 subnets, 3 masks U - per-user static route, o - ODR Gateway of last resort is not set 131.108.0.0 16 is...

Example 22 Routing Protocols You Can Enable on a Cisco Router

Traffic-engineering Traffic engineered routes traffic-engineering Traffic engineered routes Border Gateway Protocol (BGP), EIGRP, IGRP, Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System (IS-IS) Protocol, OSPF, and RIP are dynamic routing protocols and are all covered in this book. You can use static routing to minimize large routing tables and can manually configure it to override dynamic information. When you configure multiple routing algorithms on a Cisco router, deciding which path to take is...

Example 236 Full Configuration for R2

Interface Loopback0 ip address 199.100.7.1 255.255.255.0 no ip directed-broadcast interface Loopback1 ip address 199.100.8.1 255.255.255.0 interface Loopback2 ip address 199.100.9.1 255.255.255.0 no ip directed-broadcast interface Ethernet0 0 ip address 199.100.2.1 255.255.255.0 no ip directed-broadcast no cdp enable interface TokenRing0 0 no ip address no ip directed-broadcast shutdown ring-speed 16 no cdp enable interface Serial1 1 ip address 199.100.3.2 255.255.255.0 ip directed-broadcast...

Example 25 IP Address Configuration on R1

2w1d LINK-3-UPDOWN Interface LoopbackO, changed state to up 2w1d LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN Line protocol on Interface LoopbackO, changed state to up R1(config-if) ip address 131.108.4.1 255.255.255.0 R1(config-if) interface loopback 1 2w1d LINK-3-UPDOWN Interface Loopback1, changed state to up 2w1d LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN Line protocol on Interface Loopbackl, changed state to up R1(config-if) ip address 131.108.5.1 255.255.255.0 R1(config-if) interface loopback 2 2w1d LINK-3-UPDOWN Interface Loopback2,...

Example 260 Ping Tests from R1 to R2

Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 131.108.7.1, timeout is 2 seconds Success rate is 100 percent (5 5), round-trip min avg max 16 16 16 ms R1 ping 131.108.8.1 Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 131.108.8.1, timeout is 2 seconds Success rate is 100 percent (5 5), round-trip min avg max 16 16 16 ms R1 ping 131.108.1.1 Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 131.108.1.1, timeout is 2 seconds Success rate is 100 percent (5 5), round-trip min avg max 1 1 4 ms R1 This is an example of the standard ping...

Example 29 show ip route Command on R1

- static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2 E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP i - IS-IS, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2, * - candidate U - per-user static route, o - ODR Gateway of last resort is not set 131.108.0.0 24 is subnetted, 5 subnets connected, Loopback2 connected, Loopback1 connected, Loopback0 connected, Serial0 1...

Example 31 Configuring OSPF in a Single Area

Network 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.255 area 0 The following is a list of reasons OSPF is considered a better routing protocol than RIP OSPF has no hop count limitations. (RIP has 15 hops only.) OSPF understands variable-length subnet masks (VLSMs) and allows for summarization. OSPF uses multicasts (not broadcasts) to send updates. OSPF converges much faster than RIP, because OSPF propagates changes immediately. OSPF allows for load balancing with up to six equal-cost paths. OSPF has authentication...

Example 315 R2s IP Routing Table

141.108.0.0 16 is variably subnetted, 7 subnets, 3 masks O IA 141.108.1.128 25 110 846 via 141.108.10.2, 00 08 05, Serial1 0 O IA 141.108.9.128 25 110 782 via 141.108.10.2, 00 26 20, Serial1 0 141.108.1.0 25 110 846 via 141.108.10.2, 00 08 15, Serial1 0 141.108.9.0 25 110 782 via 141.108.10.2, 00 26 20, Serial1 0 141.108.10.0 30 is directly connected, Serial1 0 141.108.12.0 24 110 782 via 141.108.10.2, 00 26 2 141.108.10.4 30 110 845 via 141.108.10.2, 00 26 2 131.108.0.0 16 is variably...

Example 319 show ip ospf virtuallinks

Virtual Link OSPF_VL0 to router 141.108.12.1 is up Run as demand circuit DoNotAge LSA allowed. Transit area 2, via interface Serial1 0, Cost of using 781 Transmit Delay is 1 sec, State POINT_TO_POINT, Timer intervals configured, Hello 10, Dead 40, Wait 40, Retransmit 5 Hello due in 00 00 07 Adjacency State FULL (Hello suppressed) Example 3-19 displays an active link to the remote OSPF router with the ID 141.108.12.1. Now, view the routing tables on R3 to determine whether the area 1 networks...

Example 321 Full Configuration on

Ip ospf network point-to-point ip ospf cost 1000 interface Loopback1 ip address 131.108.6.1 255.255.255.255 interface Loopback2 ip address 131.108.6.2 255.255.255.255 interface Ethernet0 0 ip address 131.108.1.2 255.255.255.0 interface Serial1 0 ip address 141.108.10.1 255.255.255.252 router ospf 2 area 2 virtual-link 141.108.12.1 network 131.108.1.0 0.0.0.255 area 1 network 131.108.5.32 0.0.0.31 area 1 network 131.108.6.1 0.0.0.0 area 1 network 131.108.6.2 0.0.0.0 area 1 network 141.108.10.0...

Example 324 show ip ospf Output

Routing Process ospf 3 with ID 141.108.2.1 Supports only single TOS(TOSO) routes SPF schedule delay 5 secs, Hold time between two SPFs 10 secs Minimum LSA interval 5 secs. Minimum LSA arrival 1 secs Number of external LSA 0. Checksum Sum 0x0 Number of DCbitless external LSA 0 Number of DoNotAge external LSA 0 Number of areas in this router is 1. 1 normal 0 stub 0 nssa Area BACKB0NE(0) Number of interfaces in this area is 4 Area has no authentication SPF algorithm executed 3 times Area ranges...

Example 326 show ip ospf neighbor from R2

Dead Time Address 00 00 39 131.108.1.1 00 00 34 141.108.10.2 Router R2 has two neighbors one across the Ethernet segment and another through the serial connection to R6. The show ip ospf neighbor command displays the neighbor router ID and the priority of the neighbor (both 1 in this example) as well as the DR. Notice that the DR is R1 as seen by R2. The state of the adjacency (Full) and the dead time are displayed. The dead time is the amount of time before the adjacency is declared dead or...

