Cisco IOS Software Notes

These notes apply to Cisco IOS Software configuration If you configure a port ACL on a physical interface on a switch that has VLAN maps or input r< ACLs coifigu red, or if you configure a VLAN map or input router ACL on a switch that has por configured, a CONFLICT message is generated but the configuration is accepted. The port A action has pnority on that port over actions in a router ACL or VLAN map applied to the VLAN which the port belongs. The result is that packets received on that...

Example 619 Using the show interface Command for Custom Queuing

Serial0 2 is up, line protocol is up Hardware is PowerQUICC Serial Internet address is 165.11.2.1 24 MTU 1500 bytes, BW 1544 Kbit, DLY 20000 usec, reliability 255 255, txload 6 255, rxload 6 255 Encapsulation HDLC, loopback not set Keepalive set (10 sec) Last input 00 00 00, output 00 00 02, output hang never Last clearing of show interface counters never Input queue 0 75 0 0 (size max drops flushes) Total output drops 0 Output queues (queue size max drops) 0 0 20 0 1 0 20 0 2 0 20 0 3 0 20 0 4...

Example 838 Final Configuration and Routing Tables for the Dixon Router

Interface Loopback10 ip address 10.50.5.1 255.255.255.0 interface Loopback20 ip address 10.50.50.1 255.255.255.0 interface Serial1 ip address 10.1.9.2 255.255.255.0 encapsulation frame-relay IETF frame-relay map ip 10.1.9.1 501 broadcast frame-relay lmi-type ansi router eigrp 101 redistribute bgp 898 metric 1544 200 255 1 1500 network 10.1.9.0 0.0.0.255 no auto-summary network 10.50.5.0 mask 255.255.255.0 network 10.50.50.0 mask 255.255.255.0 Dixon show ip route include via is B 192.168.60.0 24...

Table 95 Best Path MED Modifications

Allows the BGP best path selection process to compare BGP MED attr received from E-BGP peers that belong to different autonomous syste Allows BGP to compare MED attributes received from confederation p Specifies that BGP should consider a path to be the worst option if th attribute is not present Allows BGP to compare MED values from different E-BGP peers in the AS

Example 917 Bgp Rib from the Nitrogen Router

Nitrogen show ip bgp I begin Network Next Hop 197.45.21.130 197.45.21.50 197.45.21.130 197.45.21.50 0 57648 i 0 57648 64785 I 0 57648 i 0 57648 64785 I Now that the remove-private-as command has been issued, you can also see that the Nitrogen router now prefers the new route with the shorter AS path as well. To correct that problem, issue theremoveNprivate-as command on the Fluorine router, clear the BGt session, and the Nitrogen router will once again prefer the path to networks 135.23.78.0 24...

Note

If you did not explicit y configure your voice codec and you nee d to find the codec type in use, you can do this using td e show voice i nclude code a co mmaud m entioaed ea rlier in this c haete r. The following example shows how the previously outlined steps are used to enable RSVP for VoIP c on the Bender router. Figure 5-3 shows the voice connection between the Bender router and its Vo dial peer on the Frye router. Step 1. Configure the local and remote VoIP dial peers using the dial-peer...

Example 956 Using a Filter List to Filter BGP Traffic by AS Path

Router bgp 2001 chapter of the book concludes with five hands-on lab exercises. These network 62.128.0.0 mask 255.255.252.0 network 62.128.4.0 mask 255.255.252.0 network 62.128.8.0 mask 255.255.252.0 You can use AS path access lists to filter network prefixes in a number of ways In multihomed environments, the regular expression can be used to prevent local autonoi systems from providing transit services between two upstream service providers, allowing on outgoing route advertisements that have...

Prestaging Frame Relay Switch Backbone Routers an d ATM Configuyation

Configure the Frame Relay switch with the PVCs as depicted in Figure 10-3. Do not time yourself on this portion of the lab. blot all t he PVCs i nthe diag ram are us ed. The PVCs indicated by the solid lines are the ones you will use. Also configure the backbone routers rU and r11 and the ATM switch.Example 10-2 lists the con figura tions for the Frame and ATM switches . Example 10 -3 lists the configuration fon tthie ba bone routers rU and r11. Example 10-2. Frame Relay and ATM Switch...

Example 27 Route Table of the clanton Router

Codes C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2 El - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP i - IS-IS, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2, * - candidate default U - per-user static route, o - ODR Gateway of last resort is not set O El 192.168.10.0 24 110 20 via 172.16.10.10, 04 47 26, Ethernet0 0 172.16.0.0 16 is variably...

Figure 123 Routed Port and SVI Configuration

Example 1-34 lists the relevant portions of the dragon switch. Example 1-34. Dragon Switch Configuration ip subnet-zero ip routing Routing enabled 1 spanning-tree extend system-id Extended System ID in use switchport access vlan 100 VLAN 10 0 no ip address < < < text omitted> > > switchport access vlan 10 VLAN 10 no ip address switchport access vlan 10 VLAN 10 no ip address interface FastEthernet0 6 no ip address switchport access vlan 100 VLAN 10 0 no ip address interface...

Figure 33 MAC Address Bit Layout

Octet 0 Octet 1 Octet 2 Octet 3 Octet 4 Octet 5 7 07 07 07 07 07 0 roadcast or Multicast Bit Locally Administrated Address Bit Again, as you might remember from those days of the CCIE written exam and other Ethernet-related trivia, the first three octets in a MAC address represent the OUI code. The IANA has been allocated an organizational unique identifier (OUI) code for Ethernet multicast MAC addresses. This OUI code is 01 00 5E. One additional bit is allocated and forced to be a 0 value....

Example 9131 Complete Router Configurations

Frame-relay lmi-type ansi frame-relay intf-type dce frame-relay route 301 interface Serial2 300 frame-relay route 501 interface Serial4 500 encapsulation frame-relay IETF frame-relay lmi-type ansi frame-relay intf-type dce frame-relay route 400 interface Serial0 401 frame-relay route 500 interface Serial3 501 interface Loopback100 ip address 154.103.64.1 255.255.248.0 interface Loopback200 ip address 154.103.72.1 255.255.248.0 interface FastEthernet0 ip address 172.20.20.1 255.255.255.0...

Introduction to BGP4 Configuration

Configuring Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) in a production environment can be one of the most daunting tasks that network professionals encounter in their career. Depending on your BGP protocol and configuration knowledge, the BGP peering requirements, the network policy, and general network stability, designing and implementing a solid BGP network might be one of the largest design challenges that you face. BGP router configuration mode contains hundreds of possible commands, which makes it one...

