A

Procedure used in T1 transmission facilities in which each of the 24 T1 subchannels devotes one bit of every sixth frame to the carrying of supervisory signaling information. Also called 24th channel signaling. AAL. ATM adaptation layer. Service-dependent sublayer of the data link layer. The AAL accepts data from different applications and presents it to the ATM layer in the form of 48-byte ATM payload segments. AALs consist of two sublayers, CS and SAR. AALs differ on...

Acknowledgments

This book would not have been possible without the efforts of many dedicated people. Anthony Bruno would like to thank the following people for their contributions First, thanks to Andrew Cupp, Development Editor, who not only improved the book but also improved me as a writer. I would like to thank Cisco Press Executive Editor John Kane for his vision and guidance of this book. Thanks to the technical editors, David Barnes, Kevin Mahler, and Brian Melzer, whose advice and careful attention to...

Address Formats and Assignment

The current implementation of AppleTalk is Phase 2. Addresses are composed of three elements Network number A 16-bit value assigned by the administrator using the cable-range command. Node number An 8-bit value dynamically assigned that identifies the node. Socket number This 8-bit number identifies the socket running on the node it is similar to a port number in TCP IP. Addresses are written in decimal format, with periods separating the fields. Examples of AppleTalk addresses are 11.2,...

Address Resolution Protocol See ARP

A relationship formed between selected neighboring routers and end nodes for the purpose of exchanging routing information. Adjacency is based on the use of a common media segment. adjacent nodes. 1. In SNA, nodes that are connected to a given node with no intervening nodes. 2. In DECnet and OSI, nodes that share a common network segment (in Ethernet, FDDI, or Token Ring networks). administrative distance. A rating of the trustworthiness of a routing information source. The higher...

Addressing Scheme

When assigning addresses to areas, networks, subnetworks, and end stations, it is important to maintain an addressing scheme that can scale as the company grows. Hierarchical network design begins with the addressing scheme. Routers cannot summarize routes if the networks are not assigned within bit boundaries. Assume, for example, that network 172.17.0.0 16 will be used in a medium- to large-sized company with nine areas. Each area could have several sites. How can the network be divided...

Admission control See traffic policing

ADPCM. adaptive differential pulse code modulation. The process by which analog voice samples are encoded into high-quality digital signals. ADSL . Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line. One of four DSL technologies. ADSL is designed to deliver more bandwidth downstream (from the central office to the customer site) than upstream. Downstream rates range from 1.5 to 9 Mbps, whereas upstream bandwidth ranges from 16 to 640 kbps. ADSL transmissions work at distances up to 18,000 feet (5,488 meters)...

W

WANs (wide-area networks), 155 1600 series Cisco routers, 586 business solutions branch office connectivity, 558-560 central site connectivity, 561 Internet intranets, 568 telecommuting, 563, 565 circuit switching, 166 design document, 250 designing, 16-17, 157-158 Frame Relay, 164-165 hardware, 167-169 hubs, 517 leased lines, 166 packet switching, 166, 170-171 protocols, 514-516 provisioning, 183-186 proxy services, 230-231 requirements, 158 bandwidth, 160-161 QoS (Quality of Service), 161...

Cisco Career Certifications

CCNA Exam Certification Guide Wendell Odom, CCIE 0-7357-0073-7 AVAILABLE NOW This book is a comprehensive study tool for CCNA Exam 640-407 and part of a recommended study program from Cisco Systems. CCNA Exam Certification Guide helps you understand and master the exam objectives. Instructor-developed elements and techniques maximize your retention and recall of exam topics, and scenario-based exercises help validate your mastery of the exam objectives. Cisco Systems, Inc., edited by Laura...

Apple Talk Addressing

The following CCDA objectives are covered in this section Propose an addressing model for the customer's areas, networks, subnetworks, and end stations that meets scalability requirements. Propose a plan for configuring addresses. Identify scalability constraints and issues for IGRP, EIGRP, IP RIP, IPX RIP SAP, NLSP, AppleTalk RTMP and AURP, static routing, and bridging protocols. Recommend routing and bridging protocols that meet a customer's requirements for performance, security, and...

Apple Talk Network Components

AppleTalk networks are arranged hierarchically. Four basic components form the basis of an AppleTalk network sockets, nodes, networks, and zones. An AppleTalk socket is a unique, addressable location in an AppleTalk node. It is the logical point at which upper-layer AppleTalk software processes and the network layer Datagram-Delivery Protocol (DDP) interact. An AppleTalk node is a device that is connected to an AppleTalk network. This device might be a Macintosh computer, a printer, an IBM PC,...

Apple Talk Protocol Suite

AppleTalk, a protocol suite developed by Apple Computer in the early 1980s, was developed in conjunction with the Macintosh computer. AppleTalk's purpose was to allow multiple users to share resources, such as files and printers. The devices that supply these resources are called servers, whereas the devices that make use of these resources (such as a user's Macintosh computer) are called clients. AppleTalk was designed with a transparent network interface. That is, the interaction between...

Apple Talk Protocols

There are two protocols at the network layer AppleTalk Address-Resolution Protocol (AARP) Associates AppleTalk network addresses with hardware addresses Datagram Delivery Protocol (DDP) Provides a best-effort connectionless datagram service between AppleTalk sockets Five key implementations exist at the transport layer of the AppleTalk protocol suite Routing Table Maintenance Protocol (RTMP) Responsible for establishing and maintaining routing tables for AppleTalk routers. RTMP is a...

Asynchronous Transfer Mode See ATM

Digital signals that are transmitted without precise clocking. Such signals generally have different frequencies and phase relationships. Asynchronous transmissions usually encapsulate individual characters in control bits (called start and stop bits) that designate the beginning and end of each character. Compare with isochronous transmission, plesiochronous transmission, and synchronous transmission. ATDM. asynchronous time-division multiplexing. A method of sending...

