A

Procedure used in T1 transmission facilities in which each of the 24 T1 subchannels devotes one bit of every sixth frame to the carrying of supervisory signaling information. Also called 24th channel signaling. AAL. ATM adaptation layer. Service-dependent sublayer of the data link layer. The AAL accepts data from different applications and presents it to the ATM layer in the form of 48-byte ATM payload segments. AALs consist of two sublayers, CS and SAR. AALs differ on...

About This Book

CCDA Exam Certification Guide is intended to help you prepare for the CCDA exam, recognize and improve your areas of weakness, and increase your chances of passing the test. The book is designed to provide you with mastery of the CCDA objectives. Because the scope of this book focuses on helping you master the CCDA exam objectives, the authors assume that readers have a certain level of internetworking knowledge. It is strongly recommended that you take the DCN course or acquire an equivalent...

Abstract Syntax Notation One See ASN1

List kept by routers to control access to or from the router for a number of services (for example, to prevent packets with a certain IP address from leaving a particular interface on the router). access method. 1. Generally, the way in which network devices access the network medium. 2. Software within an SNA processor that controls the flow of information through a network. access server. Communications processor that connects asynchronous devices to a LAN or WAN through network...

Access Layer

The access layer provides user access to local segments on the network. The access layer is characterized by switched and shared bandwidth LANs in a campus environment. Microsegmentation, using LAN switches, provides high bandwidth to workgroups by dividing collision domains on Ethernet segments and reducing the number of stations capturing the token on Token Ring LANs. For small office home office (SOHO) environments, the access layer provides access for remote sites into the corporate network...

Access List Example

The access-group command is used to apply an access list to an interface. The access-list command is used to define the criteria for the access list. The order of the access list statements is important. The Cisco IOS software tests the packets against every criteria statement in the order in which the statements were created. After a match is found, no more criteria statements are checked. In the following configuration, an IP protocol access list is applied on the interface Ethernet 0 to...

Access Lists

Access lists are primarily used to control (block or forward) traffic at router interfaces. The access list defines a criteria that is applied to every packet that is processed by the router for that interface. Access lists are also used to improve the performance of a network, such as to filter unnecessary IPX Service Advertising Protocol (SAP) broadcasts, or to filter routes in routing protocol redistribution. Two types of access lists exist standard and extended. Standard access lists allow...

Acknowledgments

This book would not have been possible without the efforts of many dedicated people. Anthony Bruno would like to thank the following people for their contributions First, thanks to Andrew Cupp, Development Editor, who not only improved the book but also improved me as a writer. I would like to thank Cisco Press Executive Editor John Kane for his vision and guidance of this book. Thanks to the technical editors, David Barnes, Kevin Mahler, and Brian Melzer, whose advice and careful attention to...

Adaptive differential pulse code modulation See ADPCM

See dynamic routing. ADCCP. Advanced Data Communications Control Protocol. An ANSI standard bit-oriented data link control protocol. address. A data structure or logical convention used to identify a unique entity, such as a particular process or network device. addressed call mode. A mode that permits control signals and commands to establish and terminate calls in V.25bis. See also V.25bis. address mapping. A technique that allows different protocols to interoperate by...

Address Formats and Assignment

The current implementation of AppleTalk is Phase 2. Addresses are composed of three elements Network number A 16-bit value assigned by the administrator using the cable-range command. Node number An 8-bit value dynamically assigned that identifies the node. Socket number This 8-bit number identifies the socket running on the node it is similar to a port number in TCP IP. Addresses are written in decimal format, with periods separating the fields. Examples of AppleTalk addresses are 11.2,...

Address Resolution Protocol See ARP

A relationship formed between selected neighboring routers and end nodes for the purpose of exchanging routing information. Adjacency is based on the use of a common media segment. adjacent nodes. 1. In SNA, nodes that are connected to a given node with no intervening nodes. 2. In DECnet and OSI, nodes that share a common network segment (in Ethernet, FDDI, or Token Ring networks). administrative distance. A rating of the trustworthiness of a routing information source. The higher...

Addressing Scheme

When assigning addresses to areas, networks, subnetworks, and end stations, it is important to maintain an addressing scheme that can scale as the company grows. Hierarchical network design begins with the addressing scheme. Routers cannot summarize routes if the networks are not assigned within bit boundaries. Assume, for example, that network 172.17.0.0 16 will be used in a medium- to large-sized company with nine areas. Each area could have several sites. How can the network be divided...

Admission control See traffic policing

ADPCM. adaptive differential pulse code modulation. The process by which analog voice samples are encoded into high-quality digital signals. ADSL . Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line. One of four DSL technologies. ADSL is designed to deliver more bandwidth downstream (from the central office to the customer site) than upstream. Downstream rates range from 1.5 to 9 Mbps, whereas upstream bandwidth ranges from 16 to 640 kbps. ADSL transmissions work at distances up to 18,000 feet (5,488 meters)...

Advanced Research Projects Agency Network See Arpanet

Router process in which routing or service updates are sent at specified intervals so that other routers on the network can maintain lists of usable routes. AEP. AppleTalk Echo Protocol. Used to test connectivity between two AppleTalk nodes. One node sends a packet to another node and receives a duplicate, or echo, of that packet. AFI. authority and format identifier. The portion of an NSAP-format ATM address that identifies the type and format of the IDI portion of an ATM address....