Simplifying Large BGP Networks

One issue that eventually appears in almost any large BGP network is that of design complexity. When you have a large number of BGP-speaking routers that have a large number of BGP peers, either internally or externally, you eventually need to reassess the network design to determine ways to create a simpler, more scalable network. Proactive network professionals plan their network so that each of the routers has the capacity to hold a large BGP Routing Information Base (RIB) and plan for...

Practical Example BGP Confederations

In this example, using the network shown in Figure 9-5, BGP confederations split AS 7614 into two member autonomous systems, AS 65,500 and AS 65,501. This example explores a number of facets of BGP confederation configuration. It shows you how to perform the following Configure peers within a member AS Configure special E-BGP-style peers that are within the same parent AS, but belong to a different member AS Configure confederation peers to interact with standard E-BGP peers

Example 9103 Using the maximumprefix Command to Close BGP Sessions

Router bgp 60001 no synchronization bgp log-neighbor-changes network 186.241.70.0 mask 255.255.254.0 neighbor 143.68.5.201 remote-as 18901 neighbor 143.68.5.201 maximum-prefix 50 neighbor 143.68.5.201 filter-list 101 in no auto-summary ip as-path access-list 101 permit A18901 Customer_B show ip bgp summary begin Neighbor Neighbor V AS MsgRcvd MsgSent TblVer InQ OutQ Up Down State PfxRcd 143.68.5.201 4 18901 138 147 0 0 0 00 02 20 Idle (PfxCt) Customer_2 show logging include BGP *Mar 1 02 48...

Example 57 Using the show ip rsvp reservation detail Command to Veri VoIP

BPS To From Protoc DPort Sport Weight Conversation 32K 129.44.85.1 129.44.85.5 UDP 17176 18930 0 264 Bender show ip rsvp reservation detail RSVP Reservation. Destination is 129.44.85.1,Source is 129.44.85.5, Protocol is UDP, Destination port is 17176, Source port is 18930 Next Hop is 129.44.85.1, Interface is FastEthernetO Reservation Style is Fixed-Filter, QoS Service is Controlled-Load Average Bitrate is 32K bits sec, Maximum Burst is 160 bytes Min Policed Unit 80 bytes, Max Pkt Size 80 bytes...

Example 966 Community List Examples

Ip community-list 1 permit no-export ip community-list 100 permit A645 ip community-list standard my-community permit local_as ip community-list expanded your-community permit 645 The first community list matches any RIB table entry with the NO_EXPORT COMMUNITY attribute. second community list, list 100, matches any RIB entry with a COMMUNITY attribute beginning wit string 645. The third community list, list my-community, matches any RIB entry with the LOCAL-A COMMUNITY attribute. And the last...

Acknowledgments

Leah Lynch There are tons of people who worked together to get this book to this point. First, I would like to thank all the people from Cisco Press Brett Bartow, Chris Cleveland, and Greg Balas, who helped take the raw material and create a real Cisco Press book and the technical editors, Jenny Carroll, Greg Tillett, and Kevin Turek, who verified our work and found all the tiny errors you never see when you are the one writing. Thanks guys I also want to thank Karl Solie for spending so many...

Example 977 Configuring Static Routes on the Sunny and Cloudy Routers

Ip route 191.19.42.1 255.255.255.255 137.246.4.114 ip route 191.19.42.1 255.255.255.255 137.246.4.38 ip route 137.246.4.1 255.255.255.255 137.246.4.37 ip route 137.246.4.1 2255.255.255.255 137.246.4.113 In this example, two very specific sta tic routes are added to each router, allowing the routers to reach each other's loopback interface without specifying the entire network prefix. Step 3. Confi gu re IGP routing on the Sunny router. Assign this router to ASN 417, and use the Loopback50 IP...

IBGP Peer Relationships

As mentioned in Chapter 9, I-BGP peer relationships rely on a full mesh of I-BGP speakers ana the routing tables provided by IGP routing protocols to provide basic routing between each of the BGP peen Because I-BGf peers d o not ce ed to be directly co nnecred, thefe ca is be any numbef of IGP rohters that do not participate in BGP routing between two I-BGP speakers, and as long as the two speakers have routes to each other, they can form a BGP peering relationship and exchange BGP route n. As...

Section I IP Setup

Use the IF3 a ddresses as depicted in Figure 10-8 and address the network accordingly. Note Not all the IP addresses can be assigned at this time. Figure 10-8. Network Diagram for Enchilada II f3 _ J F ST1T) jdltli * n< l f f3 _ J F ST1T) jdltli * n< l f 2. Use the IP subnets 192.168.1.0 24 and 192.168.2.0 24 on the Fast 3 0 interface of r3. Use VLAN C for subnet 192.168.1.0 24 and VLAN D for the 192.168.2.0 24 subnet. 3. Use the IP address of 175.10.1.10 27 on r10's E0 interface. This...

Lab Exercises

Confi gu re all IP addresses, as shown in Table 9-14, and assign all Ethernet interfaces to the VLANs shown in the same table. Table 9-14. IP Addressing for This Network Model Table 9-14. IP Addressing for This Network Model Step 2. Configure OSPF routing for the Drazen, Palmer, Almeida, Bauer, and Ferragamo routers. Put only th e Ethern et interfaces of the Drazen , Pa Imer, Almeioa, and Bauer routers in OSPF area 0 - Ahsi gn the loopback i nterfaces on the Drazen an d Palmer routers...

Example 141 Rapid Spanning Tree in Action

Datagram size 100 Timeout in seconds 2 Extended commands n Sweep range of sizes n Type escape sequence to abort. Sending 5000, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 172.16.192.13, timeout is 2 seconds < < < text omitted> > > 00 53 53 LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN Line protocol on Interface FastEthernet0 17, change < < < text omitted> > > Success rate is 99 percent (4999 5000), round-trip min avg max 1 14 72 ms yin_switch address 0 0 0a.8a0e.ba8 0 priority 24578 (24576 sysid 2) boun FWD 200000 128...

Example 18 show vlan Command Output

Active Fa0 1, Fa0 2, Fa0 3, Fa0 4 Fa0 5, Fa0 6, Fa0 7, Fa0 8 Fa0 9, Fa0 11, Fa0 12, Fa0 13 Fa0 14, Fa0 15, Fa0 16, Fa0 17 Fa0 18, Fa0 19, Fa0 20, Fa0 21 Fa0 22, Fa0 23, Fa0 24, Gi0 1 Parent RingNo BridgeNo Stp BrdgMode Trans1 Trans2 1 enet 10 enet 128 enet 1002 fddi 1003 tr 1004 fdnet VLAN Type SAID MTU Parent RingNo BridgeNo Stp BrdgMode Trans1 Trans2 128 enet 100128 1500 - - - - - 0 0 The Catalyst 3550 switch supports 128 STP instances. Each VLAN runs a single instance of STI switch has more...