B

B channel (bearer channel), 377 B class IP addresses, 201-202, 525-526 subnetting, 202-203 supernetting, 206-207 B8ZS (binary 8-zero substitution), 375 back end nodes, 375 back pressures, 375 backbone areas (OSPF), 215 Backbone routers (OSPF), 217 backbones, 104, 375 backoffs, 375 backplanes, 375 backup links, 114 backup serial lines, 515 backward learning, 375 balanced configuration, 375 balancing loads LocalDirector, 571, 609-611 route redundancy, 111 baluns, 375 bandwidth, 375 bandwidth...

Base2

Commonly referred to as Thinnet, this specification uses 0.2-inch, 50-ohm coaxial cable. Thinnet specifications are as follows 0.2-inch, RG58-U, 50-ohm coax cable Maximum segment length is 185 m Maximum number of attachments per segment is 30 Minimum separation per segment is 0.5 m T-connectors attach workstations Figure D-9 shows a sample 10Base2 Ethernet network. Sample 10Base2 Network

BaseT Fast Ethernet

The IEEE developed the 802.3u in 1995 to provide Ethernet speeds of 100 Mbps over UTP and fiber cabling. The 100BaseT standard is similar to 10 Mbps Ethernet in that it uses CSMA CD runs on Cat 3, 4, and 5 UTP cable and the frame formats are preserved. Connectivity still uses hubs, repeaters, and bridges. The difference is that the encoding changed from Manchester to 4B 5B with nonreturn to zero (NRZ), the new speed is 100 Mbps, and the Media Independent Interface (MII) was introduced as a...

BaseT Repeaters

For a 100 Mbps Ethernet to work, you must impose distance limitations based on the type of repeaters used. The IEEE 100BaseT specification defines two types of repeaters Class I and Class II. Class I repeaters have a latency (delay) of 0.7 microseconds or less. Only one repeater hop is allowed. Class II repeaters have a latency (delay) of 0.46 microseconds or less. One or two repeater hops are allowed. Table 4-3 shows the maximum size of collision domains, depending on the type of repeater....

Bits per second Abbreviated bps

Routing term for an area of the internetwork where packets enter, but do not emerge, due to adverse conditions or poor system configuration within a portion of the network. blocking. In a switching system, a condition in which no paths are available to complete a circuit. The term is also used to describe a situation in which one activity cannot begin until another has been completed. block multiplexer channel. An IBM-style channel that implements the FIPS-60 channel, a U.S. channel...

Boundary node See BNN

A Spanning-Tree Protocol hello packet that is sent out at configurable intervals to exchange information among bridges in the network. See also PDU. BRHR. Basic Research and Human Resources. A component of the HPCC program designed to support research, training, and education in computer science, computer engineering, and computational science. See also HPCC. BRI. Basic Rate Interface. An ISDN interface composed of two B channels and one D channel for...

Bridge protocol data unit See BPDU

A process in which a bridge maintains a filtering database consisting of static entries. Each static entry equates a MAC destination address with a port that can receive frames with this MAC destination address and a set of ports on which the frames can be transmitted. Defined in the IEEE 802.1 standard. See also IEEE 802.1. broadband. A transmission system that multiplexes multiple independent signals onto one cable. In telecommunications terminology, any channel...

Bridges and Switches

To improve performance, LANs are usually divided into smaller multiple LANs. These LANs are then interconnected by a LAN switch or by a bridge, as shown in Figure C-3. Figure C-3 LANs Are Split into Many Smaller LANs, Using Switches or Bridges to Improve Performance Switches and bridges have some smarts. When devices are connected via a switch or a bridge, a device will only hear the following Everything that the other devices on its port send Any information from devices on other ports that...

Broadcast and Multicast Behavior

Broadcast behavior is critical to understanding network traffic. Three types of broadcasts and multicasts are covered in this exam Broadcasts and multicasts from desktop protocols, such as AppleTalk, IP, IPX, and NetBIOS Broadcasts and multicasts from servers to advertise their services Broadcasts and multicasts from routing protocols such as RIP The first types of broadcasts are those caused by routed or desktop protocols such as TCP IP, AppleTalk, NetWare, and NetBIOS. For example, when your...

Calculating Cable Delays

Some cable manufacturers specify propagation delays relative to the speed of light or in nanoseconds per meter (ns m). To convert these values to bit times per meter (BT m), use Table 4-6. Table 4-6 Conversion to Bit Times per Meter for Cable Delays Table 4-6 Conversion to Bit Times per Meter for Cable Delays (Continued) Table 4-6 Conversion to Bit Times per Meter for Cable Delays (Continued) Source IEEE 802.3u 1995, Media Access Control (MAC) Parameters, Physical Layer, Medium Attachment...

Carrier sense multiple access collision detect See CSMACD

One of five grades of UTP cabling described in the EIA TIA-586 standard. Category 1 cabling is used for telephone communications and is not suitable for transmitting data. Compare with Category 2 cabling, Category 3 cabling, Category 4 cabling, and Category 5 cabling. See also EIA TIA-586 and UTP. Category 2 cabling. One of five grades of UTP cabling described in the EIA TIA-586 standard. Category 2 cabling is capable of transmitting data at speeds up to 4 Mbps. Compare with...

Case Study 1 Answers Cicala and Rosado Law Firm

1 What can be said about the network health of the Ethernet and WAN segments The network health is poor. Ethernet network utilization over 40 percent is not recommended. WAN links over 70 percent utilization should be upgraded to higher speeds. Figure 9-4 shows the existing Cicala and Rosado law firm network. Figure 9-4 Cicala and Rosado Law Firm Existing Network Houston r -C_ 233.10.1.128 26 Dallas 3 What applications are being used Microsoft Office suite applications, WWW and HTTP...

