Advertising Networks Summary

BWilii ill II III III II III II III III II III III II III II III III II III III II III IIIII III II III CiGco.com This lesson presented these key points Describe the advertising methods available when using BGP Describe how to configure redistribution of static routes Describe how to configure redistribution of dynamic routes Describe how to configure advertisement of routes using the network command 2002, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco CCIE Prep v1.0 Module 8-63

ATM Concepts and Components Summary

BWilii ill II III III II III II III III II III III II III II III III II III III II III IIIII III II III CiGco.com This lesson presented these key points A short explanation of ATM, showing why it is a reliable solution for transmission of various types of data The configuration of ATM PVCs and PVC auto-discovery Allowing routing protocol updates to traverse the ATM connection Configuring the ATM AAL and encapsulation type Configuring ATM traffic shaping options to ensure reliable delivery of...

ATM Virtual Connections Paths Channels PVCs SVCs

Virtual Channels (VCs) 2002, CiscoSystems, Inc. All rights reserved. Three types of ATM services exist Permanent Virtual Circuits (PVCs), Switched Virtual Circuits (SVCs), and connectionless service (which is similar to SMDS). A PVC allows direct connectivity between sites. In this way, a PVC is similar to a leased line. Among its advantages, a PVC guarantees availability of a connection and does not require call setup procedures between switches. Disadvantages of...

Backup Load

R4(config-if) backup interface bri 0 0 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco CCIE Prep vl.O Module 3-64 The command shown here specifies that the BRI interface will not backup the serial interface upon failure, but instead provide additional bandwidth when certain load thresholds are met. In this example, the BRI interface will activate when 50 percent of the available bandwidth on the serial interface is reached. It is very important that the actual bandwidth of the serial 0 0...

Basic Configuration

Basic configuration of ISDN involves setting up DDR on the physical interfaces on both sides of the ISDN connection. R4(config) isdn switch-type basic-5ess R4(config) dialer-list 1 protocol ip permit R4(config) interface bri 0 0 R4(config-if) ip address 172.16.14.1 2 55.255.255.252 R4(config-if) dialer-group 1 R4(config-if) dialer-string 8140010 Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco CCIE Prep v Shown here is the most basic ISDN configuration it has limited capabilities, uses bandwidth poorly, and...

BGP Path Selection

* If the path specifies a next hop that is unreachable, drop the update * Prefer the path with the largest weight * If the weights are the same, prefer the path with the largest local preference * If the local preferences are the same, prefer the path that was originated by BGP running on this router * If no route was originated, prefer the route that has the shortest AS_path * If all paths have the same AS_path length, prefer the path with the lowest origin type (where IGP is lower than EGP,...

BGP Technologies

The Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is a distance-vector routing protocol that you can use to exchange routing information among different Autonomous Systems (AS)s. This module examines the various topics and technologies used in a BGP environment. Upon completing this module, you will be able to Define BGP concepts and technologies Define the different ways used to advertise networks in a BGP environment Configure the many advanced options of BGP Define the various show and debug commands used...

Caller Identification

Caller ID screening allows the initial incoming call from the client to the server to be accepted or rejected based on the caller ID message contained in the ISDN setup message. Caller ID screening also allows the server to initiate a callback to the calling client. R1(config-if) isdn caller 3442929 callback Enables caller ID callback for legacy DDR Enables caller ID on dialer interfaces (dialer profiles) 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco CCIE Prep v1.0 Mo To configure caller...

Can be used with hub and spoke topology

All rights reserved. To avoid the headaches with non-broadcast and broadcast modes, the point-to-multipoint network type is available. An OSPF point-to-multipoint network is seen as one or more numbered point-to-point interfaces. As with the non-broadcast and broadcast modes, the NBMA cloud is seen as one IP subnet. The main advantage to using the point-to-multipoint network type is that it does not require the use of a DR BDR. OSPF point-to-multipoint networks avoid...

Characteristics of the Backup Methods

Dependent on line protocol status of primary interface and requiresthat the primary interface go down Employs static routes with higher administrative distance to trigger DDR call Watches specific routes in the routing table and initiates backup link if the route is missing Encapsulation is a factor. For example, Frame Relay backup may not work correctly with backup interface. Does not consider end-to-end connectivity. Problems with end-to-end connectivity, such as routing errors, do not...

Classless Routing RIPv2

The Version 2 extensions provide the following enhancements to RIP Subnet masking information is now included in routing updates allowing RIP to handle VLSM addressing A next-hop address is carried with each route entry External route tags can be used Support for MD5 authentication 2002, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reservec The most significant of all the enhancements is the support for Variable Length Subnet Mask (VLSM), making RIPv2 a classless routing protocol. Most of RIPv2's operational...

Clearing a BGP Connection

The clear ip bgp command is used to reset a BGP connection. These BGP connections can be reset based on 2002, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco CCIE Prep v1.0 Module 8-34 clear ip bgp * address soft in out The clear ip bgp command is used to reset a BGP connection. BGP connections can be reset based on Neighbor's AS number Peer group name You must reset your BGP connections when any of the following have been modified or added to BGP route map BGP distribute list BGP weight BGP...

Community

internet Advertise this route to the Internet community. All routers belong to it no-export Do not advertise this route to eBGP peers no-advertise Do not advertise this route to any peer (internal or external) local-as Send this route to peers in other subautonomous systems within the local confederation. Do not advertise this route to an external system 2002, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco CCIE Prep v1.0 Module 8-50 The communities attribute is a way to group destinations into...