Example 16 Viewing the VTP Domain Information

Maximum VLANs supported locally 1005 0x03 0xE2 0xB2 0x25 0x2B 0xF1 0xBE 0x19 Configuration last modified by 172.16.128.16 at 3-1-93 03 16 46 Local updater ID is 172.16.128.16 on interface V1128 (lowest numbered VLAN interfa found) Preferred interface name is 3550 3550_switch You can configure the inte rface or IP a ddress VTP us es to identify the switch to other switches in th with the following global configuration command 3550_switch(config) vtp interface VTP updater name ip address dLAN...

Figure 83 BGP Finite State Machine Review

Not ice that i f a n error occuro between tCe Connect and OpenSent states, the FSM t rans itions to the otatei ff th e FSM is still unable to transltion from the Active state to t he Connect or O peuSent state so the Idle state, Becahse the router a ltualls ftays only jn Cornect and OpenSent states for a brief time while waiting to move on to the next state, one troubleshooting symptom to note is the const Tran sition between the rdle and Active states. if you take careful note wh en p Cers ate...

CCIE Preparation

To achieve success, whatever the job we have, we must pay a price. Success is like anything worthwhile. It has a price. You have to pay the price to win and you have to pay the price to get to the point where success is possible. Most important, you must pay the price to stay theree.sacrifice, perseverance, competitive drive, selflessness, and respect for authority is the price that each and every one of us must pay to achieve any goal that is worthwhile. Once you agree upon the price you and...

Example 222 Configuration of the ringo Router

< < < text omitted> > > router eigrp 65001 redistribute bgp 65002 network 172.16.0.0 network 192.168.10.0 default-metric 10000 1000 254 1 1500 router ospf 7 log-adj acency-changes redistribute eigrp 65001 subnets route-map set_tag3 < Redistribute and call route router bgp 65002 no synchronization bgp log-neighbor-changes neighbor 172.16.200.10 remote-as 65001 neighbor 172.16.200.10 ebgp-multihop 10 neighbor 172.16.200.10 update-source Loopback20 * Set the OSPF metric to External...

Example 228 traceroute Performed on the ringo Router

Tracing the route to 172.16.200.10 1 172.16.64.6 4 msec 4 msec 4 msec 2 172.16.10.4 8 msec 4 msec 4 msec 3 172.16.16.5 20 msec 8 msec * ringo To teh th e new po licy for the cur ly_bi ll router, is sue the traceroute command on t he curly_bill roi the IP address of 172.16.200.10. The packets will pass to the tombstone router, and then to earp, fina l ly to turgey_CTeek. Example 2-29 demonstraees the traceeoute comman d on the curly_bill rou

Example 518 Sample debug ip rsvp detail Output

*Mar 1 05 28 57.294 RSVP 192.168.1.2_17598-192.168.2.2_18180 Static reservation is new *Mar 1 05 28 57.294 RSVP-RESV Locally created reservation. No admission traffic control needed *Mar 1 05 28 57.298 RSVP session 192.168.1.2_17598 Sending PATH message for 192.168.1.2 on interface Serial0 Comment RSVP PATH information from 192.168.1.2 Comment Reservation information - IP addresses and port numbers *Mar 1 05 28 57.298 RSVP version 1 flags 0000 type PATH cksum 31D8 ttl 255 *Mar 1 05 28 57.298...

Table 51 RSVP Reservation Types

At least one sender originates flow(s). These flows are generally not operating a same time therefore, they can share the same reservation. RSVP reservations use two types of lists to define groups of senders. ExplihitsenUer-selehtion lists cpecify senders using) a fil ter spec that defines single senders, and wilUhnrU lists specify senders tha Bhe same filter spec 9sing the same QnS chiaoacteristics. Explicit senders use the fixed-filter (FF) si distinct reservations or the shared-explicit...

Lab Objectives

Configure the EIGRP as the routing protocol, as depicted in Figure 1-37. Use 2003 as the autc system ID. Con figure t he im anagement interface of 17 2.16.2.16 e4 on tundra_switchl, a nd 172.16.2.15 tundra_switch2. These addresses should be reabhable, and Telnet login should be supported f sessions on both owitches. Use cisco ae the login and heabte passwend. Configure tire two Gicjabit Etliernet interfaces as a sin gle Gigabit EtherChaneel. You may use Ethernet for thie if ou do not have...

O Rigin Attribute

TheOR G A oE a route describes the way that the path was introduced into the BGP path. ORIGIN is a well-known mandatory attribute, meaning all BGP implementations must accept and understand the value of the ORIGIN attribute, and it is passed to other BGP peers. Table 7-16 shows three BGP ORIGIN codes. If a route entered BGP from an I-BGP session, the route will have the ORIGIN type t, IGP. If the route was originally introduced into BGP by an Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP) session, it is type...

Route Aggregation

Another way to simplify large BGP implementations, is to decrease the size of the BGP RIBs by aggregating BGP routes. Route aggregation is a simple process that can help keep Internet routing tables down in size, lowering the number of routes that must be passed between neighboring BGP ro uters (during updates. The following route aggregation schemes are covered in this section Route aggregation with filtering Conditional route advertisement By default, BGP advertises only aggregated routes if...

Advanced BGP Configuration

The preceding chapter discussed several BGP troubleshooting concepts, examined simple BGP designs, and showed how to advertise various types of BGP networks. Together, the last two chapters provided the foundation, or a review of BGP concepts, that allow for a more technical discussion of the advanced topics covered in this chapter. This chapter demonstrates ways to use BGP to support larger, more stable networks and explains how to implement advanced routing policies. This chapter covers the...

Route Maps and Policy Based Routing

Aometimep in the mo dern rnternetwor a, the forw arding de cisio ns of a router need to be more comp the decision information offered by the routing protocols and route table. Routers for the most part thei r forw aeding decis ions on the destinatioc ad dress of packee. Policy -ba sed routing enables the n engineer to contgu re policies that uelecti vely caus e packets to take paths vhat differ hrom the neat-specified by the routp table. This sectio g discu sses the benefits and configu ratinn...

Example 622 Using CAR to Police and Mark Traffic

Interface Ethernet0 ip address 195.42.48.1 255.255.255.0 rate-limit input access-group 101 2000000 375000 750000 conform-action set-prec-continue 4 exceed-action continue rate-limit input 2000000 3000 6000 conform-action transmit exceed-action drop rate-limit input access-group 102 4000000 750000 1500000 conform-action continue exceed-action drop rate-limit output 2000000 3000 6000 conform-action transmit exceed-action drop access-list 101 permit ip any host 195.42.48.155 access-list 102 permit...