Case Study 1 Cicala and Rosado Law Firm

Kunkel, the IT manager at Cicala and Rosado Law Firm, is responsible for updating the network to use new technologies. He has two network analysts working for him that handle the routers, hubs, clients, servers, and media for the company. The company is understaffed, and the analysts are overworked. There is no network management station monitoring the network. The firm has two locations, one in Houston and one in Dallas, specializing in corporation legalities. A Frame Relay WAN link exists...

Case Study 1 GHY Resources

Martin of GHY Resources is responsible for the company's network. He has invited you to a meeting to discuss some issues. GHY Resources is a manufacturing company with its headquarters based in St. Louis. In the past 10 years, GHY has grown from 10 employees to more than 400. It now has a manufacturing site in Kansas City, and a new site is opening in Nashville, Tennessee, in three months. The manufacturing sites connect back to St. Louis via a 256 K circuit. Sales offices exist in more...

Case Study 1 Questions

1 What can be said about the network health of the Ethernet and WAN segments 4 What would you recommend to alleviate the WAN utilization problem 5 What would you recommend to improve the LAN utilization problem What switches could you use 6 What Cisco device could be used to provide protection from the Internet 7 What Cisco devices could be used to provide an integrated voice and data solution 8 Would you suggest a full CiscoWorks 2000 solution with HP OpenView on a Unix workstation to Mr....

Case Study 2 Pages Magazine Inc

1 What routing protocols are being used at Pages Magazine, Inc. For IP, RIPv1 is being used. For IPX, IPX RIP is being used. For AppleTalk, RTMP is being used. 2 What routing protocol can be recommended to support IP and legacy Novell AppleTalk packets Recommend EIGRP for IP, IPX, and AppleTalk. EIGRP can support VLSM subnetting and can be configured to route IPX and AppleTalk. 3 If the New York City site is expected to grow to more than 150 nodes, what mask would you recommend Recommend a...

Case Study 2 Questions

1 What possible solutions can be used to reduce SAP traffic over the WAN 2 If the remote locations need to see only four corporate file servers, what type of filter can be used Figure 9-1 Big Oil and Gas Existing Network Figure 9-1 Big Oil and Gas Existing Network Novell Servers at Remote Sites Novell Servers at Remote Sites Novell Servers at Remote Sites Novell Servers at Remote Sites 3 What network management application would you recommend for router configuration tracking and hardware...

Case Study 3 Answers Cartoon Works

1 List the new applications that the customer wants to implement in the network. Video conferencing Novell Internet e-mail system Web servers SQL database DNS Server 2 Draw a logical diagram of the existing network. The customer defined the network by describing the geographical locations and the services that the network provides its users. The logical diagram in Figure 9-6 is based on those services. 3 What type of WAN technology would you recommend as a redundant solution for the T1 between...

Case Study 3 Medi Bill Services

1 Characterize the traffic between the remote offices and MediBill. 2 What type of router would you recommend for Internet access to MediBill 3 If the Internet access router were to be upgraded to support two T1s using Border Gateway Protocol (BGP), what would be the best choice 4 What type of router would you recommend for the hospital 5 What type of WAN topology is the hospital's connection to MediBill Case Study 3 MediBill Services, Inc. 193 6 If Mr. Lee wanted to implement Frame Relay...

Case Study 3 Questions

1 List the new applications that the customer wants to implement in the network. 2 Draw a logical diagram of the existing network. 3 What type of WAN technology would you recommend as a redundant solution for the T1 line between CartoonWorks offices 4 What CartoonWorks services depend on the DNS server in this network 5 If the client were given an valid address of 199.199.199.32 with a mask of 255.255.255.224 from its ISP, what solution would you recommend to give all CartoonWorks' users access...

Case Study 4 Answers Martin and Martin LLC

1 Draw the corporate structure of this client. Figure 9-7 explains the corporate structure of Martin & Martin, LLC. The diagram shows that there are two main divisions, which are the corporate functions and the legal departments. The chart reflects only information that is specifically stated. 2 What type of testing program would you recommend to test the video conferencing among the remote offices A prototype would be the recommended form of testing because, for the video conferencing to...

Case Study 4 Questions

1 Draw the corporate structure of this client. 2 What type of testing program would you recommend to test the video conferencing among the remote offices 3 What network management tool would you recommend that Martin & Martin purchase to support their new network 4 What type of naming structure would you give to servers and endnodes in this network 5 The client wants to see the effect of data encryption on the router's performance during the prototype stage in which you establish...

Case Study Answers Case Study 1 GHY Resources

1 List the existing applications used at GHY. Office applications residing on Novell Servers. Business applications residing on the HP 3000s. 2 Diagram the traffic flow between the Novell servers. Figure 3-15 shows a diagram of the traffic flow. Figure 3-15 The traffic flow between the Novell servers of GHY Resources Figure 3-15 The traffic flow between the Novell servers of GHY Resources 3 Assume that each NetWare file server is also a local e-mail server. Diagram the messaging traffic flow to...

Case Study Answers Case Study 3 Medi Bill Services

1 Characterize the traffic between the remote offices and MediBill. Internet traffic, email traffic, and database transfer traffic. 2 What type of router would you recommend for Internet access to MediBill An access router such as a 2500 or a 2600 would be ideal because there is a line speed of T1. A 2600 would be necessary over a 2500 if the client needed a CSU DSU. The 2500 access routers do not support one. 3 If the Internet access router were to be upgraded to support two T1s using Border...