Components

This section covers the components used with BGP, which affect path selection. This section covers the components used with BGP, which affect path selection. Multi-exit discriminato BGP will use one path (by default) 2002, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. When a BGP speaker learns two identical eBGP paths for a prefix from a neighboring AS, it will choose the path with the lowest route-id as the best path. This best path is installed in the IP routing table. If BGP multi-path support is...

Confederations Cont

All lights reserved. 2002, Cisco Systems, Inc. All lights reserved. In this scenario, AS200 is running a common IGP. Each router is advertising its loopback interface. AS200 is sub-divided into to mini-AS's 65345 and 65016. When customers are multihomed to a single Internet Service Provider (ISP), the ISPs assign private Autonomous System (AS) numbers in order to conserve AS numbers. These private AS numbers come from the range 64512 to 65535. A confederation is a...

Configure pointtomultipoint subinterfaces with static address mappings

All rights reserved. A point-to-multipoint subinterface functions very much like a physical Frame Relay interface. Point-to-multipoint subinterfaces are used to connect spoke routers that reside on the same IP subnet. Frame Relay map statements are used to configure address mappings on point-to-multipoint subinterfaces. Configures a point-to-multipoint subinterface. ip address 172.16.134.3 255.255.255.0 Configures a network-layer address, for example, an IP address....

Configuring Backbone Fast

BackboneFast Receipt of inferior BPDUs triggers root link query PDU BackboneFast Receipt of inferior BPDUs triggers root link query PDU 3 550(config) apanning-tree backbonefaat 2002. Cisco Systems. Inc. All rights reserved. BackboneFast detects indirect failures in the core of the backbone. BackboneFast is a complementary technology to the UplinkFast feature, which responds to failures on links directly connected to access switches. BackboneFast optimizes the maximum-age timer, which determines...

Configuring CHAP Using Names Other Than the Hostname Diagram

Router(config-if)ft ppp chap hostname global Router(config-if)ft ppp chap hostname global 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. When a remote Cisco router connects to either a Cisco or a non-Cisco central router of a different administrative control, an Internet Service Provider (ISP), or a rotary of central routers, it may be necessary to configure an authentication username that is different from the hostname. In this situation, the hostname of the router is not provided or is...

Configuring CHAP Using Names Other Than the Hostname Example

Single Identification Used on All Remote Sites RemoteX(config-if) ip address 10.1.1.2 255.255.255.0 RemoteX(config-if) encapsulation ppp RemoteX(config-if) dialer map ip 10.1.1.1 name Server broadcast 3250233 RemoteX(config-if) ppp authentication chap callin RemoteX(config-if) ppp chap hostname AllSites Single Username Password Entry for All Remote Sites Server(config) username AllSites password sec Server(config) interface briO O Server(config-if) ip address 1O.1.1.1 2 55.255.255.0...

Configuring Layer 3 Ether Channels

3550(config) interface port-channel 2 3 55 0(config-if) ip add 172.16.1.1 255.255.0.0 To configure Layer 3 EtherChannels, you must first create the port-channel logical interface and then put the Ethernet interfaces into the port-channel. 2002, CiscoSystems, Inc. All rights reserved. To configure Layer 3 EtherChannels, you must first create the port-channel logical interface and then put the Ethernet interfaces into the port-channel. Use the steps outlined in the following table to create a...

Configuring OSPF in Pointto Point Mode

Rl(config) interface serialO Rl(config-if) no ip address Rl(config-if) encapsulation frame-relay Rl(config) interface serialO.1 point-to-point Rl(config-subif) ip address 1O.1.1.1 255.255.255.0 Rl(config-subif) frame-relay interface-dlci 51 Rl(config) interface serialO.2 point-to-point Rl(config-subif) ip address 10.1.2.1 255.255.255.0 Rl(config-subif) frame-relay interface-dlci 52 Rl(config) router ospf 1 Rl(config-router) network 10.1.0.0 0.0.255.255 area 0

Configuring PVC Traffic Parameters

Router(config-if-atm-vc) abr output-pcr output-mcr ATM-CES port adapter and Multiport Tl El ATM Network Module only. router(config-if-atm-vc) vbr-rt peak-rate average-rate burst CiscoMC38l0 and Multiport Tl El ATM Network Module only. router(config-if-atm-vc) vbr-nrt output-pcr output-scr output-mbs router(config-if-atm-vc) ubr output-pcr router(config-if-atm-vc) ubr+ output-pcr output-mcr 2002, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco CCIE Prep vt.O Module 4-58 These supported traffic...

Configuring PVCs Required and Optional Tasks

Mapping a Protocol Address to a PVC Optional Tasks Configuring the AAL and Encapsulation Type Configuring PVC Traffic Parameters 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco CCIE Routing and Switching e-Prep v2.1 Module 1-6 To configure a PVC, perform the following tasks. The first two tasks are required the other tasks are optional Mapping a Protocol Address to a PVC (Required) Configuring the ATM Adaptation Layer (AAL) and Encapsulation Type (Optional) Configuring PVC Traffic...

Debugging ATM

All rights reservec arp Show ATM ARP events. Displays messages pertaining to the process of mapping an ATM Network Service Access Point (NSAP) address to an IP address. Here is a sample output for this command ATM ARP events debugging is on R7 ping 10.1. 20 32 54 ATMARP(ATM1 0.2) Learned address through INARP reply for CCIE R7 ping 10.1.1 20 32 57 ATMARP(ATM1 0.2) Learned address through INARP reply for CCIE Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 10.1.1.2, timeout is 2...