Example 815 debug ip tcp transactions Command

TCP special event debugging is on Alki clear ip bgp * 01 53 24 BGP-5-ADJCHANGE neighbor 192.168.32.2 Down User reset Comment BGP session reset at user request 01 53 24 TCP0 state was ESTAB -> FINWAIT1 179 -> 192.168.32.2(11005) Comment TCP session transitioned from ESTAB to FINWAIT1 01 53 24 TCP0 sending FIN 01 53 24 TCP0 state was FINWAIT1 -> FINWAIT2 179 -> 192.168.32.2(11005) 01 53 26 TCP0 FIN processed 01 53 26 TCP0 state was FINWAIT2 -> TIMEWAIT 179 -> 192.168.32.2(11005)...

Example 71 Bgp Open Message

8 10.50.4.1 10.50.4.2 99 0 00 37.326 0.003.216 DLC Frame 8 arrived at 15 14 50.2341 frame size DLC Destination Station 000427228197 IP Version 4, header length 20 bytes IP 0. ECT bit - transport protocol will IP 0 CE bit - no congestion IP 0 last fragment IP Fragment offset IP Header checksum 9C7B (correct) IP Source address 10.50.4.1 IP Destination address 10.50.4.2 IP No options IP TCP Destination port 179 (BGP) TCP Sequence number 3817488861 TCP Next expected Seq number 3817488906 TCP...

Tuning BGP Performance

Configuring and troubleshooting BGP sessions can be time intensive. Each time you change a BGP parameter, you must clear the session to propagate the changes. Clearing BGP sessions using the clear ip bgpip-address* command is time-consuming and causes network outages. In the past, theneighbor ip-addresn peer-group soft-reconfiguration inbound and clear ip bgp *,p-addressin commands have helped the situation by allowing for the soft reconfiguration of incoming BGP routes. This meant that BGP...

Configuring Ether Channel Load Balancing

You can configure Ether-Channel for different types of load balancing. Two types of load balancing m source-based and destination-based forwarding methods. The default load balancing type is src-mi EtherChannel balances the traffic load across the links in a channel by reducing part of the binary p from the addresses n the framn to p numeric value that selects ooe of) the Iiskcs in the channel. With source MAC address forwarding, when packets are forwarded to an EtherChannel, they are di across...

Using Multiple Paths

Multihoming a network to one or more providers is one of the most common tasks that you will en< on an enterprise BGP network. You can configure multihomed networks in one of the following way One router multihomed to one service provider with multiple links One router multihomed to more than one service provider More than one router mu ihomed to one service provider More than one router multihomed to more than one service provider Although there are a number of ways to configure a multihomed...

Example 65 Display Queuing Configuration

Serial0 1 is up, line protocol is up Hardware is PowerQUICC Serial MTU 1500 bytes, BW 1544 Kbit, DLY 20000 usec, reliability 255 255, txload 1 255, rxload 1 255 Encapsulation HDLC, loopback not set Keepalive set (10 sec) Last input 00 00 09, output 00 00 03, output hang never Last clearing of show interface counters never Input queue 0 75 0 (size max drops) Total output drops 0 Queueing strategy weighted fair Output queue 0 1000 64 0 (size max total threshold drops) Conversations 0 1 256...

Example 166 Complete Configuration of the walkerl Switch

Enable secret 5 1 oTsK C95mG2YeDzQ4w3ecs0CkS0 i spanning-tree mode mst spanning-tree extend system-id i spanning-tree mst configuration name walker revision 1 spanning-tree mst 1 priority 24576 i < < < text omitted> > > i interface FastEthernet0 3 switchport access vlan 300 switchport mode access no ip address spanning-tree portfast < < < text omitted> > > i interface FastEthernet0 5 switchport access vlan 100 switchport mode access no ip address spanning-tree portfast...

VTP and Trunking Protocols

A powerful function of VLANs is their capability to span geographic distance. The VLANs present on a switch are communicated from switch to switch by the means of a VLAN Trunking Protocol (VTP). VTP main tains global VLAN info nmation between switches. This includ eo synchroniziqg the VLAN data base and the management of additions, deletions, and VLAN name changes across the network. A VLAN management domain, or VTP domain, consists of one or more switches interconnected and shar in g the same...

Example 634 Using a Two Bucket Traffic Policy

Class-map match-all apps match access-group 102 class-map match-all Servers match access-group 101 first edition, this boo class-map match-all web match access-group 103 policy-map policy1 class Servers police cir 4000000 bc 750000 be 1500000 conform-action set-dscp-transmit cs2 exceed-action set-dscp-transmit cs4 violate-action transmit class apps police cir 3000000 bc 562500 be 1125000 police cir 3000000 bc 562500 be 1125000 tcp any host 209.145.63.8 gt 1023 established Example 6-35 shows the...

Example 129 Using the Spanning Tree root Macro Command

3550_switch(config) spanning-tree vlan 192 root primary vlan 192 bridge priority set to 24576 vlan 192 bridge max aging time unchanged at 20 vlan 192 bridge hello time unchanged at 2 vlan 192 bridge forward delay unchanged at 15 When this command was entered, the default priority found on VLAN 192 was 32,768 therefc set the priority less than that (in this case, 24,576). The value of 24,576 is a unique value the extended sy stem ID is in use. If the value of the priority were changed to 8192,...

CCIE Multicast Lab Scenario

When studying multicast for the TTIE lab, think about the wording of things. This chapter provided a number of examples from which you can understand the importance of isolating the key words. You must ascertain exactly how the TTIE lab wants you to perform the work. When comparing the multicast routing table with the unicast routing table, you might encounter gotchas, as outlined previously in the Multicast Troubleshooting Example section. You might encounter other en foreseen difficulties....

Low Latency Queuing LLQ

Low Latency Queuing (LLQ), also known as Priority-Based Weighted Fair Queuing, makes it possibl traffic classes from within a class-based policy using CBWFQ and the modular QoS CLI. LLQ allows toaffic from at l east on e clas s po licy to be sent to one st rict-pr i ority quene called a prior two major advantages to u sing L pQ over PQ or CBWFQ alone. With PQ, as long as the highest prior might be allowed to monopolize the bandwidth, starving out other lower-priority queues. With LLQ priority...

Bgp C Ommu Nity Attribut e

BGPcommunities, defined in RFC 1997 (usages defined in RFCs 1998 and 2519), are an optional transitive attribute that define groups that follow the same policies. The policies assigned to communities affect the way routers belonging to the communities accept or deny incoming routes. They mig ht al so be used to specify a preference for p articular routes. For a rou te to belong to a commu nity, it must Ire locaNy configured to do so. All community-aw are BGP speakers belong to the In te rnet...