Example 327 show ip ospf neighbor detail from R6

Neighbor 141.108.2.1, interface address 141.108.10.5 In the area 0 via interface Serial0 Neighbor priority is 1, State is FULL, 6 state changes DR is 0.0.0.0 BDR is 0.0.0.0 Options 2 Dead timer due in 00 00 35 Neighbor 131.108.6.2, interface address 141.108.10.1 In the area 2 via interface Serial1 Neighbor priority is 1, State is FULL, 6 state changes DR is 0.0.0.0 BDR is 0.0.0.0 Options 2 Router R6 has no adjacency across any broadcast media, such as Ethernet. Therefore, the neighbors are all...

Example 328 show ip ospf interface from R6

Ethernet0 is up, line protocol is up Internet Address 131.108.26.1 24, Area 0 Process ID 6, Router ID 141.108.12.1, Network Type BROADCAST, Cost Transmit Delay is 1 sec, State WAITING, Priority 1 No designated router on this network No backup designated router on this network Timer intervals configured, Hello 10, Dead 40, Wait 40, Retransmit 5 Hello due in 00 00 01 Wait time before Designated router selection 00 00 11 Neighbor Count is 0, Adjacent neighbor count is 0 Suppress hello for 0...

Example 329 Changing the Ip Ospf Priority on R2

Enter configuration commands, one per R2(config) interface e 0 0 R2(config-if) ip ospf priority 255 R2 show ip ospf neighbor Neighbor ID Interface 131.108.5.1 Ethernet0 0 141.108.12.1 Serial1 0 Dead Time Address 00 00 35 131.108.1.1 00 00 37 141.108.10.2 Dead Time Address 00 00 33 131.108.1.1 Dead Time Address 00 00 31 131.108.1.1 Example 3-29 stills displays the DR as R1 and not R2 even after the configuration setting changes the priority to 255, because the election process has already taken...

Example 330 Shutting Down R1 E00 and show ip ospf neighbor Commands

R1(config-if) shutdown 1w6d LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN Line changed state to down 1w6d LINK-3-UPDOWN Interface 1w6d LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN Line changed state to up R1(config-if) no shutdown 1w6d LINK-3-UPDOWN Interface 1w6d LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN Line changed state to up Ethernet0 0, changed state to up protocol on Interface Ethernet0 0, Ethernet0 0, changed state to up protocol on Interface Ethernet0 0, Example 3-30 displays some interesting facts. The first is that when you shut down the interface and enable...

Example 331 show ip ospf neighbor on R2

Neighbor ID Pri State Dead Time Address 131.108.5.1 Ethernet0 0 141.108.12.1 Serial1 0 00 00 34 131.108.1.1 00 00 35 141.108.10.2 The final command in this scenario is the ip ospf cost command. You use this command to change the cost Cisco routers assign by default by using the formula OSPF cost 108 bandwidth. This command is not the only method you can use to change the cost. You can also use the bandwidth command on a particular interface and let the Cisco IOS use the bandwidth portion of the...

Example 350 show ip ospf interface Command on San Fran

Ethernet0 0 is up, line protocol is up Internet Address 131.108.1.1 24, Area 0.0.0.0 Process ID 1, Router ID 131.108.5.1, Network Type BROADCAST, Cost 10 Transmit Delay is 1 sec, State DR, Priority 1 Designated Router (ID) 131.108.5.1, Interface address 131.108.1.1 No backup designated router on this network Timer intervals configured, Hello 30, Dead 120, Wait 120, Retransmit Neighbor Count is 0, Adjacent neighbor count is 0 Suppress hello for 0 neighbor(s) Loopback0 is up, line protocol is up...

Example 357 Changing Hello Interval to 10 Seconds on San Fran

SanFran(con SanFran(con SanFran(con SanFran 2w5d SYS-SanFran 2w5d OSPF 131.108.1.2 2w5d OSPF 2w5d OSPF flag 0x7 len 32 mtu 2w5d OSPF fig) interface ethernet 0 0 fig-if) ip ospf hello-interval 10 5-CONFIG_I Configured from console by console Rcv hello from 131.108.7.1 area 0.0.0.0 from Ethernet0 0 End of hello processing Rcv DBD from 131.108.7.1 on Ethernet0 0 seq 0x1235 opt 0x2 flag 0x7 l en 32 2w5d 2w5d 2w5d 2w5d 2 Way Communication to 131.108.7.1 on Ethernet0 0, state Neighbor change Event on...

Example 358 San Fran IP Routing Table

131.108.0.0 16 is variably subnetted, 5 subnets, 2 masks C 131.108.5.0 24 is directly connected, Loopbackl C 131.108.4.0 24 is directly connected, LoopbackO C 131.108.1.0 24 is directly connected, Ethernet0 0 The Router SanFran now discovers the remote networks 131.108.7.1 32 and 131.108.6.0 32 through OSPF. This scenario has introduced you to some powerful OSPF commands that you can use to discover why OSPF is not functioning correctly. Cisco IOS is updated almost daily, so you need to...

Example 359 Possible show and debug OSPF Commands

< 1-4294967295> Process ID number border-routers Border and Boundary Router Information interface Interface information request-list Link state request list retransmission-list Link state retransmission list summary-address Summary-address redistribution Information virtual-links Virtual link information database-timer OSPF database timer events OSPF events lsa-generation OSPF lsa generation packet OSPF packets retransmission OSPF retransmission events Using the character on the...

Example 418 R5s Current IP Routing Table

Codes C - connected, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2 E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP 131.108.0.0 16 is variably subnetted, 41 subnets, 2 masks E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP 131.108.0.0 16 is variably subnetted, 41 subnets, 2 masks 255.16 30 110 983 via 131.108.255. 255.20 30 110 983 via 131.108.255. 255.0 30 110 128 via 131.108.255.9 255.4 30 110 919 via 131.108.255.9...