Alarm indication signal See AIS

The ITU-T companding standard used in the conversion between analog and digital signals in PCM systems. A-law is used primarily in European telephone networks and is similar to the North American mu-law standard. See also companding and mu-law. algorithm. A well-defined rule or process for arriving at a solution to a problem. In networking, algorithms are commonly used to determine the best route for traffic from a particular source to a particular destination. alignment error. In IEEE...

W

WANs (wide-area networks), 155 1600 series Cisco routers, 586 business solutions branch office connectivity, 558-560 central site connectivity, 561 Internet intranets, 568 telecommuting, 563, 565 circuit switching, 166 design document, 250 designing, 16-17, 157-158 Frame Relay, 164-165 hardware, 167-169 hubs, 517 leased lines, 166 packet switching, 166, 170-171 protocols, 514-516 provisioning, 183-186 proxy services, 230-231 requirements, 158 bandwidth, 160-161 QoS (Quality of Service), 161...

American Standard Code for Information Interchange See ASCII

Line-code type used on T1 and E1 circuits. In AMI, zeros are represented by 01 during each bit cell, and ones are represented by 11 or 00, alternately, during each bit cell. AMI requires that the sending device maintain ones density. Ones density is not maintained independent of the data stream. Sometimes called binary coded alternate mark inversion. See also ones density. amplitude. The maximum value of an analog or a digital waveform. amplitude modulation. See...

Cisco Career Certifications

CCNA Exam Certification Guide Wendell Odom, CCIE 0-7357-0073-7 AVAILABLE NOW This book is a comprehensive study tool for CCNA Exam 640-407 and part of a recommended study program from Cisco Systems. CCNA Exam Certification Guide helps you understand and master the exam objectives. Instructor-developed elements and techniques maximize your retention and recall of exam topics, and scenario-based exercises help validate your mastery of the exam objectives. Cisco Systems, Inc., edited by Laura...

Appendix A Answers to Quiz Questions 334

Do I Know This Already Quiz Answers 335 Q& A Answers 336 Chapter 2 Assessing the Existing Network and Identifying Customer Objectives 338 Do I Know This Already Quiz Answers 338 Q& A Answers 339 Chapter 3 Application Considerations 341 Do I Know This Already Quiz Answers 341 Q& A Answers 342 Chapter 4 Network Topologies and LAN Design 343 Do I Know This Already Quiz Answers 343 Q& A Answers 344 Do I Know This Already Quiz Answers 346 Q& A Answers 347 Chapter 6 Designing for...

Appendix C Internetworking Technology Review 510

LAN Physical Network Access 513 LAN Data Transmission Types 513 WAN Protocols 514 WAN Categories 514 WAN Virtual Circuits 515 WAN Dialup Services 515 WAN Devices 515 Internetwork Addressing 516 MAC Addresses 516 Network Layer Addresses 516 Bridges and Switches 517 Routers 520 IBM Systems Network Architecture Protocols 534 Simple Network Management Protocol 536 Remote Monitoring 538

Apple Talk Addressing

The following CCDA objectives are covered in this section Propose an addressing model for the customer's areas, networks, subnetworks, and end stations that meets scalability requirements. Propose a plan for configuring addresses. Identify scalability constraints and issues for IGRP, EIGRP, IP RIP, IPX RIP SAP, NLSP, AppleTalk RTMP and AURP, static routing, and bridging protocols. Recommend routing and bridging protocols that meet a customer's requirements for performance, security, and...

Apple Talk Network Components

AppleTalk networks are arranged hierarchically. Four basic components form the basis of an AppleTalk network sockets, nodes, networks, and zones. An AppleTalk socket is a unique, addressable location in an AppleTalk node. It is the logical point at which upper-layer AppleTalk software processes and the network layer Datagram-Delivery Protocol (DDP) interact. An AppleTalk node is a device that is connected to an AppleTalk network. This device might be a Macintosh computer, a printer, an IBM PC,...

Apple Talk Protocol Suite

AppleTalk, a protocol suite developed by Apple Computer in the early 1980s, was developed in conjunction with the Macintosh computer. AppleTalk's purpose was to allow multiple users to share resources, such as files and printers. The devices that supply these resources are called servers, whereas the devices that make use of these resources (such as a user's Macintosh computer) are called clients. AppleTalk was designed with a transparent network interface. That is, the interaction between...

Apple Talk Protocols

There are two protocols at the network layer AppleTalk Address-Resolution Protocol (AARP) Associates AppleTalk network addresses with hardware addresses Datagram Delivery Protocol (DDP) Provides a best-effort connectionless datagram service between AppleTalk sockets Five key implementations exist at the transport layer of the AppleTalk protocol suite Routing Table Maintenance Protocol (RTMP) Responsible for establishing and maintaining routing tables for AppleTalk routers. RTMP is a...

Apple Talk Services

The CCDA objectives covered in this section are as follows 8 Determine the customer's requirements for new applications, protocols, number of users, peak usage hours, security, and network management. 9 Diagram the flow of information for new applications. 12 Predict the amount of traffic and the type of traffic caused by the applications, given charts that characterize typical network traffic. AppleTalk uses the concept of zones to form a logical grouping of nodes, similar to the workgroups...

Apple Talk Zones

AppleTalk defines a zone as a logical group of nodes or networks. These nodes or networks need not be physically contiguous to belong to the same AppleTalk zone. Zones are configured to group resources together and are used to limit AppleTalk broadcasts and provide some security. Zones can be configured by function within a company, as in separating a finance department from an engineering department. The Zone Information Protocol (ZIP) is the session-layer A protocol that maintains network...