Example 983 BGP Configuration for the Stormy Router

No synchronization bgp router-id 16.8.4.9 bgp log-neighbor-changes network 50.0.0.0 network 60.0.0.0 network 70.0.0.0 neighbor 191.19.42.2 remote-as 51038 neighbor 191.19.42.2 ebgp-multihop 2 neighbor 191.19.42.2 update-source Loopback50 no auto-summary ip route 191.19.42.2 255.255.255.255 16.8.4.2 ip route 191.19.42.2 255.255.255.255 16.8.4.6 Similar to the Sunny router, the Stormy router is configured using the bgp router-id, ebgp-multihop , and update-source commands. Step 8. Configure BGP...

Table 616 Generic Traffic Shaping Command Arguments

Specifies that all traffic matching the access list (1-2699) is to be shaped. Specifies that all traffic on this interface is to be shaped. The normal rate that traffic will be transmitted (CIR) at, ranging from 8000 to th interface's full bit rate in bits per second. For example, a 100-Mbps interface's fu CIR will range from 8000 to 100,000,000. Some Cisco IOS Software versions have different range values for this command must use a value th at exists in the range provided by the software...

Example 425 STAC Compression Example

Interface Serial0 2 ip address 175.25.25.1 255.255.255.0 no ip directed-broadcast clockrate 1300000 compress stacs with brief coverage of the co interface Serial0 ip address 175.25.25.2 255.255.255.0 no ip mroute-cache compress stac To verify the operation of STAC compression, use the show compress command, as shown in Exa 26. This command displays information about compression-enabled interfaces the number of iytu compressed on 1-, 5-, and 10-minute intervals and the statistics for the number...

Example 866 Steps to Correct the IBGP Routing Problem

Router bgp 409 no synchronization bgp log-neighbor-changes network 10.1.1.0 mask 255.255.255.0 neighbor 10.1.1.3 remote-as 409 neighbor 10.1.1.3 next-hop-self neighbor 62.129.48.1 remote-as 203 neighbor 192.168.1.2 remote-as 409 neighbor 192.168.1.2 next-hop-self neighbor 192.168.2.2 remote-as 409 neighbor 192.168.2.2 next-hop-self router bgp 409 no synchronization bgp log-neighbor-changes network 10.1.1.0 mask 255.255.255.0 neighbor 10.1.1.2 remote-as 409 neighbor 10.1.1.2 next-hop-self...

Multiple Spanning Tree 8021s

Multiple Spanning Tree 802.1s enables you to group VLANs and their associated STP tree into comi instances. Members of the same STP instance have the same STP topology, such as root and which forwarding and so on. The VLANs that are members of one STP instance operate independently of > another STP instance. MST enables network administrators to quickly configure load balancing acrc network, without having to set an individual root or priority for each VLAN on the switch. MST acco in parP by...

Open Sent State

In the OpenSent state, the BGP peer waits for an OPEN message from its peer. After an OPEN message has been received, it is checked for validity. At this time, all fields in the OPEN message are checked against the local BGP configuration. Any fields that do not match the expected values cause an OPEN message error to occur. At this time, the BGP peer also checks to verify that a connection collision has not occurred. If the message is valid, the peer sends a KEEPALIVE mess age to itn eeer,...

DVMRP Multicast Routing

Because multicast routing and unicast routing deal with separate topologies, policy requires that PIM follow the multicast topology to build loop-free distribution trees. PIM can use any unicast routing protocol to reference for RPF checks, but multicast-specific protocols might be better for tree building. Using DistanEe Vector Multicast Routing Protocol (DVMRP), Cisco routers can exchange DVMRP unicast routes with othmr routers or mrouted-based machines. PIM can also use this for RPF...

Example 45 show interface fastethernet Command

1750a> show interface fastethernet 0 FastEthernetO is administratively down, line protocol is down Hardware is PQUICC_FEC, address is 0004.2722.81d8 (bia 0004.2722.81d8) MTU 1500 bytes, BW 100000 Kbit, DLY 100 usec, reliability 255 255, txload 1 255, rxload 1 255 Encapsulation ARPA, loopback not set Keepalive set (10 sec) Auto-duplex, 10Mb s, 100BaseTX FX ARP type ARPA, ARP Timeout 04 00 00 Last input never, output 01 03 50, output hang never Last clearing of show interface counters never...

Example 862 IBGP Configuration for the Strawberry and Vanilla Routers

The preceding example also demonstrated how the neighbor p-addressnext-hop-self command was used to alter the NEXT_HOP attribute for routes passed between the I-BGP peers. Also, notice that after configuring BGP routing between the Vanilla and Strawberry routers, even though the routers have valid routes in their BGP tables, the Vanilla router cannot ping the Chocolate router's networks, and the Strawberry router cannot ping the Mint router's networks, as shown here Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP...

Figure 812 The IScream for Coffee Network

As507 Siren Drawing

Yhe Vanilla, Strawberry, and Mocha routers require back-to-back serial and Ethernet (or Yoken Ring ) con nections. r Yhe Mocha, l_atte, and Americano houteps a l oo require back-te-back senial co nnections. Configure aN IP ad dresses on the i oo pba cle, serial, and .thernet inte rfaces, as showc in Figere S-- . Enable OSPF routing on all routers except for Mint and Chocolate with the exception of the loopback interfaces, all interfaces on these routers should belong to OSPF area 0. Make sure...

Example 984 BGP Configuration for the Calm Router

Router bgp 51038 no synchronization bgp router-id 191.19.42.2 bgp log-neighbor-changes network 191.19.43.0 mask 255.255.255.0 aggregate-address 191.19.42.0 255.255.254.0 summary-only neighbor 10.50.50.1 remote-as 51038 neighbor 10.50.50.1 next-hop-self neighbor 16.8.4.9 remote-as 714 neighbor 16.8.4.9 ebgp-multihop 2 neighbor 16.8.4.9 update-source Loopback50 no auto-summaryctice labs include all of the technologies and gradually increase in difficulty ip nat pool public 191.19.43.3...

Lab Exercise

In this lab, you configure BGP peering relationships between the I-Scream for Coffee 32-flavor network an d use the BGP routing as a backbone for routing between the external networks hosPed by t he Mint and Chocolate routers in autonomous systems 203 and 507, and the internal networSs hi osted by the Vanilla, Strawberry, Latte, and Americano routers in AS 409. To test your skill in BGP routing, you have to send test calls between the phones on the Chocolate and Latte routers.