Example 44 R1 Routing Table

Codes C - connected, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2 E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, 131.108.0.0 16 is variably subnetted, 39 subnets, 2 masks O IA 131.108.255.16 30 110 855 via 131.108.1.2, 00 08 21, Ethernet0 0 O IA 131.108.255.20 30 110 855 via 131.108.1.2, 00 05 29, Ethernet0 0 C 131.108.255.0 30 is directly connected, Serial0 0 O 131.108.255.4 30 110 791 via 131.108.1.2, 00 12 44, O IA 131.108.255.8 30 110...

Example 445 Sample Ping Requests from R4

Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 141.108.3.1, timeout is 2 seconds Success rate is 100 percent (5 5), round-trip min avg max 28 36 60 ms R4 ping 141.108.4.1 Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 141.108.4.1, timeout is 2 seconds Success rate is 100 percent (5 5), round-trip min avg max 16 17 20 ms R4 ping 141.108.255.9 Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 141.108.255.9, timeout is 2 seconds Success rate is 100 percent (5 5), round-trip min avg max 16 16 20 ms R4 ping 141.108.255.10 Sending 5,...

Example 446 Routing OSPF to ISIS on R4

R4(config) router isis R4(config-router) redistribute metric Metric for redistributed routes metric-type OSPF IS-IS exterior metric type for redistributed routes ospf Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) rip Routing Information Protocol (RIP) R4(config-router) redistribute ospf < 1-65535> Process ID R4(config-router) redistribute ospf 1 level-1 IS-IS level-1 routes only level-1-2 IS-IS level-1 and level-2 routes level-2 IS-IS level-2 routes only Redistribution of OSPF routes Metric for...

Example 452 Configuring ISIS to OSPF Redistribution

R4(config-router) redistribute isis level-1 IS-IS level-1 routes only level-2 metric metric-type route-map IS-IS level-2 routes only Metric for redistributed routes OSPF IS-IS exterior metric type for redistributed routes Route map reference Consider subnets for redistribution into OSPF tag Set tag for routes redistributed into OSPF R4(config-router) redistribute isis level-1-2 OSPF IS-IS exterior metric type for redistributed routes Route map reference Consider subnets for redistribution into...

Example 460 Full Working Configuration of Router Sydney

Ip subnet-zero no ip domain-lookup interface Ethernet0 0 ip address 141.108.1.1 255.255.255.0 no ip directed-broadcast Example 4-61 displays the full working configuration of Router Simon. Simon is running OSPF and RIP. You must always be careful when redistributing information from one routing domain into another. Simon advertises the non 24 subnets as Class C networks so the RIP domain (Sydney router) can inject them into the routing table. Because RIPvl is classless and the subnet...

Example 464 Sydney IP Routing Table

Gateway of last resort is 141.108.1.4 to network 0.0.0.0 141.108.0.0 24 is subnetted, 5 subnets R 141.108.255.0 120 2 via 141.108.1.4, 00 00 05, Ethernet0 0 C 141.108.1.0 is directly connected, Ethernet0 0 R 141.108.3.0 120 1 via 141.108.1.4, 00 00 05, Ethernet0 0 R 141.108.2.0 120 2 via 141.108.1.4, 00 00 05, Ethernet0 0 R 141.108.4.0 120 1 via 141.108.1.4, 00 00 05, Ethernet0 0 R* 0.0.0.0 0 120 2 via 141.108.1.4, 00 00 05, Ethernet0 0 The answers to these question can be found in Appendix C,...

Example 466 show ip ospf neighbor Command on Simo

Neighbor ID Pri State Dead Time Address mel 1 FULL - 00 00 30 141.108.255.6 sanfran 1 FULL - 00 00 30 141.108.255.2 7 Two methods are used in OSPF to summarize IP networks. What are they and what IOS command is used to provide summarization A Inter-area summarization with area area id range mask command. External summarization with the IOS command summary network mask command. 8 Why does creating areas reduce the size of the OSPF database A Reducing the number of areas leads to the reduction of...

Example 512 R1s Eigrp Routing Table

131.108.0.0 16 is variably subnetted, 8 subnets, 2 masks To support large IP networks, you can use several Cisco IOS enhancements, such as network summarization, load balancing, and reducing the load on WAN links with the bandwidth command, to fine-tune EIGRP. Several factors can contribute to a poorly designed network, such as the amount of routing information exchanged between routers, the number of routers in your network, the network diameter of your network (hop count in EIGRP is still...

Example 520 show ip route neighbors on R8

168.131.0.0 16 is variably subnetted, 2 subnets, 2 masks C 168.131.2.0 30 is directly connected, SerialO C 168.131.1.0 24 is directly connected, Ethernet0 R8 has no remote EIGRP entries because R4 is not redistributing IP networks from EIGRP AS 1 into 2. R4 must be configured for redistribution because EIGRP does not automatically redistribute among different autonomous systems. (EIGRP and IGRP automatic redistribution occurs only if the AS is the same.) If the routers in AS 1 want to send data...

Example 522 show ip route Command on R8

Codes C - connected, D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external 168.131.0.0 16 is variably subnetted, 2 subnets, 2 masks C 168.131.2.0 30 is directly connected, SerialO C 168.131.1.0 24 is directly connected, Ethernet0 131.108.0.0 16 is variably subnetted, 41 subnets, 3 masks D EX 131.108.255.16 30 17 0 26112000 via 168.131.2.1, 00 02 57, D EX 131.108.14.0 24 17 0 26112000 via 168.131.2.1, 00 02 58, Serial0 D EX 131.108.13.0 24 17 0 26112000 via 168.131.2.1, 00 02 58, Serial0 D EX 131.108.12.0 24 17 0...

Example 531 R3s IP Routing Table

168.131.0.0 16 is variably subnetted, 3 subnets, 3 masks D EX 168.131.2.0 30 17 0 25625600 via 131.108.36.4, 10 54 34, EthernetO D EX 168.131.1.0 24 17 0 25625600 via 131.108.36.4, 10 54 34, Ethernet0 D EX 168.131.0.0 16 17 0 25625600 via 131.108.36.4, 10 54 34, Ethernet0 131.108.0.0 16 is variably subnetted, 40 subnets, 2 masks D 131.108.255.16 30 90 21017600 via 131.108.36.4, 11 13 47, C 131.108.255.0 30 is directly connected, Serial0 D 131.108.255.4 30 90 21017600 via 131.108.36.4, 11 17 45,...