Central office See CO

An AT& T PBX that provides direct inward dialing and automatic number identification of the calling PBX. CEPT. Conference Europenne des Postes et des Telecommunications. An association of the 26 European PTTs that recommends communication specifications to the ITU-T. CERFnet. California Education and Research Federation Network. A TCP IP network, based in Southern California, that connects hundreds of higher-education centers internationally while also providing Internet access to...

Assessing the Existing Network and Identifying Customer Objectives

Do I Know This Already Quiz 29 Foundation Topics 32 The Necessary Data for Characterizing the Existing Network 32 Assessing the Customer's Corporate Profile Information 32 Assessing the Customer's Technical Information 33 Twelve Steps for Documenting Your Customer's Existing Network 36 Step 1 Characterize the Customer's Application 37 Step 2 Characterize the Network Protocols 37 Step 3 Document the Customer's Current Network 38 Step 4 Identify Potential Bottlenecks 40 Step 5 Identify the...

Network Topologies and LAN Design

Do I Know This Already Quiz 99 LAN Topology Design 102 Hierarchical Models 102 Redundant Models 108 Secure Models 115 Large Building LANs 120 Campus LANs 121 Small Remote Site LANs 121 Ethernet Design Rules 122 10 Mbps Fiber Ethernet Design Rules 123 100 Mbps Fast Ethernet Design Rules 124 Token Ring Design Rules 130 Gigabit Ethernet Design Rules 131 FDDI Design Rules 131 LAN Hardware 132 Repeaters 132 Hubs 133 Bridges 133 Switches 134 Routers 135 Layer 3 Switches 136 Combining Hubs, Switches,...

Network Topologies and LAN Design Do I Know This Already Quiz Answers

1 What OSI layer does a bridge operate Data link layer (Layer 2) 2 The 10Base2 Ethernet media is commonly referred as Thinnet 3 What is the recommended maximum number of nodes that should be used in a multiprotocol LAN segment 4 Bridges control collision domains, broadcast domains, or both Collision domains 5 What is the maximum segment size in a 100BaseT network 100 meters 6 What is the maximum segment size in a 10Base2 network 185 meters 7 Routers operate on what OSI layer Network layer...

WAN Design 154

Do I Know This Already Quiz 155 WAN Design Considerations 157 Steps for Designing the WAN 158 Listing the Requirements for the WAN Design 158 Reliable Service 158 Minimizing the Cost of Bandwidth 160 Optimizing the Efficiency of Bandwidth 160 Quality of Service 161 Selecting a WAN Technology 162 Frame Relay 164 Other WAN Technologies and Design Factors 165 Selecting the WAN Hardware 167 Switching Modes 170 Choosing a Router Platform 171 Router Performance Design and Implementation Guide 171...

Designing for Specific Protocols 196

Do I Know This Already Quiz 197 Logical IP Addresses 201 Subnets 202 Addressing Scheme 207 Distance Vector Versus Link-State Routing Protocols 211 Interior Gateway Routing Protocol 213 Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol 217 Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System 218 IP Routing Protocol Administrative Distance 218 Novell IPX Addressing 219 IPX Addresses 219 IPX Address Assignment 220 IPX Routing and Service Advertising Protocols 221 IPX Routing Information Protocol 221 IPX Service...

Additional Case Studies 312

Case Study 1 Cicala and Rosado Law Firm 313 Case Study 1 Questions 314 Case Study 2 Big Oil and Gas 316 Case Study 2 Questions 316 Case Study 3 CartoonWorks, Inc. 319 Case Study 3 Questions 321 Case Study 4 Martin & Martin, LLC 322 Case Study 4 Questions 324 Case Study 1 Answers Cicala and Rosado Law Firm 325 Case Study 2 Answers Big Oil and Gas 328 Case Study 3 Answers CartoonWorks, Inc. 329 Case Study 4 Answers Martin and Martin, LLC 331

Choosing a Router Platform

You need to provide your client with the right router platform, based on your customer's requirements. Remember to refer back to the Table 5-2 for selecting the right hardware. You will notice that there are many variables that can affect your choice of router platform. For example, the section Provisioning a Frame Relay Network later in this chapter covers provisioning a Frame Relay network and its equipment. The equipment choice depends directly on various factors that are part of the...

Cisco 1000 Series Access Routers

The Cisco 1000 series of compact, easily installed and managed, fixed-configuration desktop routers provides low-cost, high-speed connectivity for branch and small offices. These products offer a range of synchronous and asynchronous WAN options to address a variety of needs and fit seamlessly into any networking environment. Table E-5 lists the products in the Cisco 1000 series. Table E-5 Cisco 1000 Series Product Family Key features of the Cisco 1000 series include the following Support for...

Cisco 1500 Series Micro Hubs

The Cisco 1500 series Micro Hub family provides economical, scalable 10 Mbps hubs for creating LANs in small offices. A single Cisco 1500 Micro Hub can create a LAN that connects up to eight devices. Up to five 10 Mbps hubs can be stacked to create a single manageable stack. The Cisco 1500 series Micro Hub is a member of the Cisco Networked Office Stack, which is designed for small businesses. Table E-27 summarizes the products in the Cisco 1500 series. Table E-27 Cisco 1500 Series Micro Hub...

Cisco 1516M Customers

The Cisco 1516M is best when a customer needs the following An economical solution for creating a LAN Cisco IOS technologies for seamless integration with other Cisco switches and routers Capability to create a manageable collision domain supporting up to 58 users and devices Cisco Ease of Use and Network Management Overview Ease of use and network management are important to small- and medium-sized companies and SOHO customers because these businesses are not highly technical or because...

Cisco 2600 Series Access Routers

The Cisco 2600 series modular access router offers a new level of flexibility and investment protection for the remote branch office. The Cisco 2600 series offers network managers and service providers an attractively priced solution for extending the versatility, integration, and power of the Cisco 3600 series to smaller, remote branch offices. The Cisco 2600 shares modular interfaces with the Cisco 1600 and 3600 series, offering a solution both for today's remote branch office needs and for...

