Layer 6 The Presentation Layer

The presentation layer handles data formats and code formatting. The layer's functions are normally transparent to the end user because this layer takes care of code formats and presents them to the application layer (Layer 7), where the end user can examine the data. Examples of presentation layer protocols include the following:

■ Graphics Interchange Format (GIF)

■ Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG)

■ American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII)

■ Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG)

■ Tagged Image File Format (TIFF)

■ Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI)

■ Hypertext Markup Language (HTML)

application will be accessed end users. Examples of

■ File Transfer Protocol (FTP)

■ Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)

Layer 7: The Application Layer

The application layer is closest to the end user, which means that the by the end user. This layer's major function is to provide services to application layer services include the following:

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