Example 536 show ip route eigrp on R3

168.131.0.0 16 is variably subnetted, 3 subnets, 3 masks D EX 168.131.2.0 30 17 0 25625600 via 131.108.36.4, 00 02 17, Ethernet0 D EX 168.131.1.0 24 17 0 25625600 via 131.108.36.4, 00 02 17, Ethernet0 D EX 168.131.0.0 16 17 0 25625600 via 131.108.36.4, 00 02 17, Ethernet0 131.108.0.0 16 is variably subnetted, 12 subnets, 3 masks D 131.108.255.16 30 90 21017600 via 131.108.36.4, 00 02 17, D 131.108.255.4 30 90 21017600 via 131.108.36.4, 00 02 22, D 131.108.130.0 24 90 21017600 via...

Example 54 Eigrp Neighbors on R1

H Address Interface Hold Uptime SRTT RTO Q 0 131.108.1.2 Et0 0 12 00 00 34 4 200 0 1 Example 5-4 displays the neighbor R2 with the IP address 131.108.1.2, and the outbound interface the EIGRP neighbor (in this case R2) was discovered. R1 discovered a remote EIGRP neighbor through the Ethernet interface (displayed as Et0 0). The holdtime indicates the length of time, in seconds, that the Cisco IOS Software waits to hear from the peer before declaring it down. Smooth Round Trip Time (SRTT) is the...

Example 55 R1s Eigrp Topology Table

Interfaces IP-EIGRP interfaces neighbors IP-EIGRP neighbors topology IP-EIGRP Topology Table traffic IP-EIGRP Traffic Statistics IP-EIGRP Topology Table for process 1 Codes P - Passive, A - Active, U - Update, Q - Query, R - Reply, r - Reply status P 131.108.15.0 24, 1 successors, FD is 409600 via 131.108.1.2 (409600 128256), Ethernet0 0 P 131.108.14.0 24, 1 successors, FD is 409600 via 131.108.1.2 (409600 128256), Ethernet0 0 P 131.108.13.0 24, 1 successors, FD is 409600 via 131.108.1.2...

Example 57 R1s Topology Table

Example 5-7 does not display the remote entry 131.108.15.0 24, and, therefore, it is not present in the IP routing table. EIGRP maintains IP routes by using DUAL and maintaining an EIGRP topology table. For remote entries with multiple routes, EIGRP uses the feasible condition (FC) to determine the best path. The EIGRP routing algorithm always chooses the path to a remote destination with the lowest metric. The topology table maintains all paths to remote networks, so by simply viewing the...

Example 622 show ip bgp neighbors on R1

BGP neighbor is 131.108.1.2, remote AS 1, internal link Established, table version 5, up for 00 04 30 Last read 00 00 30, hold time is 180, keepalive interval is 60 seconds Minimum time between advertisement runs is 5 seconds Received 1297 messages, 0 notifications, 0 in queue Sent 1290 messages, 0 notifications, 0 in queue Prefix advertised 14, suppressed 0, withdrawn 0 Connections established 7 dropped 6 Last reset 00 04 39, due to User reset 4 accepted prefixes consume 128 bytes 0 history...

Example 624 show ip bgp neighbors on R1 Truncated

BGP neighbor is 131.108.1.2, remote AS 1, internal link Index 1, Offset 0, Mask 0x2 BGP version 4, remote router ID 131.108.255.1 BGP state Established, table version 8, up for 00 58 56 Last read 00 00 56, hold time is 180, keepalive interval is 60 seconds Minimum time between advertisement runs is 5 seconds Received 1351 messages, 0 notifications, 0 in queue Sent 1347 messages, 0 notifications, 0 in queue Prefix advertised 16, suppressed 0, withdrawn 1 Connections established 7 dropped 6 Last...

Example 626 show ip bgp summary on R4

A.B.C.D IP prefix < network> < length> , e.g., 35.0.0.0 8 neighbors connections paths peer-group quote-regexp expression Network in the BGP routing table to display Display only routes with non-natural netmasks Display routes matching the communities Display routes matching the community-list Display paths suppressed due to dampening Display routes conforming to the filter-list Display flap statistics of routes Display only routes with inconsistent origin ASs Address family Detailed...

Example 633 R2 s Full Working Configuration

No ip domain-lookup interface Loopback0 ip address 131.108.5.1 255.255.255.0 interface Loopback1 ip address 131.108.6.1 255.255.255.0 interface Loopback2 ip address 131.108.7.1 255.255.255.0 interface Ethernet0 0 ip address 131.108.1.2 255.255.255.0 interface Serial1 0 ip address 131.108.255.1 255.255.255.0 clockrate 128000 neighbor 131.108.255.2 remote-as 2 no auto-summary neighbor 131.108.255.2 remote-as 2 no auto-summary line con 0 line aux 0 line vty 0 4 end Example 6-34 display R3's full...

Example 638 show ip bgp neighbors on R1

BGP neighbor is 161.108.1.1, remote AS 2, Index 1, Offset 0, Mask 0x2 BGP version 4, remote router ID 0.0.0, Last read 00 03 37, hold time is 180, keepalive interval is 60 seconds Minimum time between advertisement runs is 30 seconds Received 0 messages, 0 notifications, 0 in queue Sent 0 messages, 0 notifications, 0 in queue Prefix advertised 0, suppressed 0, withdrawn 0 Connections established 0 dropped 0 Last reset never 0 accepted prefixes consume 0 bytes 0 history paths consume 0 bytes...

Example 642 show ip bgp neighbors on R1

BGP neighbor is 161.108.1.1, remote AS 2, external link Index 1, Offset 0, Mask 0x2 BGP version 4, remote router ID 161.108.1.1 BGP state Established, table version 3, up for 00 03 51 Last read 00 00 51, hold time is 180, keepalive interval is 60 seconds Minimum time between advertisement runs is 30 seconds Received 7 messages, 0 notifications, 0 in queue Sent 7 messages, 0 notifications, 0 in queue Prefix advertised 1, suppressed 0, withdrawn 0 Connections established 1 dropped 0 Last reset 00...