Default Information Originate Cont

Avoid using the neighbor default-originate command because the route will always be advertised router config-router) neighbor ip-address peer-group-name default-originate router config-router) neighbor ip-address peer-group-name default-originate R4(config-router) neighbor 172.16.45.5 default-originate 2002, Cisco Systems, inc. All lights reserved. Another way of advertising a default route is via the neighbor default-originate command. This method is not recommended, as the advertising router...

Defining Interesting Traffic

Prevents EIGRP, RIP, and Telnet traffic from bringing up ISDN link, but allows all other traffic to R4(config) dialer-list 1 protocol ip list 101 Associates the dialer-list with an access-list 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco CCIE Prep v1.0 Module 3-10 The dialer-list protocol form of the dialer-list command defines interesting traffic based on protocol. The dialer-list protocol < protocol> list fonn of this command allows for a more granular definition of interesting...

Dialer Profiles

Dialer Profiles allow a great deal of flexibility in the configuration of DDR circuits, allowing one physical interface to be used for multiple functions. R4(config) interface bri 0 0 R4(config-if) no ip address R4(config-if) encapsulation ppp R4(config-if) dialer pool-member 1 R4(config) dialer-list 1 protocol ip permit R4(config) interface dialer 1 R4(config-if) ip address 172.16.14.1 255.255.255.252 R4(config-if) encapsulation ppp R4(config-if) dialer string 8140010 R4(config-if) dialer...

Dialer Profiles Example Cont

R4(config) interface bri 0 0 R4(config-if) no ip address R4(config-if) encapsulation ppp R4(config-if) dialer pool-member 1 R4(config) dialer-list 1 protocol ip permit R4(config) interface dialer 1 R4(config-if) ip address 172.16.14.1 2 55.255.255.252 R4(config-if) encapsulation ppp R4(config-if) dialer string 8140010 R4(config-if) dialer remote-name R1 R4(config-if) dialer pool 1 R4(config-if) dialer-group 1 R4(config-if) exit R4(config) dialer-list 2 protocol ip list 102 R4(config)...

Dialon Demand Routing DDR

All rights reserved. Cisco CCIE Prep v1.0 Module 3-10 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco CCIE Prep v1.0 Module 3-10 The DDR configuration shown here will allow you to take advantage of the many properties of Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP). The interesting traffic has been identified as any IP type traffic. The dialer string command should only be used in a point-to-point environment. If you are configuring ISDN in a point-to-multipoint environment,...

Disable Auto Summary

It is recommended that auto-summarization is turned off 2002, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco CCIE Prep v1.0 Module 8-77 To disable auto-summary on R4, issue these commands R4(config) router bgp 400 Now, clear the BGP connections and then view R4's BGP routing table. BGP table version is 17, local router ID is 150.40.0.4 Status codes s suppressed, d damped, h history, * valid, > best, i - internal Origin codes i - IGP, e - EGP, - incomplete Network Next Hop Metric LocPrf...

Distance Vector Routing Protocols

This module briefly examines routing protocols in general, followed by a review of the major distance-vector routing protocols, Routing Information Protocol (RIP), RIPv2, and Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP). Upon completing this module, you will be able to Explain the various fields used in the routing table List the major differences between Link-State routing protocols and distance-vector routing protocols Perform advanced configurations of RIP, RIPv2, and EIGRP

Distribute Lists

Distribute lists allow granular advertisement control router config-router) neighbor ip-address peer-group-name distribute-list access-list in out Rl(config) access-list 1 deny 172.16.0.0 0.0.254.255 Rl(config) access-list 1 permit any Rl(config) access-list 1 deny 172.16.0.0 0.0.254.255 Rl(config) access-list 1 permit any Rl(config-router) neighbor 172.16.134.3 distribute-list 1 out 2002, Cisco Systems, Inc. All lights reserved. One method to filter BGP advertisements is to use distribute...

Each pointtopoint subinterface is treated as a separate subnet

All rights reserved. Point-to-point subinterfaces allow a Cisco router to treat each Permanent Virtual Circuit (PVC) as a separate IP subnet. By doing this, the Non-Broadcast Multi-Access (NBMA) characteristics of a Frame Relay network can be avoided. Point-to-point subinterfaces are also used to resolve split horizon issues. By default, split horizon is disabled on all physical interfaces and point-to-multipoint subinterfaces configured for Frame Relay. This is...

EBGP Basic Configuration

Router(config-router) neighbor ip-address peer-group-name remote-as number If the local AS matches the remote AS, then you are configuring iBGP. In other words, you are peering with a router in your own AS. If the local AS does not match the remote AS, then you are configuring eBGP. In other words, you are peering with a router outside of your AS. 2002, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco CCIE Prep v1.0 Module 8-42 There are two primary commands required to configure an External BGP...

Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol Eigrp Summary

BWiliiMl II III III II III II III III II III III II III II III III II III III II III II I II III II III CiGco.com This lesson presented these key points How EIGRP builds and maintains neighbor relationships Address summarization of EIGRP queries Controlling EIGRP split horizon issues 2002, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco CCIE Prep v1.0 Module 6-65

Ether Channel Overview

All rights reservec An EtherChannel consists of individual Fast Ethernet or Gigabit Ethernet links bundled into a single logical link. The EtherChannel provides full-duplex bandwidth up to 800 Mbps (Fast EtherChannel) or 8 Gbps (Gigabit EtherChannel) between your switch and another switch or host. Each EtherChannel can consist of up to eight compatibly configured Ethernet interfaces. All interfaces in each EtherChannel must be the same speed, and all must be...

