An area is a logical grouping of routers that are running OSPF with identical topological databases. It is a subdivision of the greater OSPF domain. The creation of multiple areas solves the problem of a large network outgrowing its capacity to communicate the details of the network to the routing devices charged with maintaining control and connectivity throughout the network.
The division of the AS into areas allows routers in each area to maintain their own topological databases. This limits the size of the topological databases, and summary and external links ensure connectivity between areas and networks outside the AS.
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