Example 712 show ip bgp on R2 and ping on R2

131.108.0.0 16 is variably subnetted, 5 subnets, 2 masks B 131.108.255.0 30 200 0 via 131.108.1.1, 00 02 58 B 131.108.255.4 30 200 0 via 131.108.1.1, 00 02 58 B 131.108.255.0 30 200 0 via 131.108.1.1, 00 02 58 B 131.108.255.4 30 200 0 via 131.108.1.1, 00 02 58 C 131.108.1.0 24 is directly connected, Ethernet0 0 C 131.108.1.0 24 is directly connected, Ethernet0 0 Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 131.108.3.1, timeout is 2 seconds Success rate is 100 percent (5 5), round-trip min avg max 16 16 20...

Example 729 show ip bgp on R3

BGP table version is 84, local router ID is 131.108.254.3 Status codes s suppressed, d damped, h history, * valid, > best, i - Origin codes i - IGP, e - EGP, - incomplete Network Next Hop Metric LocPrf Weight Path Network Next Hop Metric LocPrf Weight Path The preferred path on R3 to 131.108.1.0 24 is through R1 the peer address is 131.108.254.1 (R1's loopback address). When the TCP peer to R1 fails on R3, the preferred path is through R2 (a route reflector). Example 7-30 displays the BGP...

Example 731 R1s Full Working Configuration

Interface LoopbackO ip address 131.108.254.1 255.255.255.255 interface Ethernet0 0 ip address 131.108.1.1 255.255.255.0 interface Serial1 0 ip address 131.108.255.5 255.255.255.252 clockrate 128000 interface Serial1 1 ip address 131.108.255.1 255.255.255.252 interface Serial1 2 ip address 131.108.255.9 255.255.255.252 router ospf 1 network 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.255 area 0 Example 7-32 displays R2's full working configuration.

Example 74 show ip bgp summary Command on R1

BGP router identifier 131.108.255.5, local AS number 333 BGP table version is 3, main routing table version 3 3 network entries and 3 paths using 363 bytes of memory 1 BGP path attribute entries using 92 bytes of memory BGP activity 6 3 prefixes, 7 4 paths Neighbor State PfxRcd Example 7-4 shows that three remote peers, to R2 (131.108.1.2), R3 (131.108.255.6), and R4 (131.108.255.2), are established. Example 7-5 displays the BGP table on R1.

Example 742 bgp alwayscomparemed Command on R2

R2(config-router) bgp always-compare-med After you clear the BGP sessions on R2, the BGP table on R2 displays the preferred default route 0.0.0.0 0 through R1. Example 7-43 displays the BGP table on R2. BGP table version is 9, local router ID is 131.108.254.2 Status codes s suppressed, d damped, h history, * valid, > best, i - BGP table version is 9, local router ID is 131.108.254.2 Status codes s suppressed, d damped, h history, * valid, > best, i - Example 7-43 shows that the new...

Example 754 Prepending Routes on ISP1

Route-map prepend permit 10 match ip address 1 route-map prepend permit 10 match ip address 1 route-map prepend permit 20 match ip address 2 set origin igp The route map also configures the BGP origin attribute to IGP (as advertised by the network command). All subnets allowed by access list 1 prepend all networks to 998 999 and set the origin to IGP. Similarly, line 20 in the route map (route-map prepend permit 20) statement configures all networks in access list 2 with an IGP origin...

Example 757 Initial Prefix List Configuration on R1 Pointing to ISP1

R1(config-router) neighbor 171.108.1.1 prefix-list WORD Name of a prefix list R1(config-router) neighbor 171.108.1.1 prefix-list ccnp in Filter incoming updates out Filter outgoing updates R1(config-router) neighbor 171.108.1.1 prefix-list ccnp in R1 is configured to apply a prefix list to all inbound traffic from the router ISP1. As yet, you have not defined the prefix list. As with an access list, you need to configure the options for the prefix list to perform any filtering. Example 7-58...

Example 762 ISP1s Full Working Configuration

Interface Serial0 ip address 171.108.1.1 255.255.255.252 router bgp 50001 redistribute static neighbor 171.108.1.2 neighbor 171.108.1.2 neighbor 171.108.1.2 remote-as 333 default-originate route-map prepend out ip route 10.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 NullO ip route 11.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 Null0 ip route 100.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 Null0 ip route 101.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 Null0 ip route 102.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 Null0 ip route 10.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 NullO ip route 11.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 Null0 ip route 100.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 Null0 ip route...

Example 763 Full show ip bgp Command List

IP prefix < network> < length> , e.g., 35.0.0.0 8 Network in the BGP routing table to display Display only routes with non-natural netmasks community community-list dampened-paths filter-list flap-statistics inconsistent-as neighbors connections paths Display routes matching the communities Display routes matching the community-list Display paths suppressed due to dampening Display routes conforming to the filter-list Display flap statistics of routes Display only routes with...

Example 765 show ip bgp cidronly on R1

Status codes s suppressed, d damped, h history, * valid, > best, i internal Origin codes i - IGP, e - EGP, - incomplete Network Next Hop Metric LocPrf Weight Path *> 131.108.1.0 24 0.0.0.0 0 32768 i Table 7-3 displays the field descriptions for the show ip bgp cidr-only command. Table 7-3 displays the field descriptions for the show ip bgp cidr-only command. Table 7-3. show ip bgp cidr-only Descriptions Internal version number for the table. This number is incremented whenever the table...

Example 767 show ip bgp regexp998

BGP table version is 12, local router ID is 171.108.1.2 Status codes s suppressed, d damped, h history, * valid, > best, i - Origin codes i - IGP, e - EGP, - incomplete *> 7.0.0.0 999 i *> 8.0.0.0 999 i *> 11.0.0.0 999 i After you ascertain which networks are encompassed in path AS 998, you might want to implement a route map. For example, you could implement a route map that sets the MED to 100 and weight to 1000 for only those paths passing through 998. REGEXPs are used prior to...