Example

R5(config-router) neighbor 172.16.56.6 route-map MYMAP in R5(config-router) exit R5(config) access-list 1 permit 60.1.1.0 0.0.0.255 R5(config) access-list 2 permit 60.2.2.0 0.0.0.255 R5(config) route-map MYMAP permit 10 R5(config-route-map) match ip address 1 R5(config-route-map) exit R5(config) route-map MYMAP permit 20 R5(config-route-map) match ip address 2 If route-map sequence number 10 is matched accept the route to 60.1.1.0 24, execute any set statements, and exit the route-map, do not...

Fault Tolerant Peers

Use update-source keyword to point to a loopback interface Allows communication even if a physical interface goes down 2002. Cisco Systems. Inc. All rights reserved. neighbor ip-address peer-group-name update-source interface-name Using the update-source keyword for a peer allows iBGP sessions to use any operational interface for TCP connections. iBGP neighbor relationships can occur as long as there is TCP connection between peers. Using physical interfaces can create problems when they go...

Full Mesh Requirements

* Route reflection can be used to get around the full mesh j iBGP requirement 2002, Cisco Systems, Inc. All lights reserved. Once a BGP session has been established, updates are exchanged to provide all the locally known routes with only the best path advertised. Incremental update messages are exchanged later. If the best path is received from an eBGP peer, then it is advertised to all peers. This is another very important concept to understand. If a BGP speaker receives an update from an eBGP...

Fullmesh topology required or a static selection of the DR based on priority

All rights reserved. Cisco CCIE Prep v1.0 Module 7-23 If your NBMA network is configured in a full mesh, there is no need to statically define neighbors, as all routers can reach each other directly. This also eliminates the need to carefully control the DR BDR election process. For the broadcast network type to work successfully, the broadcast parameter must be specified on all Frame Relay map statements. Table 6-6 < ip ospf network broadcast > Command Table 6-6...

General Administration

This section lists the administrative issues for the course. This section lists the administrative issues for the course. 2002, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. The instructor will discuss the administrative issues noted here so you know exactly what to expect from the class. Starting and anticipated ending times of each class day Class breaks and lunch facilities Appropriate attire during class Materials you can expect to receive during class What to do in the event of an emergency How...

Learner Responsibilities

All rightsreserved. Cisco CCIEPiepv1.0-Module1-7 2002, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rightsreserved. Cisco CCIEPiepv1.0-Module1-7 To take full advantage of the information presented in this course, you must have completed the prerequisite requirements. In class, you are expected to participate in all lesson exercises and assessments. In addition, you are encouraged to ask any questions relevant to the course materials. If you have pertinent information or questions...

Lesson Assessment

ATM networks is closely related to which network type Ql) Synchronous Q2) Asynchronous Q3) Dedicated Q4)None of the above 2. Which of the following steps are REQUIRED to configure an ATM connection (choose two) Q2)Map a protocol address to a PVC Q3)Configure the AAL and encapsulation type Q4)Configure PVC traffic parameters 3. Configuring ILMI on an ATM connection allows it to discover which type of address Ql) Network layer Q2) VPI VCI Q3) DLCI Q4) Session layer 4. Which AAL encapsulation type...

Lesson Assessment Quiz

Ql) What command is used to clear dynamic Frame Relay mappings learned via Inverse ARP Q2) The frame-relay map command is used on which of the following interface types B) Point-to-multipoint subinterface Q3) The frame-relay interface-dlci command is used on which of the following interface types B) Point-to-multipoint subinterface Q4) What does the optional broadcast keyword on the frame-relay map command do Q5) Split horizon for IP is disabled on which of the following interface types by...

Lesson Review Cont

What command would be used on the ABR shown here to configure route summarization for Area 4 2002, CiscoSystems, Inc. All rights reserved. Q3) What command would be used on the ABR shown above to configure route summarization for Area 4 Q4) What command is used to configure external route summarization on an ASBR Q5) What type of external route increments its cost as it is propagated throughout the OSPF domain

Neighbor adjacencies are automatic

All rights reserved. Point-to-point subinterfaces on the hub router treat each connection to a spoke router as a separate IP subnet. Point-to-point subinterfaces were originally created in order to handle issues caused by split horizon when running distance vector routing protocols over NBMA networks. A point-to-point subinterface has the same properties of a physical point-to-point interface. As far as OSPF is concerned, an adjacency is always formed over a...

Number of entries is configurable Default is four

All rights reserved By default, EIGRP will load-share over four equal cost paths. For load-sharing to happen, the load-sharing routes must show up in the IP forwarding table, or with the show ip route command. Only when a route shows up in the forwarding table with multiple paths to it, will load sharing occur. Use the bandwidth interface command on serial links to ensure EIGRP has a consistent perspective of the metrics of the network. This may also aid in making the...

Objectives

Upon completing this lesson, you will be able to Verify the status of Layer 1 and Layer 2 using the show interface command Verify Layer 2 connectivity with the show cdp neighbors command Use various show and debug commands to troubleshoot problems in a Frame Relay network Verify remote Layer 3 address-to-DLCI mappings with the debug frame packet command Verify LMI Status messages with the show frame-relay lmi and debug frame-relay lmi commands

On pointtopoint interfaces use the interfacedlci command

All rights reserved. There is no actual remote Layer 3 address-to-DLCI mapping that needs to be configured on a point-to-point subinterface. However, by default, the Frame Relay switch assigns all DLCIs to the physical interface of the Frame Relay Data Terminal Equipment (DTE). Since each point-to-point subinterface is actually a separate PVC, all you need to do is assign the correct DLCIs to the correct subinterfaces. Only one DLCI can be assigned to a particular...