Application Considerations

The purpose of this chapter is to review the different types of applications that a network architect should consider when designing a network. Some network application families cannot be routed others can. The network must provide a way to transport the traffic across wide-area network (WAN) links. Some network operating systems produce broadcast traffic that can be filtered. A CCDA must be able to identify the types of applications your clients use and must understand how those affect the...

Application Requirements

Consider existing application integration. The network design will need to seamlessly accommodate the existing applications. Investigate the current application flows, and incorporate those into the network design. Determine the following application requirements Find out what new applications have been introduced to the network. Determine the number of users using these applications. Find out the traffic flow for these applications. Identify what new protocols are being introduced to the...

Applications Assessment

To completely assess the applications on the current network, you will need to look at the following Applications Identify the customer's current applications and plans for future applications, including information such as who uses the applications. Information flows Analyze where information flows in the company and how different applications and traffic affects that flow. If possible, try to reference existing documentation if none is available, this process could require considerable time...

Assessing the Customers Corporate Profile Information

Assessing the corporate profile information will help you characterize the type of business and your customer's business constraints. Understanding your customer's network means understanding your customer's business. The profiling data will help you determine the following Business goals and business type Determine what type of business your customer is engaged in and what the company's major business goals are for the future. The growth of a company will differ from one to another try to...

Assessing the Customers Technical Information

Before you can begin developing a design solution, you must assess the company's current network technical information. Technical data helps you identify any network bottlenecks, understand how systems work together, and determine whether there are any obvious issues in implementing the new design. Use the business profile information to act as a guide when gathering technical information. After gathering all the business data, it is possible to start extrapolating questions you would ask to...

Association control service element See ACSE

Memory that is accessed based on its contents, not on its memory address. Sometimes called content addressable memory (CAM). AST. automatic spanning tree. A function that supports the automatic resolution of spanning trees in SRB networks, providing a single path for spanning explorer frames to traverse from a given node in the network to another. AST is based on the IEEE 802.1 standard. See also IEEE 802.1 and SRB. ASTA. Advanced Software Technology and Algorithms. A...

Asynchronous Transfer Mode See ATM

Digital signals that are transmitted without precise clocking. Such signals generally have different frequencies and phase relationships. Asynchronous transmissions usually encapsulate individual characters in control bits (called start and stop bits) that designate the beginning and end of each character. Compare with isochronous transmission, plesiochronous transmission, and synchronous transmission. ATDM. asynchronous time-division multiplexing. A method of sending...

ATM data service unit See ADSU

An international organization jointly founded in l99l by Cisco Systems, NET ADAPTIVE, Northern Telecom, and Sprint that develops and promotes standards-based implementation agreements for ATM technology. The ATM Forum expands on official standards developed by ANSI and ITU-T, and develops implementation agreements in advance of official standards. ATM layer. A service-independent sublayer of the data link layer in an ATM network. The ATM layer receives the 48-byte payload segments...

Attachment unit interface See AUI

The loss of communication signal energy. attribute. Configuration data that defines the characteristics of database objects such as the chassis, cards, ports, or virtual circuits of a particular device. Attributes might be preset or user-configurable. On a LightStream 2G2G ATM switch, attributes are set using the configuration program or CLI commands. AUI. attachment unit interface. An IEEE 8G2.3 interface between an MAU and a NIC (network interface card). Also called transceiver...

B

B channel (bearer channel), 377 B class IP addresses, 201-202, 525-526 subnetting, 202-203 supernetting, 206-207 B8ZS (binary 8-zero substitution), 375 back end nodes, 375 back pressures, 375 backbone areas (OSPF), 215 Backbone routers (OSPF), 217 backbones, 104, 375 backoffs, 375 backplanes, 375 backup links, 114 backup serial lines, 515 backward learning, 375 balanced configuration, 375 balancing loads LocalDirector, 571, 609-611 route redundancy, 111 baluns, 375 bandwidth, 375 bandwidth...

Balanced unbalanced See balun

A device used for matching impedance between a balanced and an unbalanced line, usually twisted-pair and coaxial cable. bandwidth. The difference between the highest and lowest frequencies available for network signals. The term is also used to describe the rated throughput capacity of a given network medium or protocol. bandwidth allocation. See bandwidth reservation. bandwidth reservation. A process of assigning bandwidth to users and applications served by a...

Bandwidth Planning

The CCDA must look at the applications being deployed at remote sites and decide on the sizing of WAN circuits. Rely on the analysis of existing traffic flows and past experience to help determine an appropriate bandwidth size for a circuit. If WAN circuit utilization is more than 70 percent for a long period of time, the circuit bandwidth should be increased. When planning bandwidth allocation, consider the following The type of servers that are located at the remote site Whether the...

Base2

Commonly referred to as Thinnet, this specification uses 0.2-inch, 50-ohm coaxial cable. Thinnet specifications are as follows 0.2-inch, RG58-U, 50-ohm coax cable Maximum segment length is 185 m Maximum number of attachments per segment is 30 Minimum separation per segment is 0.5 m T-connectors attach workstations Figure D-9 shows a sample 10Base2 Ethernet network. Sample 10Base2 Network

Base5

Commonly referred as Thick Ethernet or Thicknet, this specification uses 0.4-inch, 50-ohm coaxial cable. The specifications for Thicknet are as follows 0.4-inch, 50-ohm coax cable Maximum segment length is 500 m Maximum number of attachments per segment is 100 Maximum attachment unit interface (AUI) cable length is 50 m Minimum separation between media attachment units (MAUs) is 2.5 m Cable ends terminate with 50-ohm terminators Maximum network length is 5 segments and 2500 m Maximum number of...