Example 769 R2s Full Working Configuration

Interface Ethernet0 0 ip address 131.108.1.2 255.255.255.0 interface Serial1 0 ip address 171.108.1.5 255.255.255.252 clockrate 128000 router ospf 1 redistribute connected metric 100 subnets redistribute bgp 100 metric 100 subnets network 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.255 area 0 network 131.108.1.0 mask 255.255.255.0 redistribute ospf 1 metric 100 ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 NullO line con 0 line aux 0 line vty 0 4 Example 7-70 displays the full working configuration on R3. The shaded portions call your...

Example 81 IP Address Configuration and Enabling IGRP on R3

R3(config) interface ethernet 0 R3(config-if) ip address 9.1.3.1 255.255.255.0 R3(config-if) interface serial0 R3(config-if) ip address 9.1.2.2 255.255.255.0 R3(config-if) exit R3(config) router igrp 10 Notice, on R3, when enabling IGRP in AS 10, the network command used is network 9.0.0.0 because IGRP is classful and automatically summarizes at the Class A network boundary. Example 8-2 configures R2 for IP addressing and enables RIP.

Example 839 Area Summary on R1

Authentication Enable authentication default-cost Set the summary default-cost of a NSSA stub area nssa Specify a NSSA area range Summarize routes matching address mask (border virtual-link Define a virtual link and its parameters R1(config-router) area 1 range A.B.C.D IP address to match R1(config-router) area 1 range 141.108.0.0 The tool is used to display the various options. The mask, 255.255.248.0, encompasses the seven networks ranging from 141.108.0.0-141.108.7.0. You may ask yourself...

Example 862 Pinging Loopbacks from R4

Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 141.108.0.1, timeout is 2 seconds Success rate is 100 percent (5 5), round-trip min avg max 36 37 44 ms R4 ping 141.108.1.1 Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 141.108.1.1, timeout is 2 seconds Success rate is 100 percent (5 5), round-trip min avg max 36 37 40 ms R4 ping 141.108.2.1 Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 141.108.2.1, timeout is 2 seconds Success rate is 100 percent (5 5), round-trip min avg max 36 36 40 ms R4 ping 141.108.3.1 Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP...

Example 863 show ip eigrp topology on R4

IP-EIGRP Topology Table for AS(1) ID(160.100.1.1) Codes P - Passive, A - Active, U - Update, Q - Query, R - Reply, r - Reply status P 141.108.255.20 30, 1 successors, FD is 20992000 via Connected, Serial1 P 141.108.255.16 30, 1 successors, FD is 21504000 via Redistributed (21504000 0) P 141.108.255.12 30, 1 successors, FD is 20992000 via Connected, Serial0 P 141.108.255.4 30, 1 successors, FD is 21504000 via 141.108.255.13 (21504000 20992000), Serial0 P 141.108.255.0 30, 1 successors, FD is...

Example 891 show ip eigrp topology on R1

IP-EIGRP Topology Table for process 1 Codes P - Passive, A - Active, U - Update, Q - Query, R - Reply, r - Reply status P 151.108.255.0 24, 1 successors, FD is 20512000 via Connected, Serial1 0 P 151.108.254.0 24, 1 successors, FD is 20512000 via Connected, Serial1 1 > sors, FD is 21024 21024000 20512000 21024000 20512000 P 141 P 141 P 141 P 141 P 141 P 141 P 141 P 141 P 141 P 141 P 141 P 141 P 141 P 141 P 141 P 141 P 141 P 141 P 141 P 141 P 141 108.1.0 24, via Redi 108.0.0 24, via Redi...

Example 910 Full Working Configuration of Catalysts Switch 6509

Set vlan 1 name default type ethernet mtu 1500 said 100001 state active set vlan 100 name VLAN_100_R1E0 0 type ethernet mtu 1500 said 100100 state active set vlan 200 name VLAN_2 0 0_R2E0 0 type ethernet mtu 1500 said 100200 state active set vlan 300 name VLAN_300_R3E0 type ethernet mtu 1500 said 100300 state active set vlan 400 name VLAN_400_R4E0 type ethernet mtu 1500 said 100400 state active set vlan 500 name VLAN_500_R5E0 type ethernet mtu 1500 said 100500 state active set vlan 550 name...

Example 914 Pinging Lanwan Interfaces from R1

Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 133.33.3.1, timeout is 2 seconds Success rate is 100 percent (5 5), round-trip min avg max 16 16 16 ms R1 ping 133.33.7.2 Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 133.33.7.2, timeout is 2 seconds Success rate is 100 percent (5 5), round-trip min avg max 16 16 20 ms R1 ping 133.33.7.9 Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 133.33.7.9, timeout is 2 seconds Success rate is 100 percent (5 5), round-trip min avg max 16 20 28 ms R1 ping 133.33.4.1 Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos...

Example 915 show ip ospf interface on R1

Ethernet0 0 is up, line protocol is up Internet Address 133.33.1.1 29, Area 100 Process ID 1, Router ID 133.33.201.1, Network Type BROADCAST, Cost Transmit Delay is 1 sec, State DR, Priority 1 Designated Router (ID) r1, Interface address 133.33.1.1 No backup designated router on this network Timer intervals configured, Hello 10, Dead 40, Wait 40, Retransmit 5 Hello due in 00 00 05 Neighbor Count is 0, Adjacent neighbor count is 0 Suppress hello for 0 neighbor(s) Serial1 0 is up, line protocol...

Example 917 Ping Request on R2 to Remote Networks

Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 133.33.201.1, timeout is 2 seconds Success rate is 100 percent (5 5), round-trip min avg max 16 16 20 ms R2 ping 133.33.202.1 Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 133.33.202.1, timeout is 2 seconds Success rate is 100 percent (5 5), round-trip min avg max 1 2 4 ms R2 ping 133.33.203.1 Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 133.33.203.1, timeout is 2 seconds Success rate is 100 percent (5 5), round-trip min avg max 16 16 16 ms R2 ping 133.33.204.1 Sending 5, 100-byte...

Example 921 Pinging All Loopbacks Using Names on R3

Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 133.33.201.1, timeout is 2 seconds Success rate is 100 percent (5 5), round-trip min avg max 20 22 24 ms R3 ping r2 Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 133.33.202.1, timeout is 2 seconds Success rate is 100 percent (5 5), round-trip min avg max 16 16 16 ms R3 ping r3 Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 133.33.203.1, timeout is 2 seconds Success rate is 100 percent (5 5), round-trip min avg max 1 2 4 ms R3 ping r4 Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 133.33.204.1,...