Optional RIP Configuration Tasks

This section covers the commands to perform optional configurations tasks in RIP, such as modifying RIP timers, setting the maximum number of paths to load balance across, and controlling RIP update traffic. timers basic update invalid holddown flush passive-interface interface_name offset-list access-list-number name in out offset type number distribute-list 1-199 in out interface 2002, CiscoSystems, Inc. All rights reserved. The following is a list of some of the common adjustable parameters...

Outline

This lesson includes these sections PPP Multilink PPP Callback Caller Identification Password Authentication Protocol (PAP) authentication can occur in bi-directional and unidirectional configurations. Each is appropriate for different scenarios. R4(config) interface briO O R4(config-if) encapsulation ppp R4(config-if) ppp authentication pap callin R4(config-if) ppp pap sent-username R4 password matchingpass Rl(config) username R4 password matchingpass Rl(config) interface briO O Rl(config-if)...

Overview

Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) is still used in business markets because it allows multiple digital channels to operate simultaneously over a single circuit. It can support voice, data, and video over existing phone wiring. This module examines the configuration of Dial-On-Demand Routing (DDR) over an ISDN Basic Rate Interface (BRI) link, the configuration and features of Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP), using ISDN DDR as a backup link, and the Cisco Internetwork Operating System...

Perform this configuration on the physical interface

All rights reserved. A basic Frame Relay configuration assumes that you want to configure Frame Relay on the physical interface of the router. Perform the following steps to enable Frame Relay on a physical interface Selects the interface and enters interface configuration mode. ip address 172.16.23.2 255.255.255.0 Configures a network-layer address, for example, an IP address. encapsulation frame-relay cisco ietf Selects the encapsulation type used to encapsulate...

PPP Callback Server Configuration Callback Server calls client back

Rl(config) username R4 password secret Rl(config) interface briO O Rl(config-if) ip address 172.16.14.2 255.255.255.252 Rl(config-if) encapsulation ppp Rl(config-if) dialer map ip 172.16.14.1 name R4 class DIALBACK broadcast 3442929 Rl(config) map-class dialer DIALBACK Rl(config-map-class) dialer callback-server use 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Server configuration is a little more complex. First, configure the server to accept...

Reason 3 Redistribution from a Classful Routing Protocol Cont

Solution 1 Use a route-map to filter those networks during redistribution Solution 2 Use a Different Classful Network 2002, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco CCIE Prep v1.0 Module 7-84 Reason 3 (cont.) Redistribution from a classful routing protocol is being performed on one of the routers that connect to the OSPF demand circuit Other problems that will result from the redistribution of classful routing protocols into OSPF closely resemble the last problem. In the example above,...

Redistributing Dynamic Routes

Router(config-router) redistribute protocol metric metric router(config-router) redistribute protocol metric metric 2002. Cisco Systems. Inc- All rights reserved- Routes learned from routing protocol redistribution are marked as incomplete 2002. Cisco Systems. Inc- All rights reserved- Another way to advertise networks is to redistribute dynamic routes. Typically, you redistribute Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) routes (such as Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP), IGRP,...

Redistributing Static Routes

This section will discuss how to perform static route redistribution. router(config-router) redistribute static router(config-router) redistribute static Redistributing static routes provides a mechanism for injecting stable routes into the BGP process R3(config-router) neighbor 172.16.23.2 remote-as 230 R3(config-router) redistribute static R3(config) ip route 2.2.0.0 255.255.0.0 null 0 2002, CiscoSystems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco CCIE Prep v1.0 Module 8-59 ip route <...

Redistributing Static Routes Cont

All rights reservec Use redistribute static to advertise 2.2.2.0 24 on R2 2002, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reservec The redistribute router configuration command and the static keyword cause all static routes to be redistributed into BGP. The ip route global configuration command establishes a static route for network 2.2.0.0. In theory, the specification of the null 0 interface would cause a packet destined for network 2.2.0.0 to be discarded. In practice, there...

Reduces LSAs and saves CPU

All rights reserved. With route summarization, only summarized routes will be propagated into the backbone (Area 0). This is very important because it prevents every router in the OSPF domain from having to rerun the Shortest Path First (SPF) algorithm when a route changes within an area. This increases the network's stability and reduces unnecessary traffic. There are two types of summarization Inter-area route summarization Inter-area route summarization is done on...

Route Reflector Cont

R4 is configured as route-reflector with R5 as client R5 is configured as route-reflector with R4 as client 2002, Cisco Systems, Inc. All lights reserved. But, there is still a problem. What happens to the updates coming from Rl Trace an update of network 172.16.10.0 24 coming from Rl going to R6. R6 receives the update and sends the update to its iBGP peer R5. R5 is configured as a route reflector server with R4 as its client and sends the update to R4. R4 receives the update and because it is...

Summary

This section summarizes the key points discussed in this lesson. This lesson presented these key points Virtual link configuration in a multi-area OSPF environment Configure OSPF neighbor authentication Configure OSPF demand circuits to prevent OSPF hellos from bringing up ISDN DDR links 2002, CiscoSystems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco CCIE Prep v1.0 Module 7-48

T

Allows broadcasts originating from the router to cross the WAN link Use the broadcast keyword to forward routing updates across the ISDN link 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco CCIE Prep v1.0 Module 3-U In this example, static routing over the ISDN link has been removed in favor of using a dynamic routing protocol like Routing Information Protocol (RIP) or Open Shortest Path First (OSPF). RIP sends routing updates to UDP port 520 every 30 seconds by default and OSPF sends...

Table

Protocol protocol-address dlci broadcast ietf cisco Maps a next hop protocol address to a local DLCI. The encapsulation type cisco ietf can be set on a per-PVC basis using the keywords here Selects the protocol type. Supported protocols are appletalk, clns, decent, ip, ipx, xns, and vines Specifies the protocol address (not specified for bridged or Connectionless Network Service (CLNS) connections) Specifies the DLCI number used to connect to the specified protocol address on the interface...