BaseT

Unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) has become a very popular medium for LAN systems. 10BaseT was made an IEEE standard in 1990. The 10BaseT specifications are as follows 24 AWG UTP 0.4- 0.6-mm cable Maximum segment length is 100 m Figure D-10 shows a sample 10BaseT Ethernet network.

BaseT Fast Ethernet

The IEEE developed the 802.3u in 1995 to provide Ethernet speeds of 100 Mbps over UTP and fiber cabling. The 100BaseT standard is similar to 10 Mbps Ethernet in that it uses CSMA CD runs on Cat 3, 4, and 5 UTP cable and the frame formats are preserved. Connectivity still uses hubs, repeaters, and bridges. The difference is that the encoding changed from Manchester to 4B 5B with nonreturn to zero (NRZ), the new speed is 100 Mbps, and the Media Independent Interface (MII) was introduced as a...

BaseT Repeaters

For a 100 Mbps Ethernet to work, you must impose distance limitations based on the type of repeaters used. The IEEE 100BaseT specification defines two types of repeaters Class I and Class II. Class I repeaters have a latency (delay) of 0.7 microseconds or less. Only one repeater hop is allowed. Class II repeaters have a latency (delay) of 0.46 microseconds or less. One or two repeater hops are allowed. Table 4-3 shows the maximum size of collision domains, depending on the type of repeater....

Bay Area Regional Research Network See BARRNet

A high-technology company located in Massachusetts that developed and maintained the ARPANET (and later, the Internet) core gateway system. See also BBN Planet. BBN Planet. A subsidiary company of BBN that operates a nationwide Internet access network composed in part by the former regional networks BARRNet, NEARNET, and SURAnet. See also BARRNet, BBN, NEARNET, and SURAnet. Bc. Committed Burst. Negotiated tariff metric in Frame Relay internetworks. The...

Benefits of Hierarchical Models

The many benefits of using hierarchical models for your network design include the following After adopting hierarchical design models, many organizations report cost savings because they are no longer trying to do it all in one routing switching platform. The modular nature of the model enables appropriate use of bandwidth within each layer of the hierarchy, reducing wasted capacity. Keeping each design element simple and small facilitates ease of understanding, which helps control training...

Berkeley Standard Distribution See BSD

A device that determines the BER on a given communications channel. See also BER (bit error rate). best-effort delivery. Delivery in a network system that does not use a sophisticated acknowledgment system to guarantee reliable delivery of information. BGP. Border Gateway Protocol. An interdomain routing protocol that replaces EGP. BGP exchanges reachability information with other BGP systems. It is defined in RFC 1163. See also BGP4 and EGP. BGP4. BGP Version 4....

Bit error rate tester See BERT

Because It's Time Networking Services. Low-cost, low-speed academic network consisting primarily of IBM mainframes and 9600-bps leased lines. BITNET is now part of CREN. See also CREN. BITNET III. A dial-up service providing connectivity for members of CREN. See also CREN. bit-oriented protocol. A class of data link layer communication protocols that can transmit frames regardless of frame content. Compared with byte-oriented protocols, bit-oriented protocols provide full-duplex...

Bits per second Abbreviated bps

Routing term for an area of the internetwork where packets enter, but do not emerge, due to adverse conditions or poor system configuration within a portion of the network. blocking. In a switching system, a condition in which no paths are available to complete a circuit. The term is also used to describe a situation in which one activity cannot begin until another has been completed. block multiplexer channel. An IBM-style channel that implements the FIPS-60 channel, a U.S. channel...

Boundary node See BNN

A Spanning-Tree Protocol hello packet that is sent out at configurable intervals to exchange information among bridges in the network. See also PDU. BRHR. Basic Research and Human Resources. A component of the HPCC program designed to support research, training, and education in computer science, computer engineering, and computational science. See also HPCC. BRI. Basic Rate Interface. An ISDN interface composed of two B channels and one D channel for...

Bridge protocol data unit See BPDU

A process in which a bridge maintains a filtering database consisting of static entries. Each static entry equates a MAC destination address with a port that can receive frames with this MAC destination address and a set of ports on which the frames can be transmitted. Defined in the IEEE 802.1 standard. See also IEEE 802.1. broadband. A transmission system that multiplexes multiple independent signals onto one cable. In telecommunications terminology, any channel...

Bridges

Bridges are used to connect separate segments of a network. They differ from repeaters in that bridges are intelligent devices that operate in the data link layer of the OSI model. Bridges control the collision domains on the network. Bridges also learn the MAC layer addresses of each node on each segment and on which interface they are located. For any incoming frame, bridges forward the frame only if the destination MAC address is on another port or if the bridge is not aware of its location....

Bridges and Switches

To improve performance, LANs are usually divided into smaller multiple LANs. These LANs are then interconnected by a LAN switch or by a bridge, as shown in Figure C-3. Figure C-3 LANs Are Split into Many Smaller LANs, Using Switches or Bridges to Improve Performance Switches and bridges have some smarts. When devices are connected via a switch or a bridge, a device will only hear the following Everything that the other devices on its port send Any information from devices on other ports that...