Example 632 Using Traffic Policing to Regulate Traffic

Match access-group 101 class-map match-all internet match access-group 103 class-map match-all user-traffic match access-group 102 policy-map traffic-policy class management police cir 2000000 bc 375000 be 750000 conform-action set-prec-transmit 4 exceed-action transmit class user-traffic police cir 3000000 bc 562500 be 1125000 conform-action set-prec-transmit 3 exceed-action transmit class internet police cir 5000000 bc 937500 be 1875000 conform-action transmit exceed-action drop Example 6-3 3...

Example 438 The Policy Routing Configuration for the Cntry Str

Interface TokenRing0 ip address 192.168.60.1 255.255.255.0 no ip route-cache, Volume II leads CCIE candidates through the process of preparing for th no ip mroute-cache selling first edition, this book provides coverage of CCIE lab exam topics ip policy route-map voice-traffic ring-speed 16 access-list 150 permit tcp host 192.168.61.254 host 10.53.6.2 eq 1720 access-list 150 permit tcp host 192.168.61.254 eq 1720 host 10.53.6.2 access-list 150 permit tcp host 192.168.61.254 host 10.53.5.5 eq...

Example 812 Debugging BGP

BGP debugging is on Alki clear ip bgp * 01 10 18 BGP 192.168.32.2 went from Established to Idle Comment BGP cleared session 01 10 18 BGP-5-ADJCHANGE neighbor 192.168.32.2 Down User reset Comment the ADJCHANGE message indicates the session with the 192.168.32.2 neighbor is down due to a user reset Comment The BGP session is being closed 01 10 38 BGP 192.168.32.2 went from Idle to Active 01 10 38 BGP 192.168.32.2 open active, delay 26900ms Comment The router sent a active host TCP open message...

Example 848 Sideshow Router Configuration

Router bgp 858 bgp log-neighbor-changes neighbor 157.209.8.6 remote-as 1013 no auto-summary BGP table version is 8, local router ID is 157.209.8.5 Status codes s suppressed, d damped, h history, * valid, > best, i - internal Origin codes i - IGP, e - EGP, - incomplete Network Next Hop Metric LocPrf Weight Path *> 111.200.48.0 22 157.209.8.6 0 0 1013 i *> 111.200.52.0 22 157.209.8.6 0 0 1013 i *> 208.211.101.0 157.209.8.6 0 0 1013 i

Example 43 show memory dead Command

Head Total(b) Processor 811E15FC 6416900 I O 1800000 8388608 Processor memory Address Bytes Prev. Next Used(b) Free(b) Lowest(b) Largest(b) 8120E740 812A3F44 812A8C0 0 812A8DDC 64 812 0E6E8 8120E7AC 1 92 812A3EB0 812A3FCC 1 808AF3AC CEF process 801D4 870 TTY timer block 8 0 8AF3AC CEF process 8 0 8AF3A0 CEF process In addition to displaying the memory summary and memory allocated for dead processes, it is also helpful to check for memory allocation failures, using the show memory failures alloc...

Weighed Fair Queuing

Based on the min-max fair-share algorithm, Weighed Fair Queuing (WFQ) is the default queuing method for interfaces with bandwidth less than E1 speed (2048 kbps). The min-max fair-share algorithm allocates resources based on demand in a round-robin queuing system. With the min-max fair-share algorithm, smaller packets are transmitted before larger packets. Packets waiting to be transmitted are queued, based on an equation that takes the capacity of available resource bandwidth and divides it by...

I

The term RIB stands for Routing Info rma tion Base (da taba se) and refncs to a ro uting table. Step 1. BGP speakers, Apples and Oranges, form a BGP peering session. Step 2. The Apples router takes the routes from its local BGP table, Loc-RIB, processes the routes according to its outgoing BGP policy for the Oranges peer, and sends the routes that comply with the policy to the outgoing BGP table, Adj-RIB-Out. Step 3. The Apples router sends the Oranges all BGP routes matching the local BGP...

Example 32 Configuration of MSDP on Anycast RP Routers

Ip address 10.0.0.101 255.255.255.255 ip msdp peer 10.0.0.102 connect-source loopback 1 ip msdp originator-id loopback 1 ip address 10.0.0.102 255.255.255.255 ip msdp peer 10.0.0.101 connect-source loopback 1 ip msdp originator-id loopback 1 MTDP peers with a TCP session and exchanges any new source active (TA) messages with all other peers. The commands listed are the minimum necessary to make MTDP operational. This minimum is listed here not to belittle the technology but because this theory...

Example 146 Management Portion of tundrasswitch1 Thus

Enable secret 5 1 nt35 131XBSgKT6BmA1KHMqj1V1 < < < text omitted> > > i interface Vlan1 no ip address shutdown ip address 172.16.2.16 255.255.255.0 < < text omitted> > > i line con 0 line vty 0 4 password cisco Telnet access allowed login line vty 5 7 login The second step calls for you to configure VTP and VLANs. You need to configure a VLAN for any S ports, and management VLANs. In this model, you need to configure four VLANs VLANs 2, 100, 12 On the 3550, you can do this...

Example 151 Verifying STP and VTP Pruning on the tundraswitch1

Tundra_switch1 show spanning-tree root VLAN02 0 0 24776 0 0 0a.8a0e.ba8 0 0 tundra_switch1 show int port-channel 1 switchport Switchport Enabled Administrative Mode trunk Operational Mode trunk Administrative Trunking Encapsulation dotlq Operational Trunking Encapsulation dot1q Negotiation of Trunking On Access Mode VLAN 1 (default) Trunking Native Mode VLAN 1 (default) Trunking VLANs Enabled ALL Pruning VLANs Enabled 2,100,200 < < < text omitted> > > In the next two steps, you...

Table 27 set Commands

Prepend string for a BGP AS_PATH attribute Set BGP route flap dampening parameters Routing Set metric value for destination routing protocol Type of metric for destination routing protocol Tag value for destination routing protocol Policy-routing specific set commands Set the Output interface, used in point-to-point links The first set commands covered here are the ones related to BGP. This section discusses the syntax variousset commands foo BGP an d their basic appMcation. For more specif and...

Example 871 Final Router Configurations for

Interface LoopbacklO ip address 62.120.1.1 255.255.0.0 interface Loopback20 ip address 62.121.1.1 255.255.0.0 interface Loopback30 ip address 62.123.1.1 255.255.0.0 interface Serial0 ip address 62.129.48.1 255.255.255.252 router bgp 203 no synchronization bgp log-neighbor-changes redistribute connected neighbor 62.129.48.2 remote-as 409 no auto-summary interface Ethernet0 ip address 10.1.1.2 255.255.255.0 ip address 62.129.48.2 255.255.255.252 router-id 10.1.1.2 log-adj acency-changes...