Terminology

When BGP is used to exchange routing information between autonomous systems, the protocol is referred to as external BGP (eBGP). If BGP is used to exchange routes within an AS, then the protocol is referred to as interior BGP (iBGP). iBGP and eBGP will be discussed in the following lessons. In BGP, each route consists of a network number, a list of autonomous systems that information has passed through (called the autonomous system path), and a list of other path attributes. Cisco supports BGP...

Timers can be manually adjusted through the ip ospf hellointerval and ip ospf deadinterval commands

All rights reserved. Cisco CCIE Prep v1.0 Module 7-21 OSPF requires these intervals to be exactly the same between two routers in order for the routers to form a neighbor adjacency. If either of these intervals is different, the routers will not become neighbors on a particular segment. Changing the OSPF network type with the ip ospf network command affects these intervals. Here is a list of the default intervals for the different network types. Broadcast Hello time...

Use static maps for nexthop Layer 3 addresstolocal DLCI mappings in hub and spoke environments

All rights reserved. In a hub and spoke topology in which the spoke routers are using physical interfaces, static maps must be used in order for communication between the spokes to occur. A static map links a specified next hop Layer 3 protocol address to a specific DLCI. Static mapping removes the need for Inverse ARP requests. When you supply a static map, Inverse ARP is automatically disabled for the specified protocol on that DLCI.

Using the Network Command

This section will discuss how to advertise routes using the network command. router(config-router) network ip-address mask network-mask router(config-router) network ip-address mask network-mask 2002. Cisco Systems. Inc. All rights reserved. AS 100y---J origin of routes learned through the network statement is set to IGP 2002. Cisco Systems. Inc. All rights reserved. network ip-address mask network-mask Another way to advertise networks is to use the network router configuration command. When...

Verifying ATM

Display ATM Interface ILMI information 2002, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco CCIE Prep vt.O Module 4-72 The show atm command syntax is useful during troubleshooting and shows you if there is a problem in the server configuration. arp-server ATM ARP Server Table bundle ATM bundle information class-links ATM vc-class links ilmi-configuration Display Top level ILMI ilmi-status Display ATM Interface ILMI information This is very useful in case you misconfigured the ILMI PVC. It tells...

Verifying Ether Channel

EtherChannel and PAgP Status Commands etherchannel channel-group-number brief detail load-balance port port-channel summary Enters interface configuration mode and specifies a physical interface to configure. Only physical interfaces can be part of an Etherchannel. Up to eight interfaces of the same type and speed can be configured for the same group. channel-group-number counters internal neighbor Ensures that there is no IP address assigned to the physical interface. 2002, CiscoSystems, Inc....

Verifying Interface Status

Enter interface range configuration mode by entering the range of interfaces (VLANs or physical ports) to be configured. You can use the interface range command to configure up to five port ranges or a previously defined macro. Each comma-separated port-range must consist of the same port type. You do not need to enter spaces before or after the comma. When you define a range, the space between the first port and the hyphen is required. 2002, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco CCIE...

Verifying OSPF is Running

Central show ip ospf interface serial 0 0 Serial0 0 is up, line protocol is up Internet Address 172.16.0.1 24, Area 0 Process ID 1, Router ID 192.168.15.1, Network Type POINT_TO_POINT, Cost 64 Transmit Delay is 1 sec, State POINT_TO_POINT, Timer intervals configured, Hello 10, Dead 40, Wait 40, Retransmit 5 Hello due in 00 00 07 Neighbor Count is 1, Adjacent neighbor count is 1 Adjacent with neighbor 172.16.0.2 Suppress hello for 0 neighbor(s) Central Used to verify OSPF interface configuration...

Verifying PVC Status

PVC Statistics for interface SerialO O (Frame Relay DTE) DLCI 2 03, DLCI USAGE LOCAL, PVC STATUS ACTIVE, INTERFACE Serial0 0 input pkts 4 5 ou t bytes 0 in BECN pkts 0 in DE pkts 0 out bcast pkts 0 output pkts 0 dropped pkts 0 out FECN pkts 0 out DE pkts 0 out bcast bytes 0 in bytes 13230 in FECN pkts 0 out BECN pkts 0 pvc create time 01 46 39, last time pvc status changed Indicates the DLCI number associated with the PVC Indicates the interface on which the PVC was learned 2002, Cisco Systems,...

Viewing the Neighbor Table

OSPF over Ethernet Multiaccess Network OSPF over HDLC Point-to-point Network 2002, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. The show ip ospf neighbor command displays the OSPF neighbor database. This command can be used to verify the existence of OSPF neighbors including their router IDs, their role on the segment (DR, BDR, or DROTHER), their current neighbor state (DOWN, ATTEMPT, INIT, 2WAY, EXSTART, EXCHANGE, LOADING, or FULL), and the interface off which they were learned. Table 6-26 <...

What is ATM

All rights reservec Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) is an International Telecommunication Union Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) standard for cell relay wherein routers convey information for multiple service types, such as voice, video, or data, in small, fixed-size cells. ATM networks are connection oriented. ATM is a cell-switching and multiplexing technology that combines the benefits of circuit switching (guaranteed capacity and constant...