Bridges Versus Switches

Although bridges and switches share most relevant attributes, several distinctions differentiate these technologies. Switches are significantly faster because they switch in hardware, whereas bridges switch in software. Switches can interconnect LANs of unlike bandwidth a 10-Mbps Ethernet LAN and a 100-Mbps Ethernet LAN, for example, can be connected using a switch. Switches also can support higher port densities than bridges. Some switches support cut-through switching, which reduces latency...

Bridging Protocols

Encapsulating bridging Allows packets to cross a bridged backbone network. Source-route transparent (SRT) bridging Allows a bridge to function as both a source-routing and transparent bridge. Source-route translational (SR TLB) bridging Allows a bridge to function as both a source-routing and transparent bridge, and to bridge between the two. NOTE In SRB terminology, Layer 2 frames are also known as packets. Transparent bridges send Bridge Protocol Data Unit (BPDU) frames to each other to...

Broadcast and Multicast Behavior

Broadcast behavior is critical to understanding network traffic. Three types of broadcasts and multicasts are covered in this exam Broadcasts and multicasts from desktop protocols, such as AppleTalk, IP, IPX, and NetBIOS Broadcasts and multicasts from servers to advertise their services Broadcasts and multicasts from routing protocols such as RIP The first types of broadcasts are those caused by routed or desktop protocols such as TCP IP, AppleTalk, NetWare, and NetBIOS. For example, when your...

Broadcast and unknown server See BUS

The set of all devices that will receive broadcast frames originating from any device within the set. Broadcast domains are typically bounded by routers because routers do not forward broadcast frames. broadcast search. A propagation of a search request to all network nodes if the location of a resource is unknown to the requester. See also directed search. broadcast storm. An undesirable network event in which many broadcasts are sent simultaneously across all network...

Building a Prototype or Pilot

The last step in creating a successful design solution is demonstrating to the customer how your design solution meets that customer's needs for performance, security, capacity, and scalability. This chapter concentrates on methods used to finalize the customer's acceptance of the design. Often the designs proposed are complex and have many different components that must be brought together to build a complete solution. Usually a more complex design means a greater cost to the customer....

Burst tolerance See BT

A multicast server used in ELANs that is used to flood traffic addressed to an unknown destination and to forward multicast and broadcast traffic to the appropriate clients. See also ELAN. bus. A common physical signal path composed of wires or other media across which signals can be sent from one part of a computer to another. Sometimes called highway. See bus topology. bus and tag channel. An IBM channel developed in the 1960s that incorporates copper...

Bus Interface Gate Array See BIGA

A linear LAN architecture in which transmissions from network stations propagate the length of the medium and are received by all other stations. Compare with ring topology, star topology, and tree topology. bypass mode. An operating mode on FDDI and Token Ring networks in which an interface has been removed from the ring. bypass relay. Allows a particular Token Ring interface to be shut down and thus effectively removed from the ring. byte. A series of consecutive binary digits...

Business and Political Constraints

The final aspect of determining the customer's objectives is to identify any constraints. Consider the following and ascertain whether they are constraints in your design Ascertain budget or resource limitations for the project. Determine the timeline to complete the project. Determine whether any internal politics play a role in the decision-making process. Find out what different sources or groups are providing input into the requirements. Make sure the client's staff is able to operate and...

Business Requirements of the Customer

For this aspect of determining the customer's objectives, think about the purpose of the project. Project how the business will improve. Find out if the network is affecting the company's capability or effectiveness to develop, produce, and track products. Find out if any business applications are being affected. Determine whether the company will be audited. Scalability is a very important consideration, and it is wise for the network designer to build a network that can scale. You should...

Calculating Cable Delays

Some cable manufacturers specify propagation delays relative to the speed of light or in nanoseconds per meter (ns m). To convert these values to bit times per meter (BT m), use Table 4-6. Table 4-6 Conversion to Bit Times per Meter for Cable Delays Table 4-6 Conversion to Bit Times per Meter for Cable Delays (Continued) Table 4-6 Conversion to Bit Times per Meter for Cable Delays (Continued) Source IEEE 802.3u 1995, Media Access Control (MAC) Parameters, Physical Layer, Medium Attachment...

California Education and Research Federation Network See CERFnet

A traffic management mechanism used in ATM networks that determines whether the network can offer a path with sufficient bandwidth for a requested VCC. call priority. A priority assigned to each origination port in circuit-switched systems. This priority defines the order in which calls are reconnected. Call priority also defines which calls can or cannot be placed during a bandwidth reservation. See also bandwidth reservation. call setup time. The time required to...

Campus LANs

A campus LAN connects two or more buildings located near each other using high-bandwidth LAN media. Usually the media (for example, copper or fiber) is owned. High-speed switching devices are recommended to minimize latency. In today's networks, Gigabit Ethernet campus backbones are the standard for new installations. In Figure 4-13, campus buildings are connected by using Layer 3 switches with Gigabit Ethernet media. Ensure that a hierarchical design is implemented on the campus LAN and that...

Carrier sense multiple access collision detect See CSMACD

One of five grades of UTP cabling described in the EIA TIA-586 standard. Category 1 cabling is used for telephone communications and is not suitable for transmitting data. Compare with Category 2 cabling, Category 3 cabling, Category 4 cabling, and Category 5 cabling. See also EIA TIA-586 and UTP. Category 2 cabling. One of five grades of UTP cabling described in the EIA TIA-586 standard. Category 2 cabling is capable of transmitting data at speeds up to 4 Mbps. Compare with...