Cisco 3600 Series Modular Access Routers Servers

The Cisco 3600 series is designed to accommodate the growing numbers of dialup branch and remote office users who need dial access to corporate intranets and the public Internet. The Cisco 3600 series of access dialup servers offers an unprecedented degree of support flexibility for dialup applications across both ISDN and asynchronous media. The Cisco 3600 series also supports synchronous serial communication and is fully supported by the Cisco IOS software. Table E-13 lists the products in...

Cisco Access Router and Access Server Summarization

Tables E-1, E-2, and E-3 summarize the uses and specifications of the various routers and access servers covered in this section. Telecommuter, Small Office, and Home Office Dialup Access Routers Telecommuter, Small Office, and Home Office Dialup Access Routers Small office multiprotocol router for remote access Small office multiprotocol router with integrated hub Remote Office, Branch Office, and Central Site Access Routers Fixed-confi guration desktop routers Modular desktop routers with...

Cisco AS5x00 Universal Access Server Series

The AS5x00 series products are high-performance, medium- to high-density universal access servers that deliver hybrid asynchronous serial and ISDN line service to accommodate both mobile users and high-bandwidth dedicated telecommuters. By terminating both analog modem and ISDN calls on the same chassis from the same trunk line, the AS5x00 enables ISPs and enterprise network managers to meet traditional analog dial access needs while supporting the growing demand for high-speed ISDN access. The...

Cisco Branch Office Connectivity Solutions

Communication becomes challenging for small- and medium-sized companies with branch offices, warehouses, or business partners located in various geographical areas. These companies frequently need to share customer information, check inventory, look up sales data, transfer files, process invoices, and exchange e-mail. The integration of voice and data traffic over shared WAN lines can save companies significant amounts of money. Still, a dispersed organization cannot communicate effectively and...

Cisco Business Solutions

In today's competitive environment, small- to medium-sized businesses need powerful networking solutions to enhance productivity, increase business opportunities, and sustain a competitive edge. Cisco Systems solutions are tailored to meet the needs of customers who want networking solutions that are easy to install, use, and manage. Cost-effective branch office connectivity solutions help increase productivity, allowing small- and medium-sized businesses to stay competitive. These solutions...

Cisco Catalyst 1900 Series Ethernet Switches

The Catalyst 1900 series switches, available in Standard and Enterprise Editions, provide industry-leading performance and Cisco end-to-end network integration at an exceptionally affordable price. For an extremely low price per port, these switches offer an affordable highperformance alternative to shared 10BaseT hubs. The Catalyst 1900 series switches are equipped with 12 or 24 switched 10BaseT ports for attachment to individual workstations, or 10BaseT hubs and two 100BaseT ports for...

Cisco Catalyst 19002820 Series

The Catalyst 1900 and 2820 series provide 12- or 24-switched, 10-Mbps 10BaseT ports. Different models provide Fast Ethernet uplinks in 100BaseT and 100BaseF media. Different models can keep 1KB, 2KB, or 8KB storage of MAC addresses. The specifications of the various models in these series are presented in Table 4-10. Table 4-10 Catalyst 1900 and 2820 Series Specifications Table 4-10 Catalyst 1900 and 2820 Series Specifications (Continued) Table 4-10 Catalyst 1900 and 2820 Series Specifications...

Cisco Catalyst 2900 Series XL 10100 Switches

The Cisco Catalyst 2900 Series XL is a full line of 10 100 autosensing Fast Ethernet switches that offers outstanding performance, versatile modularity, and easy-to-use management. The Catalyst 2900 series XL includes four models with different port densities, configuration options, and pricing designed to meet a broad range of network design requirements. Table E-23 summarizes the products in the Catalyst 2900 series. Table E- 23 Catalyst 2900 Series XL Product Family 16 10 100 Mbps...

Cisco Catalyst 2916M XL

The Catalyst 2916M XL is best when a customer needs the following Any combination of dedicated 10 Mbps or 100 Mbps connections to individual PCs, servers, and other systems, or connectivity between existing Ethernet and Fast Ethernet workgroups The option to easily increase the switch port density and to provide inexpensive higherspeed uplinks through bandwidth aggregation (Fast EtherChannel) Future Gigabit Ethernet and ATM interface modules for higher-speed links VLAN support through a future...

Cisco Catalyst 5000 Series Ethernet Switches

Cisco Systems flagship Catalyst 5000 series switches are the industry's most powerful switching solutions in the wiring closet, data center, or backbone. This series features a Gigabit Ethernet and ATM-ready platform, offering users high-speed trunking technologies and mediarate performance with a broad variety of interface modules. The Catalyst 5500 is a high-end modular switching platform that scales to more than 50 Gbps and throughput of tens of millions of packets per second, providing the...

Cisco Catalyst 5000 Series Key Features

The following are Cisco Catalyst 5000 series key features High-speed connectivity, using standard Fast Ethernet, FDDI, or ATM interfaces Fast EtherChannel supported on Supervisor Engine II ports and Fast Ethernet line cards, providing up to 800 Mbps of load-sharing, redundant, point-to-point connections Support for all Supervisor Engines, including the NetFlow Switching feature card option on Supervisor Engine II, which scales to multimillion packets per second forwarding across campus Dual...