Prerequisite Learner Skills and Knowledge

Minimum two years hands-on experience Passed the CCIE written qualification exam Minimum two years hands-on experience 2002, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. To fully benefit from this course, you must have these prerequisite skills and knowledge Cisco Certified Network Professional (CCNP) Minimum two years hands-on experience Passed the CCIE written qualification exam

What is EIGRP

Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) is a classless routing protocol that directly interfaces to Internet Protocol (IP) as protocol 88. * Multiple network-layer protocols 2002, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reservec EIGRP uses the multicast address of 224.0.0.10 for 'hellos' and routing updates instead of an all hosts broadcast like Routing Information Protocol (RIP) uses. EIGRP also employs a system of hello and hold timers to maintain neighbors. Aside from the initial routing...

Physical Interface Configuration

Frame Relay can be configured on either the physical interface or a subinterface. This section will discuss the process of configuring Frame Relay on the physical interface. This includes how address mappings are configured on a physical interface and the advantages and disadvantages of using a physical interface for Frame Relay.

Learner Introductions

This is the point in the course where you introduce yourself. This is the point in the course where you introduce yourself. Your name Your company Skills and knowledge Brief history Objective Your name Your company Skills and knowledge Brief history Objective 2002, CiscoSystems, Inc. All rights reserved. Prepare to share the following information A profile of your experience Are there any subject areas you would like to concentrate on This section covers lab registration. This section covers...

Ciscos Certification Track

This section lists the certification requirements of this course. This section lists the certification requirements of this course. CCIE (Cisco Certified Internetwork Expert) CCIE (Cisco Certified Internetwork Expert) CCDP (Cisco Certified Design Professional) CCNP (Cisco Certified Network Professional) * Routing and Switching Support CCIP (Cisco Certified Internetwork Professional) CCNA (Cisco Certified Network Associate) * Routing and Switching Support CCDA (Cisco Certified Design Associate)...

Packet Switched Technologies

Because of their high speed and efficiency, most modern networks employ some type of packet switched technology in their Wide Area Network (WAN) infrastructure. Understanding the concepts and configuration of Frame Relay and Autonomous Transfer Mode (ATM) networks are critical to your success in the Cisco Certified Internetwork Expert (CCIE) lab. Upon completing this module, you will be able to Describe Frame Relay concepts such as Data-Link Connection Identifiers (DLCI), Inverse Address...

Configuring the Idle Timeout

R4(config-if) dialer idle-timeout 60 Used to specify the amount of time the line can sit idle before it is disconnected Used to drop the connection more quickly if another call is waiting to use the DDR interface 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco CCIE Prep v1.0 Module 3-14 To specify the idle time before the line is disconnected, use the dialer idle-timeout command in interface configuration mode. Remember the dialer idle-timeout command is based on interesting traffic...

Floating Static Routes

Floating static routes are an enhancement to static routes that use administrative distance to appropriately weight the backup route in relation to routes learned through dynamic routing protocols. R4(config) ip route 172.16.10.0 255.255.255.0 bri0 0 200 R4(config) ip route 172.16.16.0 255.255.255.0 bri0 0 200 Floating static routes are static routes with an administrative distance (AD) greater than dynamically learned routes 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco CCIE Prep v1.0...

Pointto Multipoint Subinterface Configuration

R3(config) interface serial 0 0.134 multipoint R3(config-subif) ip address 172.16.134.3 255.255.255.0 R3(config-subif) frame-relay map ip 172.16.134.4 304 broadcast R3(config-subif) frame-relay map ip 172.16.134.1 301 broadcast R3(config) interface serial 0 0.134 multipoint R3(config-subif) ip address 172.16.134.3 255.255.255.0 R3(config-subif) frame-relay map ip 172.16.134.4 304 broadcast R3(config-subif) frame-relay map ip 172.16.134.1 301 broadcast

Configuring Root Guard

3 550(config) interface fastEthernet 0 3 3 55 0(config-if) spanning-tree guard root 2002, CiscoSystems, Inc. All rights reserved. When a change in the spanning-tree topology occurs, a new root bridge is sometimes selected. If you let spanning-tree defaults dictate the election of the root bridge, you may end up with a non-preferred switch, such as an access layer switch, performing the root bridge function. You can avoid this situation by configuring root guard the switches in your network. If...

Switched Port Analyzer SPAN

All rights reserved. Cisco CCIE Prep v1.0 Module 5-65 You can analyze network traffic passing through ports or VLANs by using SPAN to send a copy of the traffic to another port on the switch that has been connected to a SwitchProbe device or other Remote Monitoring (RMON) probe. SPAN mirrors received or sent (or both) traffic on a source port and received traffic on one or more source ports or source VLANs, to a destination port for analysis. For example, in the...

Inverse ARP should be disabled before bringing up the Frame Relay interface

All rights reserved. Once the interface is brought up with the no shutdown command, the Frame Relay switch will use Local Management Interface (LMI) to communicate the Data-Link Connection Identifier (DLCI) information to the router. Once the DLCIs have attained an active state, meaning that both sides of the connection are up and the Frame Relay switch has the correct Frame Relay route statements, Inverse Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is performed to map the...

Advanced Configuration Options

This section will discuss BGP confederations and how to configure them. Confederations can be a solution to the iBGP full mesh problem R3(config) router R3(config-router) R3(config-router) R3(config-router) R3(config-router) R3(config-router) R3(config-router) R3(config-router) bgp confederation identifier 200 bgp confederation peers 65016 network 3.3.3.0 mask 255.255.255.0 neighbor 172.16.23.2 remote-as 100 neighbor 172.16.45.5 remote-as 65345 neighbor 172.16.70.4 remote-as 65345 neighbor...

