N

Nagle algorithm, preventing Cisco IOS from attacks, 425-426 Nagle, John, 426 name resolution, DNS, 110-113 NAT (Network Address Translation), 355-356 deploying, 357

Dynamic NAT, configuring, 359

monitoring, 360

operation on Cisco routers, 358

NCP, 78

NetRanger, 309

Director, 311

typical network placement, 309 network IDS, 422 network layer bridging

BPDUs, 24

port states, BPDUs, 24 ICMP, 46-47 IP, 27

address classes, 29 logical AND operation, 30 packets, 27-28 subnets, 29-30 spanning tree protocol, 23 subnetting, 31-32 switching, 22

CAM tables, 22 cut through, 23 store and forward, 23 network layer (OSI model), 16 network management, SNMP, 122

community access strings, configuring on

Cisco routers, 122 configuring on Cisco routers, 125 examples of, 128 managed devices, 124 MIBs, 123-125 notifications, 123-126 network-based IDS systems, 305-306, 386 newsgroups, reporting security breaches,

416-417 Next Hop attribute (BGP), 73 NMSs (network management systems), 124 NOOP command (SMTP), 129 notification alarms, 303 notifications (SNMP), 123-126 NSSAs (Not-so-stubby areas), 65 NTP (Network Time Protocol), configuring clock sources, 130-132 NVRAM (nonvolatile RAM), 157

Origin attribute (BGP), 73 Originator ID attribute (BGP), 73

OSI reference model application layer, 18 data link layer, 15 development of, 14 network layer, 16, 27 spanning tree, 23 switching, 22-23 peer-to-peer communication, 19 physical layer, 14 presentation layer, 17-18 session layer, 17 transport layer, 17 versus TCP/IP model, 18 OSPF (Open Shortest Path First), 61-63 example configuration, 66-70 media types, 65

multiple area configuration, 64-65 single area configuration, 62-64 virtual links, 66 outside global addresses, 356 outside local addresses, 356

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