Cisco Catalyst 5000 Series Modules

The 10BaseT 100BaseT port modules are listed here *Group Switched ISL and FEC models available Fast EtherChannel, 100BaseFX (12MM SC) Fast EtherChannel, 10 100BaseFX (12 RJ-45) Other modules are these 2-port ATM LAN Emulation OC-3 (MMF) 2-port ATM LAN Emulation OC-3 (SMF) 2-port ATM LAN Emulation OC-3 (UTP)

Cisco Config Maker

Cisco ConfigMaker is a Microsoft Windows application used to configure a small network of Cisco routers (800, l000, l600, l700, 2500, 2600, 3600, and 4000 series), switches, hubs, and other network devices from a single PC, without requiring knowledge of Cisco IOS. Cisco ConfigMaker assists in configuring IPSec, IOS Firewall, voice, Network Address Translation (NAT), Committed Access Rate (CAR), Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP), and other Cisco IOS features. Cisco ConfigMaker is...

Cisco Config Maker Key Features

The following are Cisco ConfigMaker key features Multiple protocol support, including support for IP, IPX, and AppleTalk routed protocols and Frame Relay, High-Level Data Link Control (HDLC), ISDN (BRI or PRI), and PPP connections Address Network Wizard that enables supplied address ranges to be assigned to selected devices or the entire network AutoDetect Device Wizard that provides automatic detection of devices attached to the COM port of the PC running ConfigMaker Insert Network that allows...

Cisco Ethernet and Fast Ethernet Switches Summarization

Table E-18 summarizes Ethernet and Fast Ethernet switches for the workgroup or desktop. Table E-18 Ethernet and Fast Ethernet Switches Workgroup Desktop Configura 10BaseT 100BaseT BaseT Other -tion Port X Port Port Technolo- Product Product Design Cisco 1548 Low-cost, small Micro Switch workgroup 10 100 10 100 switch 1912 Affordable workgroup switch for lower-density requirements Table E-18 Ethernet and Fast Ethernet Switches Workgroup Desktop (Continued) Switched Switched Switched 10 100...

Cisco Fast Hub Key Features

The following are Cisco FastHub key features High-performance, 100 Mbps bandwidth, using Category 5 UTP and fiber cabling Class II design for direct interconnection of geographically distributed hubs or stacks without intermediate switch, bridge, or router Integrated management for monitoring all ports or the entire unit on the FastHub 200 SNMP, Telnet, terminal-based out-of-band console, and RMON support for comprehensive management and simplified troubleshooting (FastHub 200 and 300 series)...

Cisco Fast Hub Line of 100BaseT Class II Hubs

The Cisco FastHub line delivers exceptionally affordable 100 Mbps performance for enterprise power workgroups, server farms, or an entire small- or medium-sized business network. Available in managed, unmanaged, or manageable versions stackable or standalone and in a range of port densities, the FastHub line lets you choose among a variety of models for lowest cost or maximum flexibility. The FastHub line is an integral element in Cisco small- and medium-sized business solutions. The Fast Hub...

Cisco Fast Step

The Cisco FastStep configuration utility is a Microsoft Windows 95-, 98-, and NT 4.0-based software tool that simplifies the set up, monitoring, and troubleshooting of Cisco routers for home and small offices. The Cisco FastStep Setup application leads the user through a step-by-step, wizard-based procedure that simplifies the configuration of a Cisco router connected to an Internet service provider or to a remote corporate network. Cisco FastStep includes the Cisco FastStep Monitor...

Cisco High Performance LAN Solutions

Small- and medium-sized businesses must be sure that their networks provide quick, reliable access to applications and data, which are the keys to success in today's highly competitive, increasingly global economy. Today's business applications require high-bandwidth networks. Businesses also require more powerful network technologies that are capable of intelligently and efficiently managing traffic flow. Traditional hub-centric LANs can no longer support...

Cisco IOS Firewall Feature

The Cisco IOS Firewall feature set adds greater depth and flexibility to existing Cisco IOS security solutions for the Cisco 1600 and 2500 series routers. The Cisco IOS Firewall feature set is particularly appropriate for dual-LAN routers, such as the Cisco 2514 or Cisco 1605-R routers, which can be used to secure a remote office internal LAN while allowing public access to a second LAN segment containing, for example, Web servers. The Cisco IOS Firewall feature set is part of the Cisco...

Cisco Micro Webserver

Many small- and medium-sized businesses recognize the potential of Internet marketing. A Web site can market a company and enhance communication. The Cisco Micro Webserver is a Web server appliance that gives small- to medium-sized businesses and branch office customers an easy way to establish an Internet presence or to provide intranet-based intraoffice communications. The Micro Webserver packages both hardware and the embedded Web software kernel within a small footprint for content storage...

Cisco Micro Webserver Customers

The Cisco Micro Webserver is best when a customer needs to accomplish the following To host a Web site on the Internet To publish Web pages on the Internet To facilitate intraoffice communications (Micro Webserver acts as an intranet server) To share information with clients and partners (Micro Webserver acts as an extranet server) To create a Web-based document server To achieve minimal management To achieve low cost of ownership To achieve quick and easy setup and configuration Key benefits...

Cisco Micro Webserver Key Features

The following are the Cisco Micro Webserver key features Stackable, small footprint can be used standalone or stacked with other Cisco Networked Office Stack products. Easy to set up and install, with color-coded cables, Quick Start flow chart, and Administrative Wizard. Real-time HTTP 1.1-compliant kernel that prevents hacking and adds no operating system management overhead. 2.1 GB internal hard drive that enhances Web authoring, content creation, and information dissemination and transfer....

Cisco PIX Firewall

No required downtime for installation No required upgrading of hosts or routers No necessary day-to-day management Cisco's PIX Firewall is a hardware device that offers the features in the preceding list, as well as full outbound Internet access from unregistered internal hosts. IP addresses can be assigned from the private ranges, as defined in RFC 1918 (available at The PIX Firewall uses a protection scheme called Network Address Translation (NAT), which allows internal users access to the...