Figure 39 Differences in Shared Tree and Source Tree

PIM Sowcii Htfflisler Mu t-iiH Dill Fltnu To configure PIM sparse mode, use the following command in interface configuration mode Router(config-if) ip pim sparse-dense-mode This is the typical way of representing PIM sparse mode, allowing it to also work in dense mode for certain operations or compatibility. If your design states that you are not allowed to use dense mode, you can issue the following command Router(config-if) ip pim sparse-mode You can configure RPs manually on each multicast...

Update Message

After a BGP session has been established, the peering routers begin to exchange routing information using UPDATE messages. UPDATE messages contain information about each route advertised to the peering router. In BGP routing, network prefixes are also referred to as Network Layer Reachability Intormation (NLRI).Tatle 7-55 shows the in formation contained in BGP UPDATE messages and descriptions of the BGP UPDATE message fields. Table 7-5. BGP UPDATE Message Information Table 7-5. BGP UPDATE...

Example 9112 Using the Well Known Localas Community on the Myers Router

Router bgp 104 no synchronization bgp log-neighbor-changes network 154.103.64.0 mask 255.255.248.0 network 154.103.72.0 mask 255.255.248.0 network 172.20.20.0 mask 255.255.255.0 route-map hide-network neighbor AS8080 peer-group neighbor AS8080 remote-as 8080 neighbor AS8080 ebgp-multihop 2 neighbor 155.206.127.105 peer-group AS8080 neighbor 172.20.20.2 remote-as 104 no auto-summary ip route 155.206.127.105 255.255.255.255 154.107.0.10 route-map hide-network permit 10 set community local-as As...

Figure 125 Root Guard Placement

J Dasiietf H cl Swiieh plenty 32 6S Foreign Customer range r_swiicli Network With root guard enabled on the GigabitEthernet 0 1 of the dragon switch, it will perform the follow detects a switch with characteristics to become root for VLAN 5 (in this case, the ranger switch), it port into an STP broken state with a reason of Root Inconsistent. The port will then be put into a state, preventing the ranger switch from becoming root for the entire VLAN and preserving the cur fire switch. The...

Example 54 RSVP Simulation on the Moe Router

Ip address 192.168.42.1 255.255.255.0 ip rsvp bandwidth 7000 7000 interface Et hernet0 0 ip address 192.168.2.2 255.255.255.0 router eigrp 170 network 192.168.2.0 network 192.168.42.0 no auto-summary no eigrp log-neighbor-changes ip rsvp sender-host 192.168.16.1 192.168.42.1 tcp 0 0 128 8 Moe show ip rsvp sender detail PATH Session address 192.168.16.1, port 0. Protocol TCP Sender address 192.168.42.1, port 0 Traffic params - Rate 128K bits sec,Max. burst 8K bytes Min Policed Unit 0 bytes, Max...

Example 9106 Almeida Routers OSPF Configuration

Router ospf 1 router-id 155.206.127.107 log-adj acency-changes area 1 stub network 155.206.127.0 0.0.0.7 area 0 network 155.206.127.64 0.0.0.3 area 1 network 155.206.127.107 0.0.0.0 area 0 default-information originate always metric-type 1 ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 155.206.127.5 After OSPF has been configured, all the internal routers should reach all OSPF-enabled interfaces. The default route should also have been advertised this introduces a small problem, though. Unless you configure a...

Figure 91 Before and After Route Reflectors

In the first part of the figure, each of the 6 routers has an I-BGP peer connection to each of its peers, creating 15 I-BGP connecIi ons. The second part of1 the figure s hows how route refle ctors simplify the I-BGP configuration for each of the six routers with Routers Rekhter and Li acting as route reflector servers and Routers Traina, Hask n, Bates, and Chandra scting as route reflector clients to the Rekhtet and Li routers. When route reffector clients are homed to two or more route re...

Example 23 Route Map Application During Redistribution

Route-map with the lowest sequence numb gets executed first < Call access-list, the IF of the route-rr < If access-list is true, THEN do somethi Next highest sequence number gets executed Call access-list, the IF of the route-rr < If access-list is true, THEN do somethi < Implicit deny at the end all route-maps This will not show up in the config router ospf 65 log-adj acency-changes log-adj acency-changes redistribute eigrp 65001 subnets route-map set_tag < Call the route-map...

Example 431 Using AAL5Snap Encapsulation

Interface ATM0 no ip address no atm ilmi-keepalive ip address 172.16.5.5 255.255.255.252 pvc 3 107 protocol ip 172.16.5.6 broadcast encapsulation aal5snap ip address 172.16.5.1 255.255.255.252 pvc 5 107 Step 2. Configure EIGRP routing for all routers, and put all router interfaces in EIGRP AS 62. sure that EIGRP routers only advertise the most specific routes do not allow auto-summariz. You may not use EIGPR neighbor statements in this laboratory. Verify that all routers are all ping the...

Example 860 BGP Configuration for the Mint and Vanilla Routers

No synchronization bgp log-neighbor-changes redistribute connected neighbor 62.129.48.2 remote-as 409 no auto-summary router bgp 409 no synchronization bgp log-neighbor-changes neighbor 62.129.48.1 remote-as 203 no auto-summary BGP table version is 17, local router ID is 62.129.48.6 Status codes s suppressed, d damped, h history, * valid, > best, i - internal, Origin codes i - IGP, e - EGP, - incomplete Network Next Hop Metric LocPrf Weight Path *> 62.120.0.0 16 62.129.48.1 0 0 203 *>...

Configuring Uplink Fast

Once again, spanning tree's Achilles' heel, the 50-second convergence time, plagues the modern La is another enhancement Cisco has performed with STP designed primarily for use in the wiring clos edge switches. It is designed to speed up the convergence speed between the edge and the core sv 1-24 illustrates where you would use PortFast along with UplinkFast and BackboneFast in a commc Figure 1-24. PortFast, UplinkFast, and BackboneFast Locations Figure 1-24. PortFast, UplinkFast, and...

Example 221 Verifying the Attributes

BGP table version is 4, local router ID is 192.168.192.7 Status codes s suppressed, d damped, h history, * valid, > best, i - internal Origin codes i - IGP, e - EGP, - incomplete Network Next Hop Metric LocPrf Weight Path *> 128.168.192.0 24 0.0.0.0 0 32768 i *> 129.168.192.0 24 172.16.100.10 0 5000 1000 65002 e *> 192.168.192.0 0.0.0.0 0 32768 i turkey_creek show ip bgp 129.168.192.0 BGP routing table entry for 129.168.192.0 24, version 2 Paths (1 available, best 1) Not advertised to...