Load Sharing using STP Path Cost

Trunk Port 1 VLANs 2-4 (Path Cost 30) VLANs 8-10 (Path Cost 19) VLANs 8-10 (Path Cost 30) VLANs 2-4 (Path Cost 19) 2002, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. You can configure parallel trunks to share VLAN traffic by setting different path costs on a trunk and associating the path costs with different sets of VLANs. The VLANs keep the traffic separate. Because no loops exist, STP does not disable the ports, and redundancy is maintained in the event of a lost link. In the figure above, Trunk...

EBGP Multihop

Use eBGP multihop when remote eBGP neighbor is not directly connected router(config-router) neighbor ip-address peer-group-name ebgp-multihop max-hop-count router(config-router) neighbor ip-address peer-group-name ebgp-multihop max-hop-count Usually, the two eBGP speakers are directly connected (for example, over a Wide Area Network (WAN) connection). Sometimes, they cannot be directly connected, such as the case when a router that does not use BGP is in between the two neighbors that wish to...

OSPF Virtual Link Configuration Example

All rights reservec In this example, Area 2 does not have a direct physical connection to the backbone (Area 0). To provide connectivity to the backbone, a virtual link must be configured between R6 and Rl. Area l will be the transit area, and Rl will be the entry point into Area 0. R6 will have a logical connection to the backbone through the transit area. Both sides of the virtual link must be configured using the neighboring Area Boarder Router's (ABR's) router ID,...

Backup Delay

Backup delay enable-delay never disable-delay never By default the secondary interface is immediately brought on primary link failure. 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. You can configure a value that defines how much time should elapse before a secondary line status changes after a primary line status change. This means that you can define two delays A delay that specifies the amount of time after the primary line goes down, but before the secondary line is activated A delay that...

Show Commands

Show commands are critical for identifying the configuration and status of ISDN. If you are experiencing problems with your BRI circuit, the first step is to perform a loopback test call. With a loopback call, the router dials the ISDN number of its own BRI interface. The call proceeds to the telco cloud, where the telco switches the call to the second BRI channel. The router now sees this call as an incoming call on the second channel. Therefore, the router verifies that it can both send and...

Hub router should be the DR no BDRs

All lights reserved. When the network type is set to non-broadcast, which is the default on NBMA networks, OSPF operates as if it were running in a broadcast multi-access environment, such as Ethernet. Therefore, a DR and BDR are elected for the NBMA network, and the DR originates the LinkState Advertisements (LSAs) for the network. If you are operating in a full mesh environment and the broadcast keyword is specified in your Frame Relay map statements, no other...

PPP Callback Client Configuration Callback Client requests callback

R4(config) username R1 password secret R4(config) interface briO O R4(config-if) ip address 172.16.14.1 255.255.255.252 R4(config-if) encapsulation ppp R4(config-if) dialer map ip 172.16.14.2 name R1 broadcast 5772222 R4(config-if) ppp authentication chap R4(config-if) ppp callback request Client configuration is very simple. You request the server to call you back using the command ppp callback request, as shown in the example above. 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Atm Pvc Auto Discovery on End Routers

R (config-if) ip address l0.l.l.l 255 ILMI uses the VPI VCI pair of 0 16 Inverse ARP is enabled by default when you create a PVC using the pvc command or when a PVC is auto-discovered using the command above 2OO2, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco CCIE Prep v1.O Module 4-3O You can use Integrated Local Management Interface (ILMI) to discover and configure the PVCs. ILMI uses what it gets from the adjacent switch. The router discovers the PVCs configured on the switch and configures...

Verifying VLAN Configuration

All rights reserved. Cisco CCIE Prep v1.0 Module 5-17 In much the same manner as VTP, VLAN problems usually arise when there is inconsistent VLAN information on the different switches in the network. You can use the show vlan command to display a list of all VLANs on each switch, including extended-range VLANs. The display includes VLAN status, ports, and configuration information. To view normal-range VLANs in the VLAN database (1 to 1005,) use the show VLAN...

Manual Summarization

Configurable on a per-interface basis in any router within network When summarization is configured on an interface, the router immediately creates a route pointing When the last specific route of the summary goes away, the summary is deleted The minimum metric of the specific routes is used as the metric of the summary route 2002, CiscoSystems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco CCIE Prep v1.0 Module 6-57 EIGRP manual summarization is critical to large EIGRP networks. It limits the EIGRP query...

Configures interface as an OSPF demand circuit

All rights reserved. Cisco CCIE Prep v1.0 Module 7-46 To create an OSPF demand circuit, only one side of the connection is required to have the ip ospf demand-circuit command under its interface. If the other side of the link is capable of understanding the DC bit, it automatically negotiates the demand circuit capability in the hello packets sent between the neighbors. Table 6-24 < ip ospf demand-circuit > Command Table 6-24 < ip ospf demand-circuit > Command...

Backup Interface

A backup interface is an interface that stays idle until certain circumstances occur then it is activated. uscci. a m R4 (config-if) backup interfa R4(config-if) backup delay 1 r Time to Disconnect After Primary Is Active Specifies BRI 0 0 as a backup interface for serial 0 0 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. This example shows R4's Basic Rate Interface (BRI) interface being used to backup its primary link, which is the serial 0 0 interface The backup interface command is placed...

Regular Expression

Router(config-router) ip as-path access list < as-acl-num> permit deny < regular-expression> router(config-router) ip as-path access list < as-acl-num> permit deny < regular-expression> Receive routes from AS600 and directly attached AS access-list 1 permitA600 R1(config-router) ip as-path access-list 1 permitA600_ 0-9 * Receive routes from AS600 and directly attached AS access-list 1 permitA600 R1(config-router) ip as-path access-list 1 permitA600_ 0-9 * 2002, Cisco Systems,...