Cisco Works Blue

The CiscoWorks Blue suite of products is designed to simplify management of a consolidated Systems Network Architecture (SNA) and IP network. Because many enterprises still manage their SNA networks with NetView or SOLVE Netmaster, the Cisco IOS software includes support for native service point, which allows the Cisco routers to send alerts and to receive commands from a mainframe management application. Working with Cisco IOS, CiscoWorks Blue Internetwork Status Monitor enables router...

Cisco Works Windows

The CiscoWorks Windows comprehensive suite of integrated network management tools is designed to simplify the administration and maintenance of small- to medium-sized business networks or workgroups. CiscoWorks Windows provides a powerful set of configuration, monitoring, and diagnostic applications that complement the capabilities of Cisco Systems internetworking products (switches, routers, hubs, and access servers). CiscoWorks Windows is based on the SNMP industry standard and provides an...

Cisco Works Windows Key Features

CiscoWorks Windows provides the following features when used in conjunction with Castle Rock SNMPc or Hewlett-Packard OpenView for Windows Automatic discovery process for networked devices that creates a network topology map using a color-coded, hierarchical view of the network for IP and IPX networks Access to extensive data on port status, bandwidth utilization, traffic statistics, protocol information, and other network performance statistics for Cisco devices Flexible graphing capabilities...

Cisco Works Windows System Requirements

This section overviews the CiscoWorks Windows system requirements. Hardware requirements are as follows Dedicated, Pentium-based IBM PC or compatible computer 24 MB RAM total (32 MB RAM recommended) 45 MB of free disk space for standard installation (130 MB may be needed if SNMPc third-party device support files are installed) CD-ROM drive for installation Super video graphics adapter (SVGA) and color (1024-by-768 pixels and 256 colors are recommended) Network driver interface (NDI) or Open...

Classless Interdomain Routing

Classless interdomain routing (CIDR) is used in Internet Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) routing to reduce the number of Class C routes coming from an autonomous system. For example, ISPs can allocate blocks of 4, 8, or 16 Class C networks to a customer and use only one route for reachability. In Figure 6-3, the client has a CIDR block of four Class C networks, but Router A announces only 208.10.8.0 22 to the ISP router. 192.168.20.0 24 192.168.21.0 24 192.168.22.0 24 192.168.23.0 24 192.168.20.0...

Clear To Send See CTS

A node or software program (front-end device) that requests services from a server. See also back end, front end, and server. client server computing. Computing (processing) network systems in which transaction responsibilities are divided into two parts client (front end) and server (back end). Both terms (client and server) can be applied to software programs or actual computing devices. Also called distributed computing (processing). Compare with peer-to-peer computing. See also RPC....

Combining Hubs Switches and Routers

Network Operating System Diagram

Available in Ethernet and Fast Ethernet, hubs are best used in small networks where there are few nodes on the segment. Hubs do not control the broadcasts nor do they filter collision domains on the network. If higher bandwidth is required, use 100 Mbps hubs. When the number of nodes on the network grows, move to switches. With the cost of switch ports comparable to hubs, use switches as the basic network connectivity devices on the network. Switches reduce collisions and resolve media...

Corporation for Research and Educational Networking See CREN

An indication of how an upper-layer protocol requires that a lower-layer protocol treat its messages. In SNA subarea routing, COS definitions are used by subarea nodes to determine the optimal route to establish a given session. A COS definition comprises a virtual route number and a transmission priority field. Also called TOS (type of service). 2. Corporation for Open Systems. An organization that promulgates the use of OSI protocols through conformance testing,...

D

D channels, 398 D class IP addresses, 201-202 DA (destination address) field Ethernet Version 2 frame format, 542 FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface), 554 Token Ring, 553 DA field (Ethernet), 543 DAC (dual-attached concentrator), 396 DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency), 396 DAS (dual attachment station), 396 data channel, see D channel, 396 data compression, 231 Data Encryption Standard (DES), 579 data encryption standard (DES), 119, 396 Data Exchange Interface (DXI), 396 Data...

Data Exchange Interface See DXI

Layer 5 of the SNA architectural model. This layer determines and manages interactions between session partners, particularly data flow. Corresponds to the session layer of the OSI model. See also data link control layer, path control layer, physical control layer, presentation services layer, transaction services layer, and transmission control layer. datagram. A logical grouping of information sent as a network layer unit over a transmission medium without prior...

Data Link Switching Plus

Data-link switching (DLSw) is documented in RFC 1795. IBM originally submitted it to the IETF as RFC 1434, to overcome some of the limitations on SRB networks, especially in WANs. The Cisco implementation of DLSw is called DLSw Plus (DLSw+). Some of the benefits of implementing DLSw+ are that link-layer acknowledgements and keep-alive messages of SNA and NetBIOS traffic do not have to travel through the WAN. Also, DLSw+ traffic can be rerouted around link failures and can be prioritized on WAN...

Demonstrating Your Findings to the Customer

After completing the tests, you need to provide proof of the results to the customer. The following are some tips to help you present the information. Publish your findings in a concise but comprehensive report. This report should have an organized method demonstrating how you came to your conclusions. Make sure to focus your work on the customer requirements. Include your diagrams and some of the raw data you have collected. Add the results of your test to the network design document or...

Design the Local Area Network

The Cisco Certified Design Associate must be able to design local-area networks that meet the customer's objectives on performance and scalability. A CCDA must design networks in a hierarchical manner to provide scalable solutions. A CCDA also must decide where to use hubs, switches, and routers to separate broadcast and collision domains. Know the differences between Layer 2 and Layer 3 switching as well. Chapter 4, Network Topologies and LAN Design, covers this step in more detail. This...