Example 923 show ip route on R4

Codes C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B -BGP D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2 E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP i - IS-IS, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2, ia - IS-IS inter area * - candidate default, U - per-user static route, o - ODR P - periodic downloaded static route Gateway of last resort is 133.33.201.1 to network 0.0.0.0 B 102.0.0.0 8...

Example 93 R2 s Full Working Configuration

Ip subnet-zero no ip domain-lookup ip host R6 133.33.206.1 ip host R5 133.33.205.1 ip host R4 133.33.204.1 ip host R3 133.33.203.1 ip host R2 133.33.202.1 interface Loopback0 ip address 133.33.202.1 255.255.255.0 ip ospf network point-to-point interface Loopback1 ip address 133.33.24.1 255.255.255.0 ip ospf network point-to-point interface Loopback2 ip address 133.33.26.1 255.255.255.0 ip ospf network point-to-point interface Loopback3 ip address 133.33.25.1 255.255.255.0 ip ospf network...

Figure 12 Logical AND Operation

IP Address (171.224.10.67 10101 1.11100400.00001010.01000011 IP Subnet MASK (255-255.255.224) 11111111*11111111 .11111111,11100000 Logical AND 101 1011.1110M00.00401010.01 (MOM The subnet is 171.224.10.64. The number of hosts that can reside on this network with a subnet mask of 255.255.255.224 (or 11100000, 5 borrow bits) is 25 - 2 32 - 2 30 hosts. You can apply the technique used in this simple example to any Class A, B, or C address, and applying a subnet mask that is not the default or...

Figure 14 IP Address Configuration Requirements

Start by breaking up the subnet 131.108.1.0 24 into four equal subnets. To do this, examine the subnet in binary. The last eight bits are used for host addresses, so by default you have 254 IP address available. To allow at most 62 hosts, you use the formula 2n - 2 62, which becomes 2n 64. n, which is the borrowed amount of bits, becomes six bits. So to allow at most 62 hosts, you must use the subnet mask of 255.255.255.192, where 192 in binary is 11000000. The host devices use the last six...

Figure 32 OSPF Topology and IP Addressing

In this scenario, you add two new routers, R3 and R6, and create an additional two new areas Area 0 and Area 2. That makes a total of three areas the backbone Area 0 between R3 and R6, Area 2 covering the link between R6 and R2, and Area 1 covering the Ethernets between R1 and R2. Routers R2 and R6 in this case are referred to area border routers (ABRs) because more than one area is configured on each router. OSPF includes a number of different router types. Table 3-3 displays all the possible...

Figure 47 OSPF and Integrated ISIS Network Topology

Ri has toopback addresses fanging fnofin 131.108.2.0 to 131.109.15.255 lo help populate Ri has toopback addresses fanging fnofin 131.108.2.0 to 131.109.15.255 lo help populate Because R4 is within both the OSPF and IS-IS domain, you can configure redistribution between OSPF and IS-IS. To configure redistribution between any IP routing protocols, you must configure a metric that is used within the IP dynamic routing protocol. For OSPF, you must define a cost metric, for example. Example 4-46...

Figure 63 BGP Topology

Enable BGP on R1 and configure the network command to advertise the Ethernet IP network 131.108.1.0 24. Because you are running EBGP, synchronization is not an issue in this network. Also, to achieve load balancing, you need to peer the BGP neighbors using the Ethernet IP addresses. In the case of R1, the next hop peer address is 161.108.1.1 24, and in the case of R2, the peer address is 131.108.1.1 24. With BGP, if the next hop address in EBGP is not used, such as in this scenario in which you...

Figure 71 Four Router IBGP Network

The number of IBGP sessions required to maintain full connectivity in the network in Figure 7-1 is 4(3) 2 6 IBGP sessions. By using route reflectors, you can reduce the number of IBGP sessions from six to three (a 50 percent reduction). Figure 7-2 displays R1 reflecting (route reflector) BGP routing information to R2, R3, and R4. Figure 7-2. R1 Configured as Route Reflector Figure 7-2. R1 Configured as Route Reflector Similarly, for a network consisting of 100 routers, instead of 4950 IBGP TCP...

Figure 78 Five Router Topology

R1 has an EBGP peer to R5 and an IBGP peer to R2. R2 has an EBGP peer to R4 and IBGP peer to R1. Ensure that the 15 loopbacks on R1 (131.108.2.0-131.108.16.0 24) are advertised to R5 and that R5 modifies all even networks with a local weight to 1000 and metric (MED) to 100. For all odd networks, set the weight to 2000 and the metric (MED) to 200. Ensure that R1 advertises a default route to R5 and that R2 advertises a default route to R4. Use a prefix list to accomplish this task. Ensure that...

Figure 85 OSPF and Eigrp Domains

Routers R1, R2, and R3 are configured in OSPF process 1. (Remember that OSPF has a process ID that is only locally significant.) R4 is configured in EIGRP domain 1, and R5 is configured in EIGRP domain 2. The WAN link between R4 and R5 resides in EIGRP domain 3. Figure 8-5 details the IP address assignment. Also, notice that a redundant path exists between R4 and R5. Therefore, you must carefully consider any route redistribution to avoid routing loops. Start by enabling the routing protocols...

Getting Equipment

You can obtain reasonably priced equipment from various places. If your place of employment has spare equipment that you can use, this may be your first option. If you want to purchase equipment, numerous places exist on the Internet contact Cisco Systems for second-hand or used routers at very competitive prices. Alternatively, search Cisco partners or auction sites for cheap devices to help you. There are also simulators that offer a cheap solution to purchasing equipment. Cisco, for example,...

How to Best Use This Chapter

The following self-study lab contains a six-router network with two Internet service provider (ISP) routers providing connections to the Internet. Although on the CCNP Routing exam you do not have to configure six routers running multiple protocols, this lab is designed to ensure that you have all the practical skills to achieve almost any IP routing requirements in rea-life networks. More importantly, it tests your practical skill set so you can pass the CCNP Routing examination with...