Case Study 1 Answers Cicala and Rosado Law Firm

1 What can be said about the network health of the Ethernet and WAN segments The network health is poor. Ethernet network utilization over 40 percent is not recommended. WAN links over 70 percent utilization should be upgraded to higher speeds. Figure 9-4 shows the existing Cicala and Rosado law firm network. Figure 9-4 Cicala and Rosado Law Firm Existing Network Houston r -C_ 233.10.1.128 26 Dallas 3 What applications are being used Microsoft Office suite applications, WWW and HTTP...

Case Study 1 Cicala and Rosado Law Firm

Kunkel, the IT manager at Cicala and Rosado Law Firm, is responsible for updating the network to use new technologies. He has two network analysts working for him that handle the routers, hubs, clients, servers, and media for the company. The company is understaffed, and the analysts are overworked. There is no network management station monitoring the network. The firm has two locations, one in Houston and one in Dallas, specializing in corporation legalities. A Frame Relay WAN link exists...

Case Study 1 GHY Resources

Martin of GHY Resources is responsible for the company's network. He has invited you to a meeting to discuss some issues. GHY Resources is a manufacturing company with its headquarters based in St. Louis. In the past 10 years, GHY has grown from 10 employees to more than 400. It now has a manufacturing site in Kansas City, and a new site is opening in Nashville, Tennessee, in three months. The manufacturing sites connect back to St. Louis via a 256 K circuit. Sales offices exist in more...

Case Study 1 Questions

1 What can be said about the network health of the Ethernet and WAN segments 4 What would you recommend to alleviate the WAN utilization problem 5 What would you recommend to improve the LAN utilization problem What switches could you use 6 What Cisco device could be used to provide protection from the Internet 7 What Cisco devices could be used to provide an integrated voice and data solution 8 Would you suggest a full CiscoWorks 2000 solution with HP OpenView on a Unix workstation to Mr....

Case Study 2 Answers Big Oil and

1 What possible solutions can be used to reduce SAP traffic over the WAN Possible solutions include the following Access lists could be used to control the broadcasted SAPs. Enhanced IGRP could be used to route IPX over the WAN. NLSP could be used to route IPX. 2 If the remote locations need to see only four corporate file servers, what type of filter can be used An IPX SAP filter (range 1000 to 1099) should be used on outbound WAN links to permit the list of servers. 3 What network management...

Case Study 2 Big Oil and

Abbott is an IT manager at Big Oil and Gas. He is in charge of the network infrastructure, including routers and switches. Mr. Abbott's group includes personnel that can install and configure Cisco routers and switches. Another group manages the servers. The company currently has a Unix server with HP OpenView. Big Oil and Gas is a medium-sized petrochemical company based in Houston. It also has operations in the Gulf and in South America. The network includes more than 30 routers. Mr....

Case Study 2 Pages Magazine

Phillips use to test router configurations before committing them online 2 In which section of the design document would you document the current routing protocol and address its limitations 3 Which routing protocols that support VLSM would you mention in the Design Solution section as possible options for Pages Magazine EIGRP or OSPF. These routing protocols support VLSM and do not have the limitations of Routing Information Protocol (RIP).

Case Study 2 Pages Magazine Inc

1 What routing protocols are being used at Pages Magazine, Inc. For IP, RIPv1 is being used. For IPX, IPX RIP is being used. For AppleTalk, RTMP is being used. 2 What routing protocol can be recommended to support IP and legacy Novell AppleTalk packets Recommend EIGRP for IP, IPX, and AppleTalk. EIGRP can support VLSM subnetting and can be configured to route IPX and AppleTalk. 3 If the New York City site is expected to grow to more than 150 nodes, what mask would you recommend Recommend a...

Case Study 2 Questions

1 What possible solutions can be used to reduce SAP traffic over the WAN 2 If the remote locations need to see only four corporate file servers, what type of filter can be used Figure 9-1 Big Oil and Gas Existing Network Figure 9-1 Big Oil and Gas Existing Network Novell Servers at Remote Sites Novell Servers at Remote Sites Novell Servers at Remote Sites Novell Servers at Remote Sites 3 What network management application would you recommend for router configuration tracking and hardware...

Case Study 3 Answers Cartoon Works

1 List the new applications that the customer wants to implement in the network. Video conferencing Novell Internet e-mail system Web servers SQL database DNS Server 2 Draw a logical diagram of the existing network. The customer defined the network by describing the geographical locations and the services that the network provides its users. The logical diagram in Figure 9-6 is based on those services. 3 What type of WAN technology would you recommend as a redundant solution for the T1 between...

Case Study 3 Medi Bill Services

1 Characterize the traffic between the remote offices and MediBill. 2 What type of router would you recommend for Internet access to MediBill 3 If the Internet access router were to be upgraded to support two T1s using Border Gateway Protocol (BGP), what would be the best choice 4 What type of router would you recommend for the hospital 5 What type of WAN topology is the hospital's connection to MediBill Case Study 3 MediBill Services, Inc. 193 6 If Mr. Lee wanted to implement Frame Relay...

Case Study 3 Medi Bill Services Inc

1 Draw a topology map of the existing MediBill Services, Inc., network and a topology map of the proposed new network. Include in the proposed network the traffic flow of the e-mail system. 2 What type of routed protocol will be used across the WAN to MediBill's customers 3 What are the two main areas of management concern for the client based on its requirements 4 In your design, what type of testing would you recommend for this customer 5 During the scripting stage of the prototype testing...

