FTP and TFTP are application layer protocols (part of the TCP/IP protocol suite of applications). FTP is a connection-oriented protocol running over TCP. FTP uses two connections to maintain connectivity between two IP hosts: port 20 is used for the data port and port 21 is used for control.
TFTP runs over UDP port 69 and is a connectionless protocol. TFTP commonly uploads Cisco IOS and configurations to a TFTP server. TFTP is regarded as the simple version of FTP. TFTP does not require any username/password combination to transfer data, as opposed to FTP, which requires a username and password before data can be transferred. Note, however, that FTP sends the username and password in clear text, whereas TFTP transfers data between two high UDP port values.
NOTE Domain Name System (DNS) is another common application that uses both TCP and UDP port 53.
Now that you fully appreciate the TCP/IP model, the next section covers routing protocols used to ensure that TCP/IP data can be moved, or routed, from one location to another.
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