Example 138 Root Guard Enabled and Active

3550_switch show spanning-tree detail < < < text omitted> > > Port 25 (GigabitEthernet0 1) of VLAN0005 is broken (Root Inconsistent) Port path cost 4, Port priority 128, Port Identifier 128.25. Designated root has priority 32768, address 0004.275e.f5c4 Designated bridge has priority 32773, address 0 0 0a.8a0e.ba8 0 Designated Port id is 128.25, designated path cost 19 Timers message age 1, forward delay 0, hold 0 Number of transitions to forwarding state 1 BPDU sent 2077, received...

About the Technical Reviewers

Jennifer DeHaven Carroll, CCIE No. 1402, is a principal consultant with Lucent Technologies. She has planned, designed, and implemented many large networks over the past 15 years. She has also developed and taught theory and Cisco implementation classes on all IP routing protocols. Jenny i s the coauthor of Routing TCP IP, Volume II, (Cisco Press, 2001) with Jeff Doyle and can be reached at jennifer.carroll ieee.org. Greg TiMett, CCIE No. 5231, is currently working toward his second CCIE in the...

Unsupported CLI Commands in Release 121 11EA1

This section lists some of the CLI commands that are displayed when you enter the question mark the Catalyst 3550 switch prompt but are not supported in this release, either because they are not or because of Catalyst 3550 hardware limitations. This is not a complete list. The unsupported com are listed by software feature and command mode. Access Control Lists Unsupported Privileged EXEC Commands access-enable host timeout minutes access-template access-list-number name dynamic-name source...

Descriptions

Averagetarget-bit-rate sustained-bit-rate excess-per-interval The CBS average command configures the router to shape traffic to an average rate with average-rate shaping, the shaper shapes all traffic to the normal burst rate for each interval. tike the GTS CIR, the target bit rate is the normal rate at which traffic will be transmitted (CIR), ranging from 8000 to the interface's full bit rate in bits per second. For example, a 1.544-Mbps interface's full CIR will range from 8000 to...

Routerefresh Message

Prior to Cisco IOS Software Release 12.0(6)T, all BGP-speaking routers used to require a manual BGP session reset eaclu time the local routing policy changed. This session reset allowed peers to apply new poli cies as the routers process ed and received the incoming routing updates from their remote peers. In legacy versions of Cisco IOS software, this problem was solved, on a peer-by-pe er basis, using BGP soft reconfiguration. After BGP soft reconfiguration has been configured on a legacy...

Ro ute Refl ectors

BGProute reflectors, defined in RFC 1966, provide a simple solution to the I-BGP ful l-mesh problem for large I-BGP implementations. As a quick review, there are two entities in a route reflector spenario the server and tee p lionts. Ea ph route reflector server requires a n I- eGP peer ponneeti on to eaeh oe its clients. However, thd die nts require only a ponnepeion to the route reflepror server. The server se nds usages to eap a op the plien t routers throug h th e I-BGP sonneption, e limin...

Figure 15 VTP Modes and Propagation

Mude VIPOcYTiDin skyn l VTP pa lwflrJ toe mude VIPOcYTiDin skyn l VTP pa lwflrJ toe Vrrn clmM mucin Vfl1 SomjIntKynel VTT paSinDcdiCtt Vrrn clmM mucin Vfl1 SomjIntKynel VTT paSinDcdiCtt VTP advertisements are sent out on all trunk connections in Inter-Switch Link (ISL) frames, 802.1Q frames, IEEE 802.10, or ATM LAN Emulation (LANE) cells. VTP frames are sent to the destination MAC address of 0100.0ccc.cccc with a logical link control (LLC) code of SNAP (AAAA). IEEE 802.1Q frames have an...

Idle State

Aom ng to RFC 1771, at hhe begi nning of each BGP peer ehsion, each of the pe er routers must pass through vario us BGP states. Thd first statg t hat a rou ten e nters when con abed for BGP is the Idle state. In the Idle state, the BGP-speaking router refuses incoming BGP session requests. At this point, the router has not allocated any resources to the BGP process and does not do so until a BGP start event has either been initiated by the router's BGP process or by manual user...

Example 9S7 Filtering Transit Routes

Router bgp 51038 no synchronization bgp router-id 191.19.42.1 bgp log-neighbor-changes network 191.19.42.0 mask 255.255.255.0 aggregate-address 191.19.42.0 255.255.254.0 summary-only neighbor 10.50.50.2 remote-as 51038 neighbor 10.50.50.2 next-hop-self neighbor 137.246.4.1 remote-as 417 neighbor 137.246.4.1 ebgp-multihop 2 neighbor 137.246.4.1 update-source Loopback50 neighbor 137.246.4.1 filter-list 8 out ip nat pool public 191.19.42.3 191.19.42.254 ip nat inside source list 8 pool public ip...

Example 311 Configuration for Router A

Flags D - Dense, S - Sparse, C - Connected, L - Local, P - Pruned R - RP-bit set, F - Register flag, T - SPT-bit set, J - Join SPT M - MSDP created entry, X - Proxy Join Timer Running A - Advertised via MSDP Interface state Interface, Next-Hop or VCD, State Mode (*, 225.3.3.3), 00 01 23 00 02 59, RP 0.0.0.0, flags D Incoming interface Null, RPF nbr 0.0.0.0 Outgoing interface list Ethernetl, Forward Sparse-Dense, 00 01 23 00 00 00 (150.1.1.1, 225.3.3.3), 0 0 01 23 00 03 00, flags TA Incoming...

Router Performance Management

At some point in the line nycle of almost every network, some type of quality mechanism must be implemented to provide a level of service. With some networks, it may only be necessary to perform simple hardware or software upgrades every few years. Other networks may require the use of Service Level Agreements (SLAs), either as customer or as service provider, to guarantee a certain level of service. A number of methods can be used to establish a certain level of quality of service (Qoh) the...

Step 4 Controlling STP and VLAN Propagation

The next step is optional but can be imperative in large networks. Cisco implements a couple of fee allow for switches to be plug and play in small networks but can have the negative effect of genera significant amounts of traffic in large networks. Features such as Per VLAN Spanning Tree (PVST), the default setting that every VLAN is communicated on every trunk port, can cause the edge switc overPun processieg spaneing-tree requests and other broadcasts. In the network in Figure 1-17, for...

Configuring Advanced Switching on the Cisco Catalyst 3550 Ethernet Switch

Ethernet is often referred to as an evolutionary protocol rather than a revolutionary protocol. Over the years, Ethernet has evolved by building on various standards at astonishing speeds. Evolutionary e rotocols build on the curre nt standard and provide some form of migration path, whereas revolutionary protocols involve some form of scientific breakthrough or use new technology. Revolutionary protocols use few parts, if any, of the existing infrastructure. The ev oluti on of1 Ethernet...