Case Study 3 Questions

1 List the new applications that the customer wants to implement in the network. 2 Draw a logical diagram of the existing network. 3 What type of WAN technology would you recommend as a redundant solution for the T1 line between CartoonWorks offices 4 What CartoonWorks services depend on the DNS server in this network 5 If the client were given an valid address of 199.199.199.32 with a mask of 255.255.255.224 from its ISP, what solution would you recommend to give all CartoonWorks' users access...

Case Study 4 Answers Martin and Martin LLC

1 Draw the corporate structure of this client. Figure 9-7 explains the corporate structure of Martin & Martin, LLC. The diagram shows that there are two main divisions, which are the corporate functions and the legal departments. The chart reflects only information that is specifically stated. 2 What type of testing program would you recommend to test the video conferencing among the remote offices A prototype would be the recommended form of testing because, for the video conferencing to...

Case Study 4 Questions

1 Draw the corporate structure of this client. 2 What type of testing program would you recommend to test the video conferencing among the remote offices 3 What network management tool would you recommend that Martin & Martin purchase to support their new network 4 What type of naming structure would you give to servers and endnodes in this network 5 The client wants to see the effect of data encryption on the router's performance during the prototype stage in which you establish...

Case Study Answers

1 List Pages Magazine's business goals. The company wants to use networking technology to compete in the market by increasing productivity and identifying new opportunities. The company will use its new infrastructure to support the growth of its new offices. 2 What routed protocols are used in the current network IPX, IP, and AppleTalk 3 Which routed protocols will be needed for the new network The final network will be a pure IP network, but the migration to the new network will require...

Case Study Answers Case Study 1 GHY Resources

1 List the existing applications used at GHY. Office applications residing on Novell Servers. Business applications residing on the HP 3000s. 2 Diagram the traffic flow between the Novell servers. Figure 3-15 shows a diagram of the traffic flow. Figure 3-15 The traffic flow between the Novell servers of GHY Resources Figure 3-15 The traffic flow between the Novell servers of GHY Resources 3 Assume that each NetWare file server is also a local e-mail server. Diagram the messaging traffic flow to...

Case Study Answers Case Study 3 Medi Bill Services

1 Characterize the traffic between the remote offices and MediBill. Internet traffic, email traffic, and database transfer traffic. 2 What type of router would you recommend for Internet access to MediBill An access router such as a 2500 or a 2600 would be ideal because there is a line speed of T1. A 2600 would be necessary over a 2500 if the client needed a CSU DSU. The 2500 access routers do not support one. 3 If the Internet access router were to be upgraded to support two T1s using Border...

Catalyst 3000 Series Stackable Switches

The Catalyst 3100 switch is designed for networks that require flexibility and growth with minimal initial investment. This switch contains 24 fixed 10BaseT Ethernet ports, one StackPort slot for scalability, and one expansion FlexSlot for broad media support. It is designed for a variety of campus LAN and enterprise WAN solutions the Catalyst 3100 switch fits well in a wiring closet and branch office applications. The Catalyst 3200 is a high port density stackable switch chassis with a modular...

Catalyst 3500 10100 Autosensing Switch

The Catalyst 3500 XL architecture is designed to meet the technical requirements of autosensing 10 100BaseT Ethernet interfaces. Autosensing enables each port to self-configure to the correct bandwidth upon determining whether it is connected to a 10- or 100-Mbps Ethernet channel. This feature simplifies setup and configuration and provides flexibility in the mix of 10 and 100 Mbps connections the switch supports. Network managers can alter connections without having to replace port interfaces.

Catalyst 5000 Switch Series

The Cisco Catalyst 5000 series features modular chassis in 2-, 5-, 9-, and 13-slot versions. All chassis share the same set of line cards and software features, which provides scalability while maintaining interoperability across all chassis. The Catalyst 5002 is positioned to deliver a consistent architecture and features set in a smaller package that addresses the needs of smaller wiring closets. The Catalyst 5002 switches at the 1 Mpps (million packets per second) range. The Catalyst 5002 is...

CCDA Exam Certification Guide

Anthony Bruno Jacqueline Kim Copyright 2000 Cisco Press Cisco Press logo is a trademark of Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without written permission from the publisher, except for the inclusion of brief quotations in a review. Printed in the United States of America 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0...

Central office See CO

An AT& T PBX that provides direct inward dialing and automatic number identification of the calling PBX. CEPT. Conference Europenne des Postes et des Telecommunications. An association of the 26 European PTTs that recommends communication specifications to the ITU-T. CERFnet. California Education and Research Federation Network. A TCP IP network, based in Southern California, that connects hundreds of higher-education centers internationally while also providing Internet access to...

Centri Firewall

The Cisco Centri Firewall provides smal-l to medium-sized businesses a strong security solution that is tightly integrated with Windows NT and that is easy to set up and administer. Centri innovative ease-of-use features make it possible to have expert-level security without the expense of onsite security experts. The powerful combination of the Centri Firewall Natural Network Viewer and Policy Builder features make securing a network truly simple for the first time. Security policies can be...

Centri Firewall Customers

The Centri Firewall is best when a customer needs the following Windows NT platform preference Secure, easy connection to the Internet Additional services (Web, e-mail, DNS) to run on the firewall platform The Centri Firewall key benefits include the following Strong security and performance with kernel proxy architecture running in the kernel and the Windows NT operating system. Easy to administer with security Policy Builder an installation wizard walks nonsecurity experts through setup with...