IGRP Configuration 10 Hour

Configure IGRP (AS 1) on R4 and R5 to meet the following specifications Configure IGRP on R5 E0 E1 and for the serial link between R4 and R5. Ensure proper filtering is configured on R4 to send only networks that do not reside on R5. Redistribute the IGRP route into OSPF EIGRP domain. View the OSPF section for details on redistribution. Make sure you can see distributed IGRP routes throughout the topology. By using the IOS passive-interface command, ensure that only the correct interfaces...

IP Address Configuration 05 Hours

Use the Class B IP address 130.33.0.0. Configure IP addressing as follows Use a 29-bit mask for VLAN 100 and a 25-bit mask for VLAN 200 and VLAN 300. Use a 27-bit mask for VLAN 400. Use a 24-bit mask for VLAN 500, VLAN 550, and VLAN 600. Use a 30-bit mask for all WAN connections on Routers R1, R2, R3, and R4. Use a 24-bit mask for the WAN connection between Routers R4 R5 and R4 R6. After IP routing is completed, all interfaces should be pingable from any router. Table 9-1 displays the IP...

Physical Connectivity No Time

From October 1, 2001 onward, a CCIE candidate is not required to cable the lab network physically. Therefore, no time allocation is given to this section. This section is added for completeness only. You network is already physically patched. Construct your network as shown in Figure D-1. Configure the following characteristics for the topology in Figure D-1 All rings should be set to 16 Mbps and should have an MTU size of 1500. All serial links between routers are connected through a Frame...

Practical Exercise EIGRP

Practical Exercises are designed to test your knowledge of the topics covered in this chapter. The Practical Exercise begins by giving you some information about a situation and then asks you to work through the solution on your own. The solution can be found at the end. Configure the network in Figure 5-6 for EIGRP in autonomous system 1. Ensure that SanFran has all the remote entries being advertised by Router Sydney and the router in the RIP domain. Summarize wherever possible to reduce the...

Practical Exercise IP

Practical Exercises are designed to test your knowledge of the topics covered in this chapter. The Practical Exercise begins by giving you some information about a situation and then asks you to work through the solution on your own. The solution can be found at the end. Given the IP address ranges in Table 1-10 and using EIGRP as your routing algorithm, ensure that the least number of IP routing entries are sent out the Ethernet 0 0 port on a Cisco IOS-based router. Table 1-10 displays the IP...

Practical Exercise Solution

The router named Simon is configured in the OSPF area 0 (backbone) and the RIP domain and needs to run redistribution between OSPF and OSPF. Also, because you are using RIPvl, you must also provide summary addresses for all networks, but not 24 because RIPvl does not carry subnet mask information in routing updates. (RIPv2 does). Router SanFran is connected to the Internet, so you need to configure SanFran to provide a default route to the rest of the internal network by using the OSPF command...

Redistributing from Classless to Classful Protocols

Any form of redistribution from classless or classful IP routing protocols must be carefully configured. To understand, consider the simple design rules when configuring between classless protocols and classful protocols. Classful protocols do not understand variable-length subnet masks (VLSM), nor do they send updates with the subnet mask. Examples of classful protocols are IGRP and RIP. Classless protocols understand VLSM and examples include IS-IS, OSPF, and BGP. For every router configured...

Scenario 14 Summarization with EIGRP and OSPF

In this scenario, given the address ranges in Table 1-9, you see how to configure summarization with EIGRP and OSPF. Table 1-9 displays the IP address ranges to be summarized, as well as the binary representation of the third octet or the subnet port of the IP address space. Table 1-9 displays the IP address ranges to be summarized, as well as the binary representation of the third octet or the subnet port of the IP address space. Binary Representation of Third Octet Before configuring EIGRP or...

Scenario 31 Configuring OSPF in a Single Area

In this scenario, you configure two Cisco routers for OSPF routing using a Class B ( 16) network (131.108.0.0) with a Class C subnet mask (255.255.255.0, or 24 mask). You build a small network and an OSPF routing table. You must also configure a number of loopback interfaces to populate the IP routing table. Figure 3-1 displays two routers named R1 and R2 connected through Ethernet. Configure the routers of OSPF area 1 and place the loopbacks in area 1 also. Figure 3-1 displays the IP...

Scenario 33 How OSPF Monitors Manages and Maintains Routes

In this scenario, you re-examine in detail the network in Figure 3-2 and discover some of the common OSPF commands for monitoring, managing, and maintaining IP routing tables. This scenario also looks at ways to configure OSPF to modify IP routing table entries, such as cost metrics and DR BDR election. Table 3-4 displays a summary of the commands executed in this scenario. Table 3-4. OSPF Commands for Monitoring, Managing, and Maintaining IP Table 3-4. OSPF Commands for Monitoring, Managing,...

Scenario 41 Configuring OSPF with Multiple Areas

In this scenario, you configure an eight-router, three-area network with OSPF. Figure 4-4 displays the OSPF topology and area assignment. Figure 4-4. OSPF Topology and Area Assignment Figure 4-4. OSPF Topology and Area Assignment 130.0 24 131.106.131.0 24 130.0 24 131.106.131.0 24 This scenario represents a typical OSPF network with semi-redundancy and a hierarchical address assignment. To simulate a large network environment, you configure several loopback address assignments on R1 and R2....

Scenario 51 Configuring EIGRP

In this scenario, you configure eight Cisco routers for IP routing using a Class B ( 16) network 131.108.0.0 with a Class C subnet mask (255.255.255.0 or 24). The serial links will use a two-host subnet to demonstrate the use of VLSM with EiGrp. Assume the core backbone network resides on the Ethernet between R1 and R2. Figure 5-2 displays a network with seven routers in AS1 and one remote router in AS2. The IP address assignment for the WAN links is described in Table 5-3. Note the use of VLSM...

Scenario 71 Configuring Route Reflectors

Configure the four-router topology in Figure 7-3 for IBGP using route reflectors with R1 as the route reflector and R2, R3, and R4 as the clients. To reduce TCP traffic among all BGP-speaking routers, ensure that the minimum number of peers exist. Figure 7-3. Four-Router Topology with Route Reflectors Figure 7-3. Four-Router Topology with Route Reflectors Figure 7-3 displays a simple four-router topology in AS 333. Also, notice that the Class B address 131.1.08.0.0 is used throughout this...