Distance Vector Routing Protocol Comparison

The following CCDA objective is covered in this section 24 Identify scalability constraints and issues for IGRP, EIGRP, IP RIP, IPX RIP SAP, NLSP, AppleTalk RTMP and AURP, static routing, and bridging protocols. Now that all routing protocols have been covered, this section compares the traffic generated by all distance vector routing protocols. Distance vector routing protocols work periodically, sending updates for a specific period of time. Each can carry a certain number of routes on a...

Distribution Layer

The distribution layer of the network is the demarcation point between the access and core layers of the network. The distribution layer can have many roles, including implementing the following functions Policy (for example, to ensure that traffic sent from a particular network should be forwarded out one interface, while all other traffic should be forwarded out another interface) Address or area aggregation or summarization Departmental or workgroup access Broadcast multicast domain...

Do I Know This Already Quiz

The questions in the following quiz are designed to help you gauge how well you know the material covered in this chapter. Compare your answers with those found in Appendix A, Answers to Quiz Questions. If you answered most or all of the questions thoroughly and correctly, you might want to skim the chapter and proceed to the Q& A section at the end of the chapter. If you find that you need to review only certain subject matter, search the chapter for those sections that cover the objectives...

Do I Know This Already Quiz Answers

1 What types of questions would you ask to determine a client's application requirements A CCDA should be prepared to ask the following questions to assess a client's application needs What applications are being used on the network How many users are there per application What new applications are being introduced What are the traffic flows of these applications At what time of the day are these applications used 2 What are samples of business constraints on design How the project will affect...

Documenting the Existing Network

The following CCDA objectives are covered in this section 5 Document the customer's current applications, protocols, topology, and number of users. 6 Document the customer's business issues that are relevant to a network design project. As you can see, beginning with an assessment of the customer's business goals and current network is the first step in designing the new network. The previous section gives you an idea of the sort of information you will need to look for to make this assessment....

Dotted notation See dot address downlink station See ground station downstream physical unit See DSPU

A data link layer communication protocol, specified in the IEEE 802.6 standard, designed for use in MANs. DQDB, which permits multiple systems to interconnect using two unidirectional logical buses, is an open standard that is designed for compatibility with carrier transmission standards and is aligned with emerging standards for BISDN. SIP is based on DQDB. See also MAN. DRAM. dynamic random-access memory. RAM that stores information in capacitors that must...

DS1 domestic trunk interface See DS1DTI

DS-1 domestic trunk interface. An interface circuit used for DS-1 applications with 24 trunks. DS-3. digital signal level 3. A framing specification used for transmitting digital signals at 44.736 Mbps on a T3 facility. Compare with DS-0 and DS-1. See also E3 and T3. DSAP. destination service access point. The SAP of the network node designated in the Destination field of a packet. Compare with SSAP. See also SAP (service access point). DSP. domain-specific part. The part of a CLNS...

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol

Until the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) was developed, automatic assignment of IP addresses to hosts was virtually obsolete. The only method available was BOOTP (RFC 0951), which required knowledge of the MAC layer address and preconfiguration of the IP address for a particular MAC on a BOOTP server before the station could get an address. If a station had to be moved from one subnet to another, the BOOTP server had to be reconfigured. DHCP (RFC 2131 1541 1531) solved these...

E

E class IP addresses, 201-202 ED (end delimiter) field FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface), 555 Token Ring, 553 EGPs (Exterior Gateway Protocols), 218 EGPs (exterior gateway protocols) EIGRP (Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol), 81, 211, 217, 224, 528 electronic commerce, 567 e-mail NetWare MHS (Message Handling Service), 531 networking, 84 encapsulation OSI (Open Systems Interconnection), 512 encoding ASN.1 data types, 258 Manchester encoding, 541 encryption, 230 End stations, 536...

EIGRP for Apple Talk

EIGRP can be used to route AppleTalk packets over a WAN. EIGRP is configured for links between routers RTMP is used on other interfaces. EIGRP sends updates only when changes occur, which represents a significant improvement over the periodic (10-second) RTMP updates. Distance Vector Routing Protocol Comparison 225 Figure 6-7 AppleTalk Update-Based Routing Protocol (AURP) Figure 6-7 AppleTalk Update-Based Routing Protocol (AURP)

Electrostatic discharge See ESD

Enterprise Management Architecture. A Digital Equipment Corporation network management architecture, based on the OSI network management model. 2. Electronic Messaging Association. A forum devoted to standards and policy work, education, and development of electronic messaging systems such as electronic mail, voice mail, and facsimile. EMI. electromagnetic interference. Interference by electromagnetic signals that can cause reduced data integrity and increased error rates on...

Emulated LAN See ELAN

A function of an NCP that enables it to perform activities equivalent to those performed by a transmission control unit. EN. end node. An APPN end system that implements the PU 2.1, provides end-user services, and supports sessions between local and remote CPs. ENs are not capable of routing traffic and rely on an adjacent NN for APPN services. Compare with NN. See also CP. encapsulation. The wrapping of data in a particular protocol header. For example, Ethernet data is wrapped...

Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol

Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) was released in the early 1990s as a significant evolution toward a scalable routing protocol. EIGRP is a classless protocol that permits VLSMs and supernetting. Routing updates are not sent periodically, as in IGRP. EIGRP also allows authentication, even with MD5. Another enhancement is that EIGRP can be used to route IPX and AppleTalk over WANs. EIGRP autosummarizes networks at borders and can load balance over unequal-cost paths. EIGRP uses...

Enterprise System Connection channel See ESCON channel

Generally, an individual, manageable network device. Sometimes called an alias. EOT. end of transmission. Generally, a character that signifies the end of a logical group of characters or bits. EPROM. erasable programmable read-only memory. Nonvolatile memory chips that are programmed after they are manufactured and, if necessary, can be erased by some means and reprogrammed. Compare with EEPROM and PROM. equalization. A technique used to compensate for communications channel...