Centri Firewall Key Features

Key features of the Cisco Centri Firewall include the following Integration with Windows NT domain Secure kernel proxy architecture Graphical user interface for creating security policies Drag-and-drop security policies ActiveX, Java applets, JavaScript, and VBscript blocking Universal Resource Locator (URL) blocking Transparent and proxy support for all common TCP IP applications, including WWW, FTP, Telnet, and e-mail

Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol See CHAP

Multiple channels can be multiplexed over a single cable in certain environments. 2. In IBM, the specific path between large computers (such as mainframes) and attached peripheral devices. channel-attached. Pertaining to attachment of devices directly by data channels (input output channels) to a computer. channelized E1. An access link operating at 2.048 Mbps that is subdivided into 30 B-channels and 1 D-channel. Supports DDR, Frame Relay, and X.25. Compare...

Channel service unit See CSU

Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol. A security feature supported on lines using PPP encapsulation that prevents unauthorized access. CHAP does not itself prevent unauthorized access it merely identifies the remote end. The router or access server then determines whether that user is allowed access. Compare with PAP. chat script. A string of text that defines the login conversation that occurs between two systems. It consists of expect-send pairs that define the string the local...

Design Goals

Do I Know This Already Quiz 3 Business Requirements of the Customer 6 Technical Requirements of the Customer 6 Business and Political Constraints 8 Framework for Small- to Medium-Sized Network Design 8 Gather Information to Support the Business and Technical Requirements 10 Consider the Applications Involved 13 Design for Specific Network Protocols 17 Create the Design Document and Select Cisco Network Management Applications 18 Test the Design 19 Case Study 1 GHY Resources 22 Case Study 2...

Assessing the Existing Network and Identifying Customer Objectives

Do I Know This Already Quiz 29 Foundation Topics 32 The Necessary Data for Characterizing the Existing Network 32 Assessing the Customer's Corporate Profile Information 32 Assessing the Customer's Technical Information 33 Twelve Steps for Documenting Your Customer's Existing Network 36 Step 1 Characterize the Customer's Application 37 Step 2 Characterize the Network Protocols 37 Step 3 Document the Customer's Current Network 38 Step 4 Identify Potential Bottlenecks 40 Step 5 Identify the...

Network Topologies and LAN Design

Do I Know This Already Quiz 99 LAN Topology Design 102 Hierarchical Models 102 Redundant Models 108 Secure Models 115 Large Building LANs 120 Campus LANs 121 Small Remote Site LANs 121 Ethernet Design Rules 122 10 Mbps Fiber Ethernet Design Rules 123 100 Mbps Fast Ethernet Design Rules 124 Token Ring Design Rules 130 Gigabit Ethernet Design Rules 131 FDDI Design Rules 131 LAN Hardware 132 Repeaters 132 Hubs 133 Bridges 133 Switches 134 Routers 135 Layer 3 Switches 136 Combining Hubs, Switches,...

Network Topologies and LAN Design Do I Know This Already Quiz Answers

1 What OSI layer does a bridge operate Data link layer (Layer 2) 2 The 10Base2 Ethernet media is commonly referred as Thinnet 3 What is the recommended maximum number of nodes that should be used in a multiprotocol LAN segment 4 Bridges control collision domains, broadcast domains, or both Collision domains 5 What is the maximum segment size in a 100BaseT network 100 meters 6 What is the maximum segment size in a 10Base2 network 185 meters 7 Routers operate on what OSI layer Network layer...

WAN Design 154

Do I Know This Already Quiz 155 WAN Design Considerations 157 Steps for Designing the WAN 158 Listing the Requirements for the WAN Design 158 Reliable Service 158 Minimizing the Cost of Bandwidth 160 Optimizing the Efficiency of Bandwidth 160 Quality of Service 161 Selecting a WAN Technology 162 Frame Relay 164 Other WAN Technologies and Design Factors 165 Selecting the WAN Hardware 167 Switching Modes 170 Choosing a Router Platform 171 Router Performance Design and Implementation Guide 171...

Designing for Specific Protocols 196

Do I Know This Already Quiz 197 Logical IP Addresses 201 Subnets 202 Addressing Scheme 207 Distance Vector Versus Link-State Routing Protocols 211 Interior Gateway Routing Protocol 213 Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol 217 Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System 218 IP Routing Protocol Administrative Distance 218 Novell IPX Addressing 219 IPX Addresses 219 IPX Address Assignment 220 IPX Routing and Service Advertising Protocols 221 IPX Routing Information Protocol 221 IPX Service...

The Design Document and Cisco Network Management Applications 246

Do I Know This Already Quiz 247 Foundation Topics 249 Simple Network Management Protocol 254 Other Network Management and Troubleshooting Tools 272 Case Study 1 GHY Resources 278 Case Study 2 Pages Magazine 278 Case Study Answers 280 Case Study 1 GHY Resources 280 Case Study 2 Pages Magazine 280

Building a Prototype or Pilot 282

Do I Know This Already Quiz 283 Determining the Appropriate Test Plan 286 Step 1 Review the Customer's Requirements 288 Step 2 Determine the Extent of the Prototype 289 Step 3 Understand Your Competition 290 Step 4 Develop a Test Plan 290 Step 5 Purchase and Prepare Equipment 292 Step 6 Practice 293 Step 7 Conduct Final Tests and Demonstrations 293 Steps for Creating a Pilot 294 Step 1 Test the Design 294 Step 2 Review the Competition's Proposal 295 Step 3 Script the Demonstration